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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237864/transcriptome-analysis-and-identification-of-induced-genes-in-the-response-of-harmonia-axyridis-to-cold-hardiness
#1
Bin Tang, Xiao-Jun Liu, Zuo-Kun Shi, Qi-Da Shen, Yan-Xia Xu, Su Wang, Fan Zhang, Shi-Gui Wang
Harmonia axyridis is an important predatory lady beetle that is a natural enemy of agricultural and forestry pests. In this research, the cold hardiness induced genes and their expression changes in H. axyridis were screened and detected by the way of the transcriptome and qualitative real-time PCR under normal and low temperatures, using high-throughput transcriptome and digital gene-expression-tag technologies. We obtained a 10Gb transcriptome and an 8Mb gene expression tag pool using Illumina deep sequencing technology and RNA-Seq analysis (accession number SRX540102)...
February 20, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236275/gene-expression-profiles-predictive-of-cold-induced-sweetening-in-potato
#2
Jonathan Neilson, M Lagüe, S Thomson, F Aurousseau, A M Murphy, B Bizimungu, V Deveaux, Y Bègue, J M E Jacobs, H H Tai
Cold storage (2-4 °C) used in potato production to suppress diseases and sprouting during storage can result in cold-induced sweetening (CIS), where reducing sugars accumulate in tuber tissue leading to undesirable browning, production of bitter flavors, and increased levels of acrylamide with frying. Potato exhibits genetic and environmental variation in resistance to CIS. The current study profiles gene expression in post-harvest tubers before cold storage using transcriptome sequencing and identifies genes whose expression is predictive for CIS...
February 24, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230360/capsaicin-reduces-blood-glucose-by-increasing-insulin-levels-and-glycogen-content-better-than-capsiate-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#3
Shiqi Zhang, Xiaohan Ma, Zhang Lei, Hui Sun, Xiong Liu
Chili peppers exhibit anti-obesity, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, and pain- and itchiness-relieving effects on animals and humans; these effects are due to capsaicin, which is the main pungent and biologically active component of pepper. Capsiate, a nonpungent capsaicin analogue and is similar to capsaicin in terms of structure and biological activity. In this study, we investigated whether capsaicin and capsiate exhibit the same hypoglycemic effects on rats with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Experimental rats were categorized into four groups: control, model, capsaicin, and capsiate groups...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230109/pentose-sugars-inhibit-metabolism-and-increase-expression-of-an-agrd-type-cyclic-pentapeptide-in-clostridium-thermocellum
#4
Tobin J Verbeke, Richard J Giannone, Dawn M Klingeman, Nancy L Engle, Thomas Rydzak, Adam M Guss, Timothy J Tschaplinski, Steven D Brown, Robert L Hettich, James G Elkins
Clostridium thermocellum could potentially be used as a microbial biocatalyst to produce renewable fuels directly from lignocellulosic biomass due to its ability to rapidly solubilize plant cell walls. While the organism readily ferments sugars derived from cellulose, pentose sugars from xylan are not metabolized. Here, we show that non-fermentable pentoses inhibit growth and end-product formation during fermentation of cellulose-derived sugars. Metabolomic experiments confirmed that xylose is transported intracellularly and reduced to the dead-end metabolite xylitol...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226237/novel-insights-into-tree-biology-and-genome-evolution-as-revealed-through-genomics
#5
David B Neale, Pedro J Martínez-García, Amanda R De La Torre, Sara Montanari, Xiao-Xin Wei
Reference genome sequences are the key to the discovery of genes and gene families that determine traits of interest. Recent progress in sequencing technologies has enabled a rapid increase in genome sequencing of tree species, allowing the dissection of complex characters of economic importance, such as fruit and wood quality and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although the number of reference genome sequences for trees lags behind those for other plant species, it is not too early to gain insight into the unique features that distinguish trees from nontree plants...
February 6, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225088/the-general-pts-component-hpr-determines-the-preference-for-glucose-over-mannitol
#6
Mangyu Choe, Young-Ha Park, Chang-Ro Lee, Yeon-Ran Kim, Yeong-Jae Seok
Preferential sugar utilization is a widespread phenomenon in biological systems. Glucose is usually the most preferred carbon source in various organisms, especially in bacteria where it is taken up via the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). The currently proposed model for glucose preference over non-PTS sugars in enteric bacteria including E. coli is strictly dependent on the phosphorylation state of the glucose-specific PTS component, enzyme IIA(Glc) (EIIA(Glc)). However, the mechanism of the preference among PTS sugars is largely unknown in Gram-negative bacteria...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223978/function-and-regulation-of-the-c4-dicarboxylate-transporters-in-campylobacter-jejuni
#7
Marc M S M Wösten, Chris H A van de Lest, Linda van Dijk, Jos P M van Putten
C4-dicarboxylates are important molecules for the human pathogen C.jejuni, as they are used as carbon and electron acceptor molecules, as sugars cannot be utilized by this microaerophilic organism. Based on the genome analysis, C. jejuni may possess five different C4-dicarboxylate transporters: DctA, DcuA, DcuB, and two homologs of DcuC. Here, we investigated the regulation and function of various C4-dicarboxylate transporters in C. jejuni. Transcription of the dctA and dcuC homologs is constitutive, while dcuA and dcuB are both directly regulated by the two-component RacR/RacS system in response to limited oxygen availability and the presence of nitrate...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214513/molecular-dynamics-simulation-study-of-the-effect-of-glycerol-dialkyl-glycerol-tetraether-hydroxylation-on-membrane-thermostability
#8
Carme Huguet, Susanne Fietz, Antoni Rosell-Melé, Xavier Daura, Lionel Costenaro
Archaeal tetraether membrane lipids span the whole membrane width and present two C40 isoprenoid chains bound by two glycerol groups (or one glycerol and calditol). These lipids confer stability and maintain the membrane fluidity in mesophile to extremophile environments, making them very attractive for biotechnological applications. The isoprenoid lipid composition in archaeal membranes varies with temperature, which has placed these lipids in the focus of paleo-climatological studies for over a decade. Non-hydroxylated isoprenoid archaeal lipids are typically used as paleo-thermometry proxies, but recently identified hydroxylated (OH) derivatives have also been proposed as temperature proxies...
February 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202392/sophisticated-regulation-of-transcriptional-factors-by-the-bacterial-phosphoenolpyruvate-sugar-phosphotransferase-system
#9
REVIEW
Anne Galinier, Josef Deutscher
The phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a carbohydrate transport and phosphorylation system present in bacteria of all different phyla and in archaea. It is usually composed of three proteins or protein complexes, enzyme I, HPr and enzyme II, which are phosphorylated at histidine or cysteine residues. However, in many bacteria, HPr can also be phosphorylated at a serine residue. The PTS functions not only as carbohydrate transporter, but also regulates numerous cellular processes by either phosphorylating its target proteins or by interacting with them in a phosphorylation-dependent manner...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199212/transposon-mediated-directed-mutation-in-bacteria-and-eukaryotes
#10
Milton H Saier, Chika Kukita, Zhongge Zhang
Transposon-mediated "directed" mutations occur at higher frequencies when beneficial than when detrimental and relieve the stress that causes them. The first and best-studied example involves regulation of Insertion Sequence-5 (IS5) insertion into a specific activating site upstream of the glycerol utilization operon in Escherichia coli, glpFK. This event promotes high level expression of the glpFK operon, allowing glycerol utilization in wild type cells under inhibitory conditions. The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent, sugar transporting, phosphotransferase system (PTS) influences this process by regulating cytoplasmic glycerol-3-phosphate and cyclic AMP concentrations...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196965/genomic-microdiversity-of-bifidobacterium-pseudocatenulatum-underlying-differential-strain-level-responses-to-dietary-carbohydrate-intervention
#11
Guojun Wu, Chenhong Zhang, Huan Wu, Ruirui Wang, Jian Shen, Linghua Wang, Yufeng Zhao, Xiaoyan Pang, Xiaojun Zhang, Liping Zhao, Menghui Zhang
The genomic basis of the response to dietary intervention of human gut beneficial bacteria remains elusive, which hinders precise manipulation of the microbiota for human health. After receiving a dietary intervention enriched with nondigestible carbohydrates for 105 days, a genetically obese child with Prader-Willi syndrome lost 18.4% of his body weight and showed significant improvement in his bioclinical parameters. We obtained five isolates (C1, C15, C55, C62, and C95) of one of the most abundantly promoted beneficial species, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, from a postintervention fecal sample...
February 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194879/ethanol-production-by-the-hyperthermophilic-archaeon-pyrococcus-furiosus-by-expression-of-bacterial-bifunctional-alcohol-dehydrogenases
#12
Matthew W Keller, Gina L Lipscomb, Diep M Nguyen, Alexander T Crowley, Gerrit J Schut, Israel Scott, Robert M Kelly, Michael W W Adams
Ethanol is an important target for the renewable production of liquid transportation fuels. It can be produced biologically from pyruvate, via pyruvate decarboxylase, or from acetyl-CoA, by alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE). Thermophilic bacteria utilize AdhE, which is a bifunctional enzyme that contains both acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Many of these organisms also contain a separate alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) that generates ethanol from acetaldehyde, although the role of AdhA in ethanol production is typically not clear...
February 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193207/a-novel-point-mutation-in-rpob-improves-osmotolerance-and-succinic-acid-production-in-escherichia-coli
#13
Mengyong Xiao, Xinna Zhu, Hongtao Xu, Jinlei Tang, Ru Liu, Changhao Bi, Feiyu Fan, Xueli Zhang
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli suffer from osmotic stress during succinic acid (SA) production, which reduces the performance of this microbial factory. RESULTS: Here, we report that a point mutation leading to a single amino acid change (D654Y) within the β-subunit of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RpoB) significantly improved the osmotolerance of E. coli. Importation of the D654Y mutation of RpoB into the parental strain, Suc-T110, increased cell growth and SA production by more than 40% compared to that of the control under high glucose osmolality...
February 13, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184245/development-of-a-low-cost-cellulase-production-process-using-trichoderma-reesei-for-brazilian-biorefineries
#14
Simo Ellilä, Lucas Fonseca, Cristiane Uchima, Junio Cota, Gustavo Henrique Goldman, Markku Saloheimo, Vera Sacon, Matti Siika-Aho
BACKGROUND: During the past few years, the first industrial-scale cellulosic ethanol plants have been inaugurated. Although the performance of the commercial cellulase enzymes used in this process has greatly improved over the past decade, cellulases still represent a very significant operational cost. Depending on the region, transport of cellulases from a central production facility to a biorefinery may significantly add to enzyme cost. The aim of the present study was to develop a simple, cost-efficient cellulase production process that could be employed locally at a Brazilian sugarcane biorefinery...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180997/functional-characterization-of-a-novel-disaccharide-transporter-in-lobster-hepatopancreas
#15
Olivia Scheffler, Gregory A Ahearn
In animals, the accepted model of carbohydrate digestion and absorption involves reduction of disaccharides into the monosaccharides glucose, fructose, and galactose followed by their individual transmembrane transport into cells. In 2011, a gene for a distinct disaccharide sucrose transporter (SCRT) was found in Drosophila melanogaster and characterized in a yeast expression system. The purpose of the present investigation was to functionally identify and characterize a putative disaccharide transporter analog in the hepatopancreas of the American lobster, Homarus americanus...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179423/xanthine-dehydrogenase-1-silencing-in-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes-promotes-a-blood-feeding-induced-adulticidal-activity
#16
Jun Isoe, Natthida Petchampai, Yurika E Isoe, Katrina Co, Stacy Mazzalupo, Patricia Y Scaraffia
Aedesaegypti has 2 genes encoding xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH). We analyzed XDH1 and XDH2 gene expression by real-time quantitative PCR in tissues from sugar- and blood-fed females. Differential XDH1 and XDH2 gene expression was observed in tissues dissected throughout a time course. We next exposed females to blood meals supplemented with allopurinol, a well-characterized XDH inhibitor. We also tested the effects of injecting double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) against XDH1, XDH2, or both. Disruption of XDH by allopurinol or XDH1 by RNA interference significantly affected mosquito survival, causing a disruption in blood digestion, excretion, oviposition, and reproduction...
February 8, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174620/complete-genome-sequence-of-thermus-brockianus-ge-1-reveals-key-enzymes-of-xylan-xylose-metabolism
#17
Christian Schäfers, Saskia Blank, Sigrid Wiebusch, Skander Elleuche, Garabed Antranikian
Thermus brockianus strain GE-1 is a thermophilic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped and non-motile bacterium that was isolated from the Geysir geothermal area, Iceland. Like other thermophiles, Thermus species are often used as model organisms to understand the mechanism of action of extremozymes, especially focusing on their heat-activity and thermostability. Genome-specific features of T. brockianus GE-1 and their properties further help to explain processes of the adaption of extremophiles at elevated temperatures...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167211/an-insight-into-the-orphan-nucleotide-sugar-transporter-slc35a4
#18
Paulina Sosicka, Dorota Maszczak-Seneczko, Bożena Bazan, Yauhen Shauchuk, Beata Kaczmarek, Mariusz Olczak
SLC35A4 has been classified in the SLC35A subfamily based on amino acid sequence homology. Most of the proteins belonging to the SLC35 family act as transporters of nucleotide sugars. In this study, the subcellular localization of endogenous SLC35A4 was determined via immunofluorescence staining, and it was demonstrated that SLC35A4 localizes mainly to the Golgi apparatus. In silico topology prediction suggests that SLC35A4 has an uneven number of transmembrane domains and its N-terminus is directed towards the Golgi lumen...
February 3, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154138/pka-of-glu325-in-lacy
#19
Natalia Grytsyk, Junichi Sugihara, H Ronald Kaback, Petra Hellwig
Lactose permease (LacY), a paradigm for the largest family of membrane transport proteins, catalyzes the coupled translocation of a galactoside and a H(+) across the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli (galactoside/H(+) symport). One of the most important aspects of the mechanism is the relationship between protonation and binding of the cargo galactopyranoside. In this regard, it has been shown that protonation is required for binding. Furthermore when galactoside affinity is measured as a function of pH, an apparent pK (pK(app)) of ∼10...
February 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143395/skewing-in-arabidopsis-roots-involves-disparate-environmental-signaling-pathways
#20
Eric R Schultz, Agata K Zupanska, Natasha J Sng, Anna-Lisa Paul, Robert J Ferl
BACKGROUND: Skewing root patterns provide key insights into root growth strategies and mechanisms that produce root architectures. Roots exhibit skewing and waving when grown on a tilted, impenetrable surface. The genetics guiding these morphologies have been examined, revealing that some Arabidopsis ecotypes skew and wave (e.g. WS), while others skew insignificantly but still wave (e.g. Col-0). The underlying molecular mechanisms of skewing and waving remain unclear. In this study, transcriptome data were derived from two Arabidopsis ecotypes, WS and Col-0, under three tilted growth conditions in order to identify candidate genes involved in skewing...
February 1, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
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