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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346417/xylose-donor-transport-is-critical-for-fungal-virulence
#1
Lucy X Li, Carsten Rautengarten, Joshua L Heazlewood, Tamara L Doering
Cryptococcus neoformans, an AIDS-defining opportunistic pathogen, is the leading cause of fungal meningitis worldwide and is responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths annually. Cryptococcal glycans are required for fungal survival in the host and for pathogenesis. Most glycans are made in the secretory pathway, although the activated precursors for their synthesis, nucleotide sugars, are made primarily in the cytosol. Nucleotide sugar transporters are membrane proteins that solve this topological problem, by exchanging nucleotide sugars for the corresponding nucleoside phosphates...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343668/configuration-of-the-sugar-head-of-glycolipids-in-thylakoid-membranes
#2
Egi Tritya Apdila, Koichiro Awai
Glycolipids constitute the majority of membrane components in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, whereas they are minor lipids in other organisms. In cyanobacteria, three glycolipids comprise ~90 mol% of the total lipids in thylakoid membranes, where photosynthetic electron transport occurs. Among these glycolipids, 80 mol% are galactolipids (monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and digalactosyldiacylglycerol). Galactolipids are well conserved in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms and are believed to be essential for the integrity of the membrane system...
January 17, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338214/a-tool-for-the-import-of-natural-and-unnatural-nucleoside-triphosphates-into-bacteria
#3
Aaron W Feldman, Emil C Fischer, Michael P Ledbetter, Jen-Yu Liao, John C Chaput, Floyd E Romesberg
Nucleoside triphosphates play a central role in biology, but efforts to study these roles have proven difficult because the levels of triphosphates are tightly regulated in a cell and because individual triphosphates can be difficult to label or modify. In addition, many synthetic biology efforts are focused on the development of unnatural nucleoside triphosphates that perform specific functions in the cellular environment. In general, both of these efforts would be facilitated by a general means to directly introduce desired triphosphates into cells...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335469/structural-basis-for-chitin-acquisition-by-marine-vibrio-species
#4
Anuwat Aunkham, Michael Zahn, Anusha Kesireddy, Karunakar Reddy Pothula, Albert Schulte, Arnaud Baslé, Ulrich Kleinekathöfer, Wipa Suginta, Bert van den Berg
Chitin, an insoluble polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is one of the most abundant biopolymers on Earth. By degrading chitin, chitinolytic bacteria such as Vibrio harveyi are critical for chitin recycling and maintenance of carbon and nitrogen cycles in the world's oceans. A decisive step in chitin degradation is the uptake of chito-oligosaccharides by an outer membrane protein channel named chitoporin (ChiP). Here, we report X-ray crystal structures of ChiP from V. harveyi in the presence and absence of chito-oligosaccharides...
January 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329037/phloem-function-a-key-to-understanding-and-manipulating-plant-responses-to-rising-atmospheric-co2
#5
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Ainsworth, Pauline Lemonnier
Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) directly stimulates photosynthesis and reduces stomatal conductance in C3 plants. Both of these physiological effects have the potential to alter phloem function at elevated [CO2]. Recent research has clearly established that photosynthetic capacity is correlated to vascular traits associated with phloem loading and water transport, but the effects of elevated [CO2] on these relationships are largely unexplored. Plants also employ different strategies for loading sucrose and other sugars into the phloem, and there is potential for species with different phloem loading strategies to respond differently to elevated [CO2]...
January 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324867/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-key-genes-potentially-related-to-soluble-sugar-and-organic-acid-accumulation-in-watermelon
#6
Lei Gao, Shengjie Zhao, Xuqiang Lu, Nan He, Hongju Zhu, Junling Dou, Wenge Liu
Soluble sugars and organic acids are important components of fruit flavor and have a strong impact on the overall organoleptic quality of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit. Several studies have analyzed the expression levels of the genes related to soluble sugar accumulation and the dynamic changes in their content during watermelon fruit development and ripening. Nevertheless, to date, there have been no reports on the organic acid content in watermelon or the genes regulating their synthesis. In this study, the soluble sugars and organic acids in watermelon were measured and a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify the key genes involved in the accumulation of these substances during fruit development and ripening...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321811/gene-stacking-of-multiple-traits-for-high-yield-of-fermentable-sugars-in-plant-biomass
#7
Aude Aznar, Camille Chalvin, Patrick M Shih, Michael Maimann, Berit Ebert, Devon S Birdseye, Dominique Loqué, Henrik V Scheller
Background: Second-generation biofuels produced from biomass can help to decrease dependency on fossil fuels, bringing about many economic and environmental benefits. To make biomass more suitable for biorefinery use, we need a better understanding of plant cell wall biosynthesis. Increasing the ratio of C6 to C5 sugars in the cell wall and decreasing the lignin content are two important targets in engineering of plants that are more suitable for downstream processing for second-generation biofuel production...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317507/identification-of-euglena-gracilis-%C3%AE-1-3-glucan-phosphorylase-and-establishment-of-a-new-glycoside-hydrolase-gh-family-gh149
#8
Sakonwan Kuhaudomlarp, Nicola J Patron, Bernard Henrissat, Martin Rejzek, Gerhard Saalbach, Robert A Field
Glycoside phosphorylases (EC 2.4.x.x) carry out the reversible phosphorolysis of glucan polymers, producing the corresponding sugar 1-phosphate and a shortened glycan chain. β-1,3-Glucan phosphorylase activities have been reported in the photosynthetic Euglenozoan Euglena gracilis, but the cognate protein sequences have not been identified to date. Continuing our efforts to understand the glycobiology of E. gracilis, we identified a candidate phosphorylase sequence, designated EgP1, by proteomic analysis of an enriched cellular protein lysate...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317499/the-oligomerization-state-of-bacterial-enzyme-i-ei-determines-ei-s-allosteric-stimulation-or-competitive-inhibition-by-%C3%AE-ketoglutarate
#9
Trang Truc Nguyen, Rodolfo Ghirlando, Vincenzo Venditti
The bacterial phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a signal transduction pathway that couples phosphoryl transfer to active sugar transport across the cell membrane. The PTS is initiated by phosphorylation of enzyme I (EI) by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). The EI phosphorylation state determines the phosphorylation states of all other PTS components and is thought to play a central role in the regulation of several metabolic pathways and to control the biology of bacterial cells at multiple levels, for example, affecting virulence and biofilm formation...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315378/assessing-the-effect-of-d-xylose-on-the-sugar-signaling-pathways-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-in-strains-engineered-for-xylose-transport-and-assimilation
#10
Karen O Osiro, Daniel P Brink, Celina Borgström, Lisa Wasserstrom, Magnus Carlquist, Marie F Gorwa-Grauslund
One of the challenges of establishing an industrially competitive process to ferment lignocellulose to value-added products using Saccharomyces cerevisiae is to get efficient mixed sugar fermentations. Despite successful metabolic engineering strategies, the xylose assimilation rates of recombinant S. cerevisiae remain significantly lower than for the preferred carbon source, glucose. Previously we established a panel of in vivo biosensor strains (TMB371X) where different promoters (HXT1/2/4p; SUC2p, CAT8p; TPS1p/2p, TEF4p) from the main sugar signaling pathways were coupled with the yEGFP3 gene, and observed that wild type S...
January 5, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313666/carbon-1-versus-carbon-3-linkage-of-d-galactose-to-porphyrins-synthesis-uptake-and-photodynamic-efficiency
#11
Patrícia Manuela Ribeiro Pereira, Waqar Rizvi, Naga Venkata Satya Dinesh Kumar Bhupathiraju, Naxhije Berisha, Rosa Fernandes, Joao P C Tome, Charles Michael Michael Drain
The use of glycosylated compounds is actively pursued as a therapeutic strategy for cancer due to the overexpression of various types of sugar receptors and transporters on most cancer cells. Conjugation of saccharides to photosensitizers such as porphyrins provides a promising strategy to improve the selectivity and cell uptake of the photosensitizers, enhancing the overall photosensitizing efficacy. Most porphyrin-carbohydrate conjugates are linked via the carbon-1 position of the carbohydrate because this is the most synthetically accessible approach...
January 9, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311272/characterization-of-three-sugar-transporters-stp7-stp8-and-stp12
#12
Theresa Maria Rottmann, Franz Klebl, Sabine Schneider, Dominik Kischka, David Rüscher, Norbert Sauer, Ruth Stadler
The controlled distribution of sugars between assimilate exporting source tissues and sugar consuming sink tissues is a key element for plant growth and development. Monosaccharide transporters of the SUGAR TRANSPORT PROTEIN (STP) family contribute to the uptake of sugars into sink cells. Here we report on the characterization of STP7, STP8 and STP12, three previously uncharacterized members of this family in Arabidopsis thaliana. Heterologous expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) revealed that STP8 and STP12 catalyze the high-affinity proton-dependent uptake of glucose and also accept galactose and mannose...
January 8, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305699/forward-genetics-screen-coupled-with-whole-genome-resequencing-identifies-novel-gene-targets-for-improving-heterologous-enzyme-production-in-aspergillus-niger
#13
Morgann C Reilly, Joonhoon Kim, Jed Lynn, Blake A Simmons, John M Gladden, Jon K Magnuson, Scott E Baker
Plant biomass, once reduced to its composite sugars, can be converted to fuel substitutes. One means of overcoming the recalcitrance of lignocellulose is pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. However, currently available commercial enzyme cocktails are inhibited in the presence of residual pretreatment chemicals. Recent studies have identified a number of cellulolytic enzymes from bacteria that are tolerant to pretreatment chemicals such as ionic liquids. The challenge now is generation of these enzymes in copious amounts, an arena where fungal organisms such as Aspergillus niger have proven efficient...
January 6, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302834/successful-colonization-of-lodgepole-pine-trees-by-mountain-pine-beetle-increased-monoterpene-production-and-exhausted-carbohydrate-reserves
#14
Marla Roth, Altaf Hussain, Jonathan A Cale, Nadir Erbilgin
Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests have experienced severe mortality from mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in western North America for the last several years. Although the mechanisms by which beetles kill host trees are unclear, they are likely linked to pine defense monoterpenes that are synthesized from carbohydrate reserves. However, how carbohydrates and monoterpenes interact in response to MPB colonization is unknown. Understanding this relationship could help to elucidate how pines succumb to bark beetle attack...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300997/three-udp-xylose-transporters-participate-in-xylan-biosynthesis-by-conveying-cytosolic-udp-xylose-into-the-golgi-lumen-in-arabidopsis
#15
Xianhai Zhao, Nian Liu, Na Shang, Wei Zeng, Berit Ebert, Carsten Rautengarten, Qing-Yin Zeng, Huiling Li, Xiaoyang Chen, Cherie Beahan, Antony Bacic, Joshua L Heazlewood, Ai-Min Wu
UDP-xylose (UDP-Xyl) is synthesized by UDP-glucuronic acid decarboxylases, also termed UDP-Xyl synthases (UXSs). The Arabidopsis genome encodes six UXSs, which fall into two groups based upon their subcellular location: the Golgi lumen and the cytosol. The latter group appears to play an important role in xylan biosynthesis. Cytosolic UDP-Xyl is transported into the Golgi lumen by three UDP-Xyl transporters (UXT1, 2, and 3). However, while single mutants affected in the UDP-Xyl transporter 1 (UXT1) showed a substantial reduction in cell wall xylose content, a double mutant affected in UXT2 and UXT3 had no obvious effect on cell wall xylose deposition...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298675/root-lodging-is-a-physical-stress-that-changes-gene-expression-from-sucrose-accumulation-to-degradation-in-sorghum
#16
Hiroshi Mizuno, Shigemitsu Kasuga, Hiroyuki Kawahigashi
BACKGROUND: Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is used as a raw material for biofuels because it accumulates sugars at high levels in the stem. Lodging of sorghum occurs when the soil is wet and very high winds blow across the field. In root lodging, the roots are pulled loose from the soil, causing the plant to fall over. Lodging reduces the yield of nonstructural carbohydrates. It is not yet clear which genes show changes in expression when sorghum falls over. We compared whole-gene expression in the mature stems of intact and lodged sorghum plants, with a focus on comparisons from the perspective of differences in sugar accumulation or degradation...
January 3, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295587/dopamine-and-levodopa-prodrugs-for-the-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Fatma Haddad, Maryam Sawalha, Yahya Khawaja, Anas Najjar, Rafik Karaman
Background: Parkinson's disease is an aggressive and progressive neurodegenerative disorder that depletes dopamine (DA) in the central nervous system. Dopamine replacement therapy, mainly through actual dopamine and its original prodrug l-dopa (LD), faces many challenges such as poor blood brain barrier penetration and decreased response to therapy with time. Methods: The prodrugs described herein are ester, amide, dimeric amide, carrier-mediated, peptide transport-mediated, cyclic, chemical delivery systems and enzyme-models prodrugs designed and made by chemical means, and their bioavailability was studied in animals...
December 25, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289701/dopamine-transporter-knockdown-mice-in-the-behavioral-pattern-monitor-a-robust-reproducible-model-for-mania-relevant-behaviors
#18
Molly A Kwiatkowski, Gerhard Hellemann, Catherine A Sugar, Zackary A Cope, Arpi Minassian, William Perry, Mark A Geyer, Jared W Young
Efforts to replicate results from both basic and clinical models have highlighted problems with reproducibility in science. In psychiatry, reproducibility issues are compounded because the complex behavioral syndromes make many disorders challenging to model. We develop translatable tasks that quantitatively measure psychiatry-relevant behaviors across species. The behavioral pattern monitor (BPM) was designed to analyze exploratory behaviors, which are altered in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), especially during mania episodes...
December 28, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287835/sugar-compartmentation-as-an-environmental-stress-adaptation-strategy-in-plants
#19
REVIEW
Kohji Yamada, Yuriko Osakabe
The sessile nature of plants has driven their evolution to cope flexibly with ever-changing surrounding environments. The development of stress tolerance traits is complex, and a broad range of cellular processes are involved. Recent studies have revealed that sugar transporters contribute to environmental stress tolerance in plants, suggesting that sugar flow is dynamically fluctuated towards optimization of cellular conditions in adverse environments. Here, we highlight sugar compartmentation mediated by sugar transporters as an adaptation strategy against biotic and abiotic stresses...
December 26, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284676/coordinated-regulation-of-intracellular-ph-by-two-glucose-sensing-pathways-in-yeast
#20
Daniel G Isom, Stephani C Page, Leonard B Collins, Nicholas J Kapolka, Geoffrey J Taghon, Henrik G Dohlman
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae employs multiple pathways to coordinate sugar availability and metabolism. Glucose and other sugars are detected by a G protein coupled receptor, Gpr1, as well as a pair of transporter-like proteins, Rgt2 and Snf3. When glucose is limiting however, an ATP-driven proton pump (Pma1) is inactivated leading to a marked decrease in cytoplasmic pH. Here we determine the relative contribution of the two sugar sensing pathways to pH regulation. Whereas cytoplasmic pH is strongly dependent on glucose abundance, and is regulated by both glucose-sensing pathways, ATP is largely unaffected and therefore cannot account for the changes in Pma1 activity...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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