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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791756/interactions-between-insulin-and-diet-on-striatal-dopamine-uptake-kinetics-in-rodent-brain-slices
#1
Jyoti C Patel, Melissa A Stouffer, Maria Mancini, Charles Nicholson, Kenneth D Carr, Margaret E Rice
Diet influences dopamine transmission in motor- and reward-related basal ganglia circuitry. In part, this reflects diet-dependent regulation of circulating and brain insulin levels. Activation of striatal insulin receptors amplifies axonal dopamine release in brain slices, and regulates food preference in vivo. The effect of insulin on dopamine release is indirect, and requires striatal cholinergic interneurons that express insulin receptors. However, insulin also increases dopamine uptake by promoting dopamine transporter (DAT) surface expression, which counteracts enhanced dopamine release...
May 23, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788891/targeting-sugar-uptake-and-metabolism-for-cancer-identification-and-therapy-an-overview
#2
Marina Tanasova, Vagarshak V Begoyan, Lukasz J Weselinski
Metabolic deregulations have emerged as a cancer characteristic, opening a broad avenue for strategies and tools to target cancer through sugar uptake and metabolism. High expression levels of sugar transporters in cancer cells offered glycoconjugation as an approach to achieve enhanced cellular accumulation of drugs and imaging agents, with the sugar moiety anchoring the bioactive cargo to cancer cells. On the other hand, high demand for sugar nutrients in cancers provided a new avenue to target cancer cells with metabolic or sugar uptake inhibitors to induce cancer cells starvation or death...
May 22, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784777/structure-of-an-eiic-sugar-transporter-trapped-in-an-inward-facing-conformation
#3
Zhenning Ren, Jumin Lee, Mahdi Muhammad Moosa, Yin Nian, Liya Hu, Zhichun Xu, Jason G McCoy, Allan Chris M Ferreon, Wonpil Im, Ming Zhou
The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) transports sugar into bacteria and phosphorylates the sugar for metabolic consumption. The PTS is important for the survival of bacteria and thus a potential target for antibiotics, but its mechanism of sugar uptake and phosphorylation remains unclear. The PTS is composed of multiple proteins, and the membrane-embedded Enzyme IIC (EIIC) component transports sugars across the membrane. Crystal structures of two members of the glucose superfamily of EIICs, bcChbC and bcMalT, were solved in the inward-facing and outward-facing conformations, and the structures suggest that sugar translocation could be achieved by movement of a structured domain that contains the sugar-binding site...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779192/impact-of-weak-water-deficit-on-growth-photosynthetic-primary-processes-and-storage-processes-in-pine-and-spruce-seedlings
#4
Ilya E Zlobin, Yury V Ivanov, Alexander V Kartashov, Boris A Sarvin, Andrey N Stavrianidi, Vladimir D Kreslavski, Vladimir V Kuznetsov
We investigated the influence of 40 days of drought on growth, storage processes and primary photosynthetic processes in 3-month-old Scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings growing in perlite culture. Water stress significantly affected seedling water status, whereas absolute dry biomass growth was not substantially influenced. Water stress induced an increase in non-structural carbohydrate content (sugars, sugar alcohols, starch) in the aboveground part of pine seedlings in contrast to spruce seedlings. Due to the relatively low content of sugars and sugar alcohols in seedling organs, their expected contribution to osmotic potential changes was quite low...
May 19, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774038/altered-expression-of-the-malate-permeable-anion-channel-osalmt4-reduces-the-growth-of-rice-under-low-radiance
#5
Jie Liu, Muyun Xu, Gonzalo M Estavillo, Emmanuel Delhaize, Rosemary G White, Meixue Zhou, Peter R Ryan
We examined the function of OsALMT4 in rice ( Oryza sativa L.) which is a member of the aluminum-activated malate transporter family. Previous studies showed that OsALMT4 localizes to the plasma membrane and that expression in transgenic rice lines results in a constitutive release of malate from the roots. Here, we show that OsALMT4 is expressed widely in roots, shoots, flowers, and grain but not guard cells. Expression was also affected by ionic and osmotic stress, light and to the hormones ABA, IAA, and salicylic acid...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769380/pneumococcal-metabolic-adaptation-and-colonization-are-regulated-by-the-two-component-regulatory-system-08
#6
Alejandro Gómez-Mejia, Gustavo Gámez, Stephanie Hirschmann, Viktor Kluger, Hermann Rath, Sebastian Böhm, Franziska Voss, Niamatullah Kakar, Lothar Petruschka, Uwe Völker, Reinhold Brückner, Ulrike Mäder, Sven Hammerschmidt
Streptococcus pneumoniae two-component regulatory systems (TCS) enable adaptation and ensure its maintenance in host environments. This study deciphers the impact of TCS08 on pneumococcal gene expression and its role in metabolic and pathophysiological processes. Transcriptome analysis and real-time PCR demonstrated a regulatory effect of TCS08 on genes involved mainly in environmental information processing, intermediary metabolism, and colonization by S. pneumoniae D39 and TIGR4. Striking examples are genes for fatty acid biosynthesis, genes of the arginine deiminase system, and the psa operon encoding the manganese ABC transport system...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766507/abscisic-acid-prevents-pollen-abortion-under-high-temperature-stress-by-mediating-sugar-metabolism-in-rice-spikelets
#7
Md Rezaul Islam, Baohua Feng, Tingting Chen, Weimeng Fu, Caixia Zhang, Longxing Tao, Guanfu Fu
Heat stress at the pollen mother cell (PMC) meiotic stage leads to pollen sterility in rice, in which the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and sugar homeostasis are always adversely affected. This damage is reversed by abscisic acid (ABA), but the mechanisms underlying the interactions among the ABA, sugar metabolism, ROS and heat shock proteins (HSPs) in rice spikelets under heat stress are unclear. Two rice genotypes, Zhefu802 (a recurrent parent) and fgl (its near-isogenic line) were subjected to heat stress of 40°C after pre-foliage sprayed with ABA and its biosynthetic inhibitor fluridone at the meiotic stage of PMC...
May 16, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764418/engineering-xylose-metabolism-for-production-of-polyhydroxybutyrate-in-the-non-model-bacterium-burkholderia-sacchari
#8
Linda P Guamán, Carlos Barba-Ostria, Fuzhong Zhang, Edmar R Oliveira-Filho, José Gregório C Gomez, Luiziana F Silva
BACKGROUND: Despite its ability to grow and produce high-value molecules using renewable carbon sources, two main factors must be improved to use Burkholderia sacchari as a chassis for bioproduction at an industrial scale: first, the lack of molecular tools to engineer this organism and second, the inherently slow growth rate and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate [P(3HB)] production using xylose. In this work, we have addressed both factors. RESULTS: First, we adapted a set of BglBrick plasmids and showed tunable expression in B...
May 15, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760199/the-nac-transcription-factor-slnap2-regulates-leaf-senescence-and-fruit-yield-in-tomato
#9
Xuemin Ma, Youjun Zhang, Veronika Turečková, Gang-Ping Xue, Alisdair R Fernie, Bernd Mueller-Roeber, Salma Balazadeh
Leaf senescence is an essential physiological process in plants that supports the recycling of nitrogen and other nutrients to support the growth of developing organs, including young leaves, seeds and fruits. Thus, the regulation of senescence is crucial for evolutionary success in wild populations and for increasing yield in crops. Here we describe the influence of a NAC transcription factor, SlNAP2 (Solanum lycopersicum NAC-like, activated by apetala3/pistillata), that controls both leaf senescence and fruit yield in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)...
May 14, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752561/searching-whole-genome-sequences-for-biochemical-identification-features-of-emerging-and-reemerging-pathogenic-corynebacterium-species
#10
André S Santos, Rommel T Ramos, Artur Silva, Raphael Hirata, Ana L Mattos-Guaraldi, Roberto Meyer, Vasco Azevedo, Liza Felicori, Luis G C Pacheco
Biochemical tests are traditionally used for bacterial identification at the species level in clinical microbiology laboratories. While biochemical profiles are generally efficient for the identification of the most important corynebacterial pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae, their ability to differentiate between biovars of this bacterium is still controversial. Besides, the unambiguous identification of emerging human pathogenic species of the genus Corynebacterium may be hampered by highly variable biochemical profiles commonly reported for these species, including Corynebacterium striatum, Corynebacterium amycolatum, Corynebacterium minutissimum, and Corynebacterium xerosis...
May 11, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751701/-changes-of-transport-sugar-content-in-different-organs-of-rehmannia-glutinosa
#11
Dong-Hui Wang, Na Liao, Peng Sun, Xue-Qi Ji, Xian-En Li, Min-Jian Qin
Raffinose series oligosaccharides are the transport and storage sugars of many plants, Rehmannia glutinosa is one of the commonly used Chinese herbal medicines, medicinal parts ist he roots. Root and tuber of R. glutinosa contains stachyose, raffinose and other oligosaccharides, but the study about the process of growth and development of other organs in the non-structural changes in sugar content is rare.In this study, leaves, stems and roots of R. glutinosa were used as materials to analyze the diurnal variation and the changes of sugar content of sucrose, raffinose and stachyose in different organs of R...
April 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751237/current-anti-diabetic-agents-and-their-molecular-targets-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Nagaraju Kerru, Ashona Singh-Pillay, Paul Awolade, Parvesh Singh
Diabetes mellitus is a medical condition characterized by the body's loss of control over blood sugar. The frequency of diagnosed cases and consequential increases in medical costs makes it a rapidly growing chronic disease that threatens human health worldwide. In addition, its unnerving statistical projections are perilous to both the economy of the nation and man's life expectancy. Type-I and type-II diabetes are the two clinical forms of diabetes mellitus. Type-II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is illustrated by the abnormality of glucose homeostasis in the body, resulting in hyperglycemia...
May 3, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751226/plasmodesmata-in-phloem-different-gateways-for-different-cargoes
#13
REVIEW
Jung-Youn Lee, Margaret Frank
The long-distance transport of sugars and nutrients through the phloem is essential for the proper function and growth of vascular plants. However, in addition to essential nutrients and sugars, phloem sap also contains small molecules (e.g. hormones) as well as a diverse population of macromolecules (i.e. proteins small RNAs, and mRNAs), the endogenous functions of which remain largely unknown. Understanding the cellular origins of these mobile macromolecules, their path into and out of the phloem translocation stream, and their fate at their new destination is essential for characterizing their presumptive function...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746092/metabolic-recruitment-and-directed-evolution-of-nucleoside-triphosphate-uptake-in-escherichia-coli
#14
Valerie Pezo, Camille Hassan, Dominique Louis, Bruno Sargueil, Piet Herdewijn, Philippe Marliere
We report the design and elaboration of a selection protocol for importing a canonical substrate of DNA polymerase, thymidine triphosphate (dTTP) in Escherichia coli. Bacterial strains whose growth depend on dTTP uptake, through the action of an algal plastid transporter expressed from a synthetic gene inserted in the chromosome, were constructed and shown to withstand the simultaneous loss of thymidylate synthase and thymidine kinase. Such thyA tdk dual deletant strains provide an experimental model of tight nutritional containment for preventing dissemination of microbial GMOs...
May 10, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740457/protoplast-esculin-assay-as-a-new-method-to-assay-plant-sucrose-transporters-characterization-of-atsuc6-and-atsuc7-sucrose-uptake-activity-in-arabidopsis-col-0-ecotype
#15
Theresa M Rottmann, Carolin Fritz, Anja Lauter, Sabine Schneider, Cornelia Fischer, Nina Danzberger, Petra Dietrich, Norbert Sauer, Ruth Stadler
The best characterized function of sucrose transporters of the SUC family in plants is the uptake of sucrose into the phloem for long-distance transport of photoassimilates. This important step is usually performed by one specific SUC in every species. However, plants possess small families of several different SUCs which are less well understood. Here, we report on the characterization of AtSUC6 and AtSUC7, two members of the SUC family in Arabidopsis thaliana . Heterologous expression in yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) revealed that AtSUC6Col-0 is a high-affinity H+ -symporter that mediates the uptake of sucrose and maltose across the plasma membrane at exceptionally low pH values...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740413/comparative-genomics-reveals-the-regulatory-complexity-of-bifidobacterial-arabinose-and-arabino-oligosaccharide-utilization
#16
Aleksandr A Arzamasov, Douwe van Sinderen, Dmitry A Rodionov
Members of the genus Bifidobacterium are common inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract. Previously it was shown that arabino-oligosaccharides (AOS) might act as prebiotics and stimulate the bifidobacterial growth in the gut. However, despite the rapid accumulation of genomic data, the precise mechanisms by which these sugars are utilized and associated transcription control still remain unclear. In the current study, we used a comparative genomic approach to reconstruct arabinose and AOS utilization pathways in over 40 bacterial species belonging to the Bifidobacteriaceae family...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736625/two-facets-of-world-arsenic-problem-solution-crop-poisoning-restriction-and-enforcement-of-phytoremediation
#17
REVIEW
Monika Kofroňová, Petra Mašková, Helena Lipavská
This review provides insights into As toxicity in plants with focus on photosynthesis and sugar metabolism as important arsenic targets and simultaneously defence tools against accompanying oxidative stress. Heavy metal contamination is a great problem all over the world. Arsenic, a metalloid occurring naturally in the Earth's crust, also massively spreads out in the environment by human activities. Its accumulation in crops poses a severe health risk to humans and animals. Besides the restriction of human-caused contamination, there are two basic ways how to cope with the problem: first, to limit arsenic accumulation in harvestable parts of the crops; second, to make use of some arsenic hyperaccumulating plants for phytoremediation of contaminated soils and waters...
May 7, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733967/genome-wide-identification-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-different-tissues-of-apple
#18
Na An, Sheng Fan, Yibin Wang, Lizhi Zhang, Cai Gao, Dong Zhang, Mingyu Han
Recently, the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which play important roles in various complex biological processes, have received more attention in plants. However, little information is available on lncRNAs in woody fruit trees and their potential regulatory roles remain poorly understood, especially in apple. Here, a total of 1726 high-confidence lncRNAs (hc-lncRNAs) were identified in different tissues including young fruits, shoot tips, stem phloem and root tips using high-throughput sequencing. These lncRNAs are distributed across all 17 apple chromosomes, and >85% come from intergenic regions...
May 4, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726231/-effect-of-exogenous-%C3%AE-naphthaleneacetic-acid-on-carbon-metabolism-of-soybean-under-drought-stress-at-flowering-stage
#19
Xing Hua Xing, Ze Jun Xui, Yu Jun Qi, Xiao Jun Wang, Dong Lei Sun, Neng Fei Bian, Xing Wang
With pot experiment, two soybean (Glycine max) varieties, Jindou 21 (drought-tole-rant) and Xudou 22 (drought-sensitive), were used to examine the effects of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on carbon metabolism of soybean under drought stress at flowering stage. The results showed that under drought stress, compared to Xudou 22, Jindou 21 had smaller decrease in net photosynthetic rate (Pn ), smaller increase in photorespiration rate (Pr ) and soluble sugar content of leaves, while a greater increase in the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthetase (SS) (synthesis) of leaves and sucrose content of roots...
April 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725721/integration-of-artp-mutagenesis-with-biosensor-mediated-high-throughput-screening-to-improve-l-serine-yield-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#20
Xin Zhang, Xiaomei Zhang, Guoqiang Xu, Xiaojuan Zhang, Jinsong Shi, Zhenghong Xu
L-Serine is widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetics industries. Although direct fermentative production of L-serine from sugar in Corynebacterium glutamicum has been achieved, the L-serine yield remains relatively low. In this study, atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutagenesis was used to improve the L-serine yield based on engineered C. glutamicum ΔSSAAI strain. Subsequently, we developed a novel high-throughput screening method using a biosensor constructed based on NCgl0581, a transcriptional factor specifically responsive to L-serine, so that L-serine concentration within single cell of C...
May 3, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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