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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150511/sulfolobus-acidocaldarius-uptakes-pentoses-via-a-cut2-type-abc-transporter-and-metabolizes-them-through-the-aldolase-independent-weimberg-pathway
#1
Michaela Wagner, Lu Shen, Andreas Albersmeier, Nienke van der Kolk, Sujin Kim, Jaeho Cha, Christopher Bräsen, Jörn Kalinowski, Bettina Siebers, Sonja-Verena Albers
Sulfolobus spp. possess a great metabolic versatility and grow heterotrophically on various carbon sources such as different sugars and peptides. Known sugar transporters in Archaea predominantly belong to ABC transport systems. Although several ABC transporters for sugar uptake have been characterized in the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, only one homologue of these transporters, the maltose/maltooligomer transporter, could be identified in the closely related Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Comparison of the transcriptome of S...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150499/understanding-functional-roles-of-native-pentose-specific-transporters-for-activating-dormant-pentose-metabolism-in-yarrowia-lipolytica
#2
Seunghyun Ryu, Cong T Trinh
Pentoses including xylose and arabinose are the second-most prevalent sugars of lignocellulosic biomass that can be harnessed for biological conversion. Although Yarrowia lipolytica has emerged as a promising industrial microorganism for production of high-value chemicals and biofuels, its native pentose metabolism is poorly understood. Our previous study demonstrated that Y. lipolytica (ATCC MYA-2613) has endogenous enzymes for D-xylose assimilation, but inefficient xylitol dehydrogenase causes Y. lipolytica to assimilate xylose poorly...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145855/generation-of-a-platform-strain-for-ionic-liquid-tolerance-using-adaptive-laboratory-evolution
#3
Elsayed T Mohamed, Shizeng Wang, Rebecca M Lennen, Markus J Herrgård, Blake A Simmons, Steven W Singer, Adam M Feist
BACKGROUND: There is a need to replace petroleum-derived with sustainable feedstocks for chemical production. Certain biomass feedstocks can meet this need as abundant, diverse, and renewable resources. Specific ionic liquids (ILs) can play a role in this process as promising candidates for chemical pretreatment and deconstruction of plant-based biomass feedstocks as they efficiently release carbohydrates which can be fermented. However, the most efficient pretreatment ILs are highly toxic to biological systems, such as microbial fermentations, and hinder subsequent bioprocessing of fermentative sugars obtained from IL-treated biomass...
November 16, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143814/structural-basis-of-nucleotide-sugar-transport-across-the-golgi-membrane
#4
Joanne L Parker, Simon Newstead
Glycosylation is a fundamental cellular process that, in eukaryotes, occurs in the lumen of both the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum. Nucleotide sugar transporters (NSTs) are an essential component of the glycosylation pathway, providing the diverse range of substrates required for the glycosyltransferases. NSTs are linked to several developmental and immune disorders in humans, and in pathogenic microbes they have an important role in virulence. How NSTs recognize and transport activated monosaccharides, however, is currently unclear...
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140297/a-proteomic-approach-to-investigate-the-drought-response-in-the-orphan-crop-eragrostis-tef
#5
Rizqah Kamies, Jill M Farrant, Zerihun Tadele, Gina Cannarozzi, Mohammed Suhail Rafudeen
The orphan crop, Eragrostis tef, was subjected to controlled drought conditions to observe the physiological parameters and proteins changing in response to dehydration stress. Physiological measurements involving electrolyte leakage, chlorophyll fluorescence and ultra-structural analysis showed tef plants tolerated water loss to 50% relative water content (RWC) before adverse effects in leaf tissues were observed. Proteomic analysis using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) mass spectrometry and appropriate database searching enabled the detection of 5727 proteins, of which 211 proteins, including a number of spliced variants, were found to be differentially regulated with the imposed stress conditions...
November 15, 2017: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138971/carbon-source-sink-relationship-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-the-role-of-sucrose-transporters
#6
Mickaël Durand, Dany Mainson, Benoît Porcheron, Laurence Maurousset, Rémi Lemoine, Nathalie Pourtau
The regulation of source-to-sink sucrose transport is associated with AtSUC and AtSWEET sucrose transporters' gene expression changes in plants grown hydroponically under different physiological conditions. Source-to-sink transport of sucrose is one of the major determinants of plant growth. Whole-plant carbohydrates' partitioning requires the specific activity of membrane sugar transporters. In Arabidopsis thaliana plants, two families of transporters are involved in sucrose transport: AtSUCs and AtSWEETs...
November 14, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127075/evidence-of-high-transport-and-phosphorylation-capacity-for-both-glucose-and-fructose-in-the-ruby-throated-hummingbird-archilochus-colubris
#7
Alexander M Myrka, Kenneth C Welch
Hummingbirds are able to fuel hovering flight entirely with recently ingested glucose or fructose. Among vertebrates, several steps of sugar flux from circulation to skeletal muscle are potentially rate-limiting, including transport into muscle and subsequent phosphorylation. While capacities for glucose flux are substantial, capacities for fructose flux are comparatively low. The mechanisms underlying apparent high rates of glucose and fructose oxidation in hummingbird flight muscle remain unclear. We examined relative expression of facilitative sugar transporters (GLUTs) and enzymes of fructolysis in ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) tissues involved in energy homeostasis and flight, via qPCR and measured hexokinase activity in pectoralis in vitro...
November 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126241/lactobacillus-backii-and-pediococcus-damnosus-isolated-from-170-year-old-beer-recovered-from-a-shipwreck-lack-the-metabolic-activities-required-to-grow-in-modern-lager-beer
#8
Ilkka Kajala, Jordyn Bergsveinson, Vanessa Friesen, Anna Redekop, Riikka Juvonen, Erna Storgårds, Barry Ziola
In 2010, bottles of beer containing viable bacteria of the common beer-spoilage species Lactobacillus backii and Pediococcus damnosus were recovered from a shipwreck near the Åland Islands, Finland. The 170-year quiescent state maintained by the shipwreck bacteria presented a unique opportunity to study lactic acid bacteria (LAB) evolution vis a vis growth and survival in the beer environment. Three shipwreck bacteria (one L. backii strain and two P. damnosus strains) and modern-day beer-spoilage isolates of the same two species were genome sequenced, characterized for hop iso-α-acid tolerance, and growth in degassed lager and wheat beer...
November 8, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118248/a-tonoplast-sugar-transporter-underlies-a-sugar-accumulation-qtl-in-watermelon
#9
Yi Ren, Shaogui Guo, Jie Zhang, Hongju He, Honghe Sun, Shouwei Tian, Guoyi Gong, Haiying Zhang, Amnon Levi, Yaakov Tadmor, Yong Xu
How sugar transporters regulate sugar accumulation in fruits is poorly understood and particularly so for species storing high concentration sucrose. Accumulation of soluble sugars in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit, a major quality trait, had been selected during domestication. Still, the molecular mechanisms controlling this quantitative trait are unknown. We resequenced 96 recombinant inbred lines, derived from crossing sweet and unsweet accessions, to narrow down the size of a previously described sugar content quantitative trait locus, which contains a putative Tonoplast Sugar Transporter gene (ClTST2)...
November 8, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114672/the-critical-role-of-dimer-formation-in-monosaccharides-binding-to-human-serum-albumin
#10
Prapasiri Pongprayoon, Toshifumi Mori
Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant transport protein found in human blood. HSA is known to bind a wide range of drugs and monosaccharides, but where and how these molecules bind are largely unknown. Recently, a crystal structure of glycated HSA has been reported, and interestingly, in that structure two glucose molecules have been located in pyranose (GLC) and open chain (GLO) forms bound in the same binding pocket (Sudlow site I). Molecular simulations also proposed two binding modes of GLC and GLO (binding two ligands either in a distant location or in close contact)...
November 8, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111438/engineering-photosynthetic-production-of-l-lysine
#11
Travis C Korosh, Andrew L Markley, Ryan L Clark, Laura L McGinley, Katherine D McMahon, Brian F Pfleger
L-lysine and other amino acids are commonly produced through fermentation using strains of heterotrophic bacteria such as Corynebacterium glutamicum. Given the large amount of sugar this process consumes, direct photosynthetic production is intriguing alternative. In this study, we report the development of a cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002, capable of producing L-lysine with CO2 as the sole carbon-source. We found that heterologous expression of a lysine transporter was required to excrete lysine and avoid intracellular accumulation that correlated with poor fitness...
October 28, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109965/estimating-the-carbohydrate-content-of-various-forms-of-tobacco-by-phenol-sulfuric-acid-method
#12
Vardhaman Mulchand Jain, Gundabaktha Nagappa Karibasappa, Arun Suresh Dodamani, Gaurao Vasant Mali
BACKGROUND: Due to consumption of various forms of tobacco in large amounts by Indian population, it has become a cause of concern for major oral diseases. In 2008, the WHO named tobacco as the world's single greatest cause of preventable death. It is also known that certain amount of carbohydrates are incorporated in processed tobacco to make it acceptable for consumption. Thus, its role in oral diseases becomes an important question at this point of time. Through this study, it is attempted to find out the carbohydrate content of various forms of tobacco by phenol-sulfuric acid method...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104582/vvvhp1-2-is-transcriptionally-activated-by-vvmyba1-and-promotes-anthocyanin-accumulation-of-grape-berry-skins-via-glucose-signal
#13
Tianyu Sun, Lili Xu, Hong Sun, Qianyu Yue, Heng Zhai, Yuxin Yao
In this work, four vacuolar H(+)-PPase (VHP) genes were identified in the grape genome. Among them, VvVHP1; 2 was strongly expressed in berry skin and its expression exhibited high correlations to anthocyanin content of berry skin during berry ripening and under ABA and UVB treatments. VvVHP1; 2 was transcriptionally activated directly by VvMYBA1, and VvVHP1; 2 overexpression promoted anthocyanin accumulation in berry skins and Arabidopsis leaves; therefore, VvVHP1; 2 mediated VvMYBA1-regulated berry pigmentation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101089/comparison-of-the-metabolic-response-to-over-production-of-p-coumaric-acid-in-two-yeast-strains
#14
Angelica Rodriguez, Yun Chen, Sakda Khoomrung, Emre Özdemir, Irina Borodina, Jens Nielsen
The development of robust and efficient cell factories requires understanding of the metabolic changes triggered by the production of the targeted compound. Here we aimed to study how production of p-coumaric acid, a precursor of multiple secondary aromatic metabolites, influences the cellular metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We evaluated the growth and p-coumaric acid production in batch and chemostat cultivations and analyzed the transcriptome and intracellular metabolome during steady state in low- and high-producers of p-coumaric acid in two strain backgrounds, S288c or CEN...
October 31, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093754/a-seven-gene-cluster-in-ruminiclostridium-cellulolyticum-is-essential-for-signalization-uptake-and-catabolism-of-the-degradation-products-of-cellulose-hydrolysis
#15
Aurélie Fosses, Maria Maté, Nathalie Franche, Nian Liu, Yann Denis, Romain Borne, Pascale de Philip, Henri-Pierre Fierobe, Stéphanie Perret
Background: Like a number of anaerobic and cellulolytic Gram-positive bacteria, the model microorganism Ruminiclostridium cellulolyticum produces extracellular multi-enzymatic complexes called cellulosomes, which efficiently degrade the crystalline cellulose. Action of the complexes on cellulose releases cellobiose and longer cellodextrins but to date, little is known about the transport and utilization of the produced cellodextrins in the bacterium. A better understanding of the uptake systems and fermentation of sugars derived from cellulose could have a major impact in the field of biofuels production...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076803/mtlr-negatively-regulates-mannitol-utilization-by-vibrio-cholerae
#16
Tanner Byer, Jessica Wang, Mark G Zhang, Naomi Vather, Anna Blachman, Bryan Visser, Jane M Liu
The phosphoenopyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) enables Vibrio cholerae - and other bacteria - to recognize and transport exogenous carbon sources for energy, including the six-carbon sugar alcohol, mannitol. The mannitol-specific PTS transporter is encoded by mtlA and its expression is expected to be regulated by the putative repressor encoded by the mtlR gene. Here, we show that mtlR overexpression inhibits V. cholerae growth in medium supplied with mannitol as the sole carbon source and represses MtlA-mediated biofilm formation...
October 27, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076168/pleiotropic-effects-of-enhancing-vacuolar-k-h-exchange-in-tomato
#17
Anna De Luca, José M Pardo, Eduardo O Leidi
Cation antiporters of the NHX family are widely regarded as determinants of salt tolerance due to their capacity to drive sodium (Na) and sequester it into vacuoles. Recent work shows however that NHX transporters are primarily involved in vacuolar potassium (K) storage. Over-expression of the K/H antiporter AtNHX1 in tomato increases K accumulation into vacuoles and plant sensitivity to K deprivation. Here we show that the appearance of early leaf symptoms of K deficiency was associated with higher concentration of polyamines...
October 27, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075874/the-ripening-disorder-berry-shrivel-affects-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-and-sugar-metabolism-in-zweigelt-grape-berries
#18
Michaela Griesser, Sara Crespo Martinez, Markus W Eitle, Benedikt Warth, Christelle M Andre, Rainer Schuhmacher, Astrid Forneck
Timescale analyses suggest the berry shrivel (BS) disorder is induced before veraison with strong effects on anthocyanin biosynthesis, and minor effects on sugar transport and metabolism. Berry shrivel (BS)-affected grapes have low sugar contents, high acidity, less anthocyanins and flaccid berries. To date no pathogenic causes are known, and studies to elucidate the molecular basis leading to symptom induction and development are limited. Here we present a study on pre-symptomatic as well as symptomatic BS berries to characterize early metabolic changes, with focus on anthocyanin biosynthesis and sugars metabolism...
October 26, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071974/-effect-of-spleen-stomach-harmonizing-needling-on-insulin-resistance-and-expression-of-insulin-receptor-substrate-1-2-and-glucose-transporter-4-in-insulin-resistance-type-2-diabetes-rats
#19
Hong Chen, Zhi-Long Zhang, Xu Wang, Yuan-Qing Yang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of manual acupuncture stimulation of "Quchi" (LI 11), "Hegu" (LI 4), "Zusanli" (ST 36), etc. with "spleen-stomach harmonizing" technique on insulin resistance index (ISI) and the expression of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), IRS-2 (two upstream key proteins) and glucose transporter-4 (GluT-4, downstream key protein) of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3 K)/Akt signaling pathway in insulin resistance type 2 diabetes (IRT 2 D) rats, so as to explore its mechanism underling improvement of type 2 diabetes...
June 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071896/-effect-of-manual-acupuncture-intervention-on-levels-of-5-htt-5-ht1ar-ne%C3%AE-2r-of-brain-tissues-in-rats-with-post-stroke-depression
#20
Wei Xiao, Xian-Bao Zhang, Zhen Wang, Yan Wang, Xiao-Li Guo, Ling He, Fa-Jun Liang, Hui-Xing Hu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of manual acupuncture intervention on serotonin transporter (5-HTT), 5-HT 1 A receptor (5-HT1AR), norepinephrine (NE) alpha receptor 2 (NEα2R) protein of brain tissues in rats with post-stroke depression (PSD). METHODS: Forty SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, medication group and acupuncture group, with 10 rats in each. The PSD model was established by the combination of middle cerebral artery occlusion and chronic non- predictable mild stress...
December 25, 2016: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
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