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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636761/molecular-tools-for-facilitative-carbohydrate-transporters
#1
Marina Tanasova, Joseph R Fedie
Facilitative carbohydrate transporters - Gluts - have received a wide attention over decades due to their essential role in the nutrient uptake and links with various metabolic disorders, including diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Endeavors into understanding mechanisms of Glut-mediated nutrient uptake have resulted in the multidisciplinary research field, branching protein chemistry, chemical biology, organic synthesis, crystallography, and biomolecular modeling. Gluts became attractive targets for cancer research and medicinal chemistry, leading to the development of new approaches to cancer diagnostics and providing avenues for cancer-targeting therapeutics...
June 21, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636266/marap2-4-a-waterlogging-responsive-erf-from-mentha-regulates-bidirectional-sugar-transporter-atsweet10-to-modulate-stress-response-in-arabidopsis
#2
Ujjal J Phukan, Gajendra Singh Jeena, Vineeta Tripathi, Rakesh Kumar Shukla
As waterlogging and successive events severely influence growth and development of economically important plants, we attempted to characterize the role of a waterlogging-responsive Group I (A-6) Ethylene response factor (MaRAP2-4) from Mentha arvensis. Waterlogging, ethylene and Methyl jasmonate rapidly induced the expression of MaRAP2-4. MaRAP2-4 interacted with multiple cis-elements like Dehydration response elements (DRE1/2), Anoxia/Jasmonic acid response element (JARE) and GCC box showing its involvement in multiple responses...
June 21, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634232/the-phosphocarrier-protein-hpr-of-the-bacterial-phosphotransferase-system-globally-regulates-energy-metabolism-by-directly-interacting-with-multiple-enzymes-in-escherichia-coli
#3
Irina A Rodionova, Zhongge Zhang, Jitender Mehla, Norman Goodacre, Mohan Babu, Andrew Emili, Peter Uetz, Milton H Saier
The histidine-phosphorylatable phosphocarrier protein HPr, is an essential component of the sugar-transporting phosphotransferase system (PTS) in many bacteria. Recent interactome findings suggested that HPr interacts with several carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, but whether HPr plays a regulatory role was unclear. Here, we provide evidence that HPr interacts with a large number of proteins in Escherichia coli. We demonstrate HPr-dependent allosteric regulation of the activities of pyruvate kinase (PykF, but not PykA), phosphofructokinase (PfkB, but not PfkA), glucosamine 6-phosphate deaminase (NagB) and adenylate kinase (Adk)...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631440/recognition-cascade-and-metabolite-transfer-in-a-marine-bacteria-phytoplankton-model-system
#4
Bryndan P Durham, Stephen P Dearth, Shalabh Sharma, Shady A Amin, Christa B Smith, Shawn R Campagna, E Virginia Armbrust, Mary Ann Moran
The trophic linkage between marine bacteria and phytoplankton in the surface ocean is a key step in the global carbon cycle, with almost half of marine primary production transformed by heterotrophic bacterioplankton within hours to weeks of fixation. Early studies conceptualized this link as the passive addition and removal of organic compounds from a shared seawater reservoir. Here we analyzed transcript and intracellular metabolite patterns in a two-member model system and found that the presence of a heterotrophic bacterium induced a potential recognition cascade in a marine phytoplankton species that parallels better-understood vascular plant response systems...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629967/isolation-of-fungi-from-dung-of-wild-herbivores-for-application-in-bioethanol-production
#5
Rhulani Makhuvele, Ignatious Ncube, Elbert Lukas Jansen van Rensburg, Daniël Coenrad La Grange
Producing biofuels such as ethanol from non-food plant material has the potential to meet transportation fuel requirements in many African countries without impacting directly on food security. The current shortcomings in biomass processing are inefficient fermentation of plant sugars, such as xylose, especially at high temperatures, lack of fermenting microbes that are able to resist inhibitors associated with pre-treated plant material and lack of effective lignocellulolytic enzymes for complete hydrolysis of plant polysaccharides...
June 3, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629120/metabolomics-characterization-of-two-apocynaceae-plants-catharanthus-roseus-and-vinca-minor-using-gc-ms-and-lc-ms-methods-in-combination
#6
Qi Chen, Xueyan Lu, Xiaorui Guo, Qingxi Guo, Dewen Li
Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) and Vinca minor (V. minor) are two common important medical plants belonging to the family Apocynaceae. In this study, we used non-targeted GC-MS and targeted LC-MS metabolomics to dissect the metabolic profile of two plants with comparable phenotypic and metabolic differences. A total of 58 significantly different metabolites were present in different quantities according to PCA and PLS-DA score plots of the GC-MS analysis. The 58 identified compounds comprised 16 sugars, eight amino acids, nine alcohols and 18 organic acids...
June 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628658/effects-of-obesogenic-diet-and-estradiol-on-dorsal-raphe-gene-expression-in-old-female-macaques
#7
Cynthia L Bethea, Kevin Mueller, Arubala P Reddy, Steven G Kohama, Henryk F Urbanski
The beneficial effects of bioidentical ovarian steroid hormone therapy (HT) during the perimenopause are gaining recognition. However, the positive effects of estrogen (E) plus or minus progesterone (P) administration to ovariectomized (Ovx) lab animals were recognized in multiple systems for years before clinical trials could adequately duplicate the results. Moreover, very large numbers of women are often needed to find statistically significant results in clinical trials of HT; and there are still opposing results being published, especially in neural and cardiovascular systems...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624519/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomics-analysis-of-molecular-mechanisms-associated-with-bombyx-mori-lepidoptera-larval-midgut-response-to-bmnpv-in-susceptible-and-near-isogenic-strains
#8
Haizhong Yu, Xueyang Wang, Jiaping Xu, Yan Ma, Shangzhi Zhang, Dong Yu, Dongqiong Fei, Azharuddin Muhammad
Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) has been identified as a major pathogen responsible for severe economic loss. Most silkworm strains are susceptible to BmNPV, with only a few highly resistant strains thus far identified. Here we investigated the molecular basis of silkworm resistance to BmNPV using susceptible (the recurrent parent P50) and resistant (near-isogenic line BC9) strains and a combination of iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics, reverse-transcription quantitative PCR and Western blotting...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622482/antidiabetic-properties-of-an-apple-kale-extract-in-vitro-in-situ-and-in-mice-fed-a-western-type-diet
#9
Anke Schloesser, Tuba Esatbeyoglu, Gerhard Schultheiß, Henning Vollert, Kai Lüersen, Alexandra Fischer, Gerald Rimbach
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common and increasingly prevalent metabolic disorder, and effective preventive strategies against this disease are needed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential antidiabetic properties of a dietary apple/kale extract (AKE), which was rich in phlorizin and flavonoids, in laboratory mice. Mice were fed a control diet, a Western-type high-sugar, high-fat diet (WTD), or a WTD plus AKE for 10 weeks. Body weight, food and energy intake, body composition, and blood glucose level were recorded in addition to the postprandial rise in blood glucose concentration after a single administration of glucose (oral glucose tolerance test, OGTT)...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620410/transcriptome-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-genes-induced-by-low-and-high-potassium-levels-provides-insight-into-fruit-sugar-metabolism-of-pear
#10
Changwei Shen, Jie Wang, Xiaoqian Shi, Yalong Kang, Changyan Xie, Lirun Peng, Caixia Dong, Qirong Shen, Yangchun Xu
Potassium (K) deficiency is a common abiotic stress that can inhibit the growth of fruit and thus reduce crop yields. Little research has been conducted on pear transcriptional changes under low and high K conditions. Here, we performed an experiment with 7-year-old pot-grown "Huangguan" pear trees treated with low, Control or high K levels (0, 0.4, or 0.8 g·K2O/kg soil, respectively) during fruit enlargement and mature stages. We identified 36,444 transcripts from leaves and fruit using transcriptome sequencing technology...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615718/genome-wide-analyses-of-sweet-family-proteins-reveal-involvement-in-fruit-development-and-abiotic-biotic-stress-responses-in-banana
#11
Hongxia Miao, Peiguang Sun, Qing Liu, Yulu Miao, Juhua Liu, Kaixing Zhang, Wei Hu, Jianbin Zhang, Jingyi Wang, Zhuo Wang, Caihong Jia, Biyu Xu, Zhiqiang Jin
Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporters (SWEET) are a novel type of sugar transporter that plays crucial roles in multiple biological processes. From banana, for the first time, 25 SWEET genes which could be classified into four subfamilies were identified. Majority of MaSWEETs in each subfamily shared similar gene structures and conserved motifs. Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of two banana genotypes revealed differential expression patterns of MaSWEETs in different tissues, at various stages of fruit development and ripening, and in response to abiotic and biotic stresses...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611159/population-genomics-and-the-evolution-of-virulence-in-the-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#12
Christopher A Desjardins, Charles Giamberardino, Sean M Sykes, Chen-Hsin Yu, Jennifer L Tenor, Yuan Chen, Timothy Yang, Alexander M Jones, Sheng Sun, Miriam R Haverkamp, Joseph Heitman, Anastasia P Litvintseva, John R Perfect, Christina A Cuomo
Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes approximately 625,000 deaths per year from nervous system infections. Here, we leveraged a unique, genetically diverse population of C. neoformans from sub-Saharan Africa, commonly isolated from mopane trees, to determine how selective pressures in the environment coincidentally adapted C. neoformans for human virulence. Genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 387 isolates, representing the global VNI and African VNB lineages, highlighted a deep, nonrecombining split in VNB (herein, VNBI and VNBII)...
June 13, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610378/type-designations-and-taxonomic-remarks-for-nearctic-sap-beetles-in-the-subfamily-carpophilinae-erichson-coleoptera-nitidulidae
#13
Gareth S Powell, Andrew R Cline
The subfamily Carpophilinae, in particular the genus Carpophilus Stephens, represents one of the most speciose lineages within Nitidulidae. The subfamily is comprised of more than 250 described species that are found worldwide in every habitable region, and have been transported by man in stored products to remote islands and archipelagos (Ewing & Cline 2005; Parsons 1943). The ubiquitous Carpophilus dimidiatus (L.) is an example of a cosmopolitan species that has been reported from every continent except Antarctica, but likely has been transported there as well...
May 16, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608281/suppression-of-cucumber-stachyose-synthase-gene-cssts-inhibits-phloem-loading-and-reduces-low-temperature-stress-tolerance
#14
Jianguo Lü, Xiaolei Sui, Si Ma, Xin Li, Huan Liu, Zhenxian Zhang
Stachyose is the main transporting sugar in phloem of Raffinose family oligosaccharides-transporting species. Stachyose synthase (STS) is a key enzyme for stachyose biosynthesis, but the gene encoding STS is poorly characterized in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), which is a model plant for studying stachyose metabolism and phloem function. In this research, stachyose synthase gene (CsSTS) from cucumber was isolated and its physiological functions were analyzed. CsSTS expressed mainly in the phloem of the minor veins in mature leaves and localized to companion cells...
June 12, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607358/temperature-gradients-assist-carbohydrate-allocation-within-trees
#15
Or Sperling, Lucas C R Silva, Aude Tixier, Guillaume Théroux-Rancourt, Maciej A Zwieniecki
Trees experience two distinct environments: thermally-variable air and thermally-buffered soil. This generates intra-tree temperature gradients, which can affect carbon metabolism and water transport. In this study, we investigated whether carbohydrate allocation within trees is assisted by temperature gradients. We studied pistachio (Pistacia integerrima) to determine: (1) temperature-induced variation in xylem sugar concentration in excised branches; (2) changes in carbon allocation in young trees under simulated spring and fall conditions; and (3) seasonal variability of starch levels in mature orchard trees under field conditions...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600864/co-utilization-of-hexoses-by-a-microconsortium-of-sugar-specific-e-coli-strains
#16
Todd C Chappell, Nikhil U Nair
Escherichia coli is an important commercial species used for production of biofuels, biopolymers, organic acids, sugar alcohols, and natural compounds. Processed biomass and agroindustrial byproducts serve as low-cost nutrient sources and contain a variety of hexoses available for bioconversion. However, metabolism of hexose mixtures by E. coli is inefficient due to carbon catabolite repression (CCR), where the transport and catabolic activity of one or more carbon sources is repressed and/or inhibited by the transport and catabolism of another carbon source...
June 10, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600345/transcription-factor-areb2-is-involved-in-soluble-sugar-accumulation-by-activating-sugar-transporter-and-amylase-genes
#17
Qi-Jun Ma, Mei-Hong Sun, Jing Lu, Ya-Jing Liu, Da-Gang Hu, Yu-Jin Hao
Sugars play important roles in plant growth and development, crop yield and quality as well as responses to abiotic stresses. ABA is a multi-functional hormone. However, the exact mechanism by which ABA regulates sugar accumulation is largely unknown in plants. Here, we tested the expression profile of several sugar transporter and amylase genes in response to ABA treatment. MdSUT2 and MdAREB2 were isolated and genetically transformed into apples to investigate their roles in ABA-induced sugar accumulation...
June 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597423/illumina-based-transcriptomic-profiling-of-panax-notoginseng-in-response-to-arsenic-stress
#18
Yanfang Liu, Yanhua Mi, Jianhua Zhang, Qiwan Li, Lu Chen
BACKGROUND: Panax notoginseng, a famous herbal medicine, has recently attracted great attention on its safety and quality since P. notoginseng can accumulate and tolerate As from growing environment. For the purpose of understanding As damage to the quality of P. notoginseng as well as corresponding tolerance mechanisms, genes involved in As stress response were identified using Illumina sequencing. RESULTS: Totally 91,979,946 clean reads were generated and were de novo assembled into 172,355 unigenes...
December 2016: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596307/plants-transfer-lipids-to-sustain-colonization-by-mutualistic-mycorrhizal-and-parasitic-fungi
#19
Yina Jiang, Wanxiao Wang, Qiujin Xie, Na Liu, Lixia Liu, Dapeng Wang, Xiaowei Zhang, Chen Yang, Xiaoya Chen, Dingzhong Tang, Ertao Wang
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi facilitate plant uptake of mineral nutrients and draw organic nutrients from the plant. Organic nutrients are thought to be supplied primarily in the form of sugars. Here we show that the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis is a fatty acid auxotroph and that fatty acids synthesized in the host plants are transferred to the fungus to sustain mycorrhizal colonization. The transfer is dependent on RAM2 (REQUIRED FOR ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZATION 2) and the ATP binding cassette transporter-mediated plant lipid export pathway...
June 8, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596073/metabolic-engineering-of-enterobacter-aerogenes-for-2-3-butanediol-production-from-sugarcane-bagasse-hydrolysate
#20
Jaeyong Um, Duck Gyun Kim, Moo-Young Jung, Ganesh D Saratale, Min-Kyu Oh
The pathway engineering of Enterobacter aerogenes was attempted to improve its production capability of 2,3-butanediol from lignocellulosic biomass. In the medium containing glucose and xylose mixture as carbon sources, the gene deletion of pflB improved 2,3-butanediol carbon yield by 40%, while the deletion of ptsG increased xylose consumption rate significantly, improving the productivity at 12 hr by 70%. The constructed strain, EMY-22-galP, overexpressing glucose transporter (galP) in the triple gene knockout E...
May 29, 2017: Bioresource Technology
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