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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743764/redox-control-of-aphid-resistance-through-altered-cell-wall-composition-and-nutritional-quality
#1
Brwa Rasool, Jack McGowan, Daria Pastok, Susan E Marcus, Jennifer Morris, Susan R Verrall, Peter E Hedley, Robert D Hancock, Christine H Foyer
The mechanisms underpinning plants perception of phloem feeding insects, particularly aphids, remain poorly characterized. The role of apoplastic redox state in controlling aphid infestation was therefore explored using transgenic tobacco plants that have either high (PAO) or low (TAO) ascorbate oxidase (AO) activities relative to the wild type. Only a small number of leaf transcripts and metabolites were changed in response to genotype and cell wall composition was largely unaffected. Aphid fecundity was significantly decreased in TAO plants compared to other lines...
July 25, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741083/construction-of-bioengineered-yeast-platform-for-direct-bioethanol-production-from-alginate-and-mannitol
#2
Toshiyuki Takagi, Yusuke Sasaki, Keisuke Motone, Toshiyuki Shibata, Reiji Tanaka, Hideo Miyake, Tetsushi Mori, Kouichi Kuroda, Mitsuyoshi Ueda
Brown macroalgae are a sustainable and promising source for bioethanol production because they are abundant in ocean ecosystems and contain negligible quantities of lignin. Brown macroalgae contain cellulose, hemicellulose, mannitol, laminarin, and alginate as major carbohydrates. Among these carbohydrates, brown macroalgae are characterized by high levels of alginate and mannitol. The direct bioconversion of alginate and mannitol into ethanol requires extensive bioengineering of assimilation processes in the standard industrial microbe Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
July 24, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737247/a-single-base-deletion-in-the-slc45a2-gene-in-a-bullmastiff-with-oculocutaneous-albinism
#3
M Caduff, A Bauer, V Jagannathan, T Leeb
Oculocutaneous albinism type 4 (OCA4) in humans and similar phenotypes in many animal species are caused by variants in the SLC45A2 gene, encoding a putative sugar transporter. In dog, two independent SLC45A2 variants are known that cause oculocutaneous albinism in Doberman Pinschers and several small dog breeds respectively. For the present study, we investigated a Bullmastiff with oculocutaneous albinism. The affected dog was highly inbred and resulted from the mating of a sire to its own grandmother. We obtained whole genome sequence data from the affected dog and searched specifically for variants in candidate genes known to cause albinism...
July 24, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735024/n-linked-glycosylation-of-the-p24-family-protein-p24%C3%AE-5-modulates-retrograde-golgi-to-er-transport-of-k-hdel-ligands-in-arabidopsis
#4
Noelia Pastor-Cantizano, María Jesús García-Murria, Cesar Bernat-Silvestre, María Jesús Marcote, Ismael Mingarro, Fernando Aniento
The K/HDEL receptor ERD2 mediates the transport of soluble endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident proteins containing a C-terminal K/HDEL signal from the Golgi apparatus back to the ER via COPI (COat Protein I)-coated vesicles. Sorting of ERD2 within COPI vesicles is facilitated by p24 proteins. In particular, Arabidopsis p24δ5 has been shown to interact directly with ERD2 (via its luminal GOLD -GOLgi Dynamics- domain) and with COPI proteins (via its cytoplasmic C-terminal tail) at the acidic pH of the Golgi apparatus...
July 19, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733285/transcriptional-modulation-of-transport-and-metabolism-associated-gene-clusters-leading-to-utilization-of-benzoate-in-preference-to-glucose-in-pseudomonas-putida-csv86
#5
Alpa Choudhary, Arnab Modak, Shree K Apte, Prashant S Phale
The effective elimination of xenobiotic pollutants from the environment can be achieved by efficient degradation by microorganisms even in the presence of sugars or organic acids. Pseudomonas putida CSV86 displays a unique property to utilize aromatic compounds prior to glucose. The draft genome and transcription analyses revealed that glucose uptake and benzoate transport and metabolism genes are clustered at glc and ben loci, respectively, as two distinct operons. When grown on glucose+benzoate, CSV86 displayed significantly higher expression of ben locus in the first- and glc locus in the second-log phase...
July 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732810/the-interaction-of-auraptene-and-other-oxyprenylated-phenylpropanoids-with-glucose-transporter-type-4
#6
Salvatore Genovese, Hitoshi Ashida, Yoko Yamashita, Tomoya Nakgano, Masaki Ikeda, Shirasaya Daishi, Francesco Epifano, Vito Alessandro Taddeo, Serena Fiorito
BACKGROUND: Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is firmly established to play a pivotal role in glucose metabolism and in particular in modulating the insulin-stimulated glucose transport in several tissues, such as skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Stimulation of GLUT4 by insulin results in its translocation to the plasma membrane, activation of several kinases, and finally in a large glucose influx into cells. PURPOSE: In this study we investigated the modulating properties of four biologically active oxyprenylated ferulic acid and umbelliferone derivatives and of their unprenylated parent compounds on GLUT-4 mediated glucose uptake and translocation...
August 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731580/rewiring-the-glucose-transportation-and-central-metabolic-pathways-for-overproduction-of-n-acetylglucosamine-in-bacillus-subtilis
#7
Yang Gu, Jieying Deng, Yanfeng Liu, Jianghua Li, Hyun-Dong Shin, Guocheng Du, Jian Chen, Long Liu
N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is an important amino sugar extensively used in the healthcare field. in a previous study, we constructed the recombinant Bacillus subtilis strain BSGN6-PxylA -glmS-pP43NMK-GNA1 (BN0-GNA1) for microbial production of GlcNAc by pathway design and modular optimization. Here, we further improved the production of GlcNAc by rewiring both the glucose transportation and central metabolic pathways. First, the phosphotransferase system (PTS) was blocked by deletion of three genes, yyzE (encoding the PTS system transporter subunit iiA YyzE), ypqE (encoding the PTS system transporter subunit iiA YpqE), and ptsG (encoding the PTS system glucose-specific EiiCBA component), resulting in 47...
July 21, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731563/improving-fructose-utilization-and-butanol-production-by-clostridium-acetobutylicum-via-extracellular-redox-potential-regulation-and-intracellular-metabolite-analysis
#8
Li-Jie Chen, You-Duo Wu, Chuang Xue, Feng-Wu Bai
Jerusalem artichoke (JA) can grow well in marginal lands with high biomass yield, and thus is a potential energy crop for biorefinery. The major biomass of JA is from tubers, which contain inulin that can be easily hydrolyzed into a mixture of fructose and glucose, but fructose utilization for producing butanol as an advanced biofuel is poor compared to glucose-based ABE fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. In this article, the impact of extracellular redox potential (ORP) on the process was studied using a mixture of fructose and glucose to simulate the hydrolysate of JA tubers...
July 21, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726639/mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-in-drosophila-transfers-calcium-between-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-mitochondria-in-oxidative-stress-induced-cell-death
#9
Sekyu Choi, Xianglan Quan, Sunhoe Bang, Heesuk Yoo, Jiyoung Kim, Jiwon Park, Kyu-Sang Park, Jongkyeong Chung
Mitochondrial calcium plays critical roles in diverse cellular processes ranging from energy metabolism to cell death. Previous studies have demonstrated that mitochondrial calcium uptake is mainly mediated by the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) complex. However, the roles of the MCU complex in calcium transport, signaling, and dysregulation by oxidative stress still remain unclear. Here, we confirmed that Drosophila MCU contains evolutionarily conserved structures and requires essential MCU regulator (EMRE) for its calcium channel activities...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725232/transcriptome-wide-identification-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-solanum-lycopersicon-l-in-response-to-an-alfalfa-protein-hydrolysate-using-microarrays
#10
Andrea Ertani, Michela Schiavon, Serenella Nardi
An alfalfa-based protein hydrolysate (EM) has been tested in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) plants at two different concentrations (0.1 and 1 mL L(-1)) to get insight on its efficacy as biostimulant in this species and to unravel possible metabolic targets and molecular mechanisms that may shed light on its mode of action. EM was efficient in promoting the fresh biomass and content in chlorophyll and soluble sugars of tomato plants, especially when it was applied at the concentration of 1 mL L(-1). This effect on plant productivity was likely related to the EM-dependent up-regulation of genes identified via microarray and involved in primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis, nutrient uptake and developmental processes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724701/integrative-physiology-of-transcellular-and-paracellular-intestinal-absorption
#11
REVIEW
William H Karasov
Glucose absorption by the small intestine has been studied for nearly a century. Despite extensive knowledge about the identity, functioning and regulation of the relevant transporters, there has been and there remains controversy about how these transporters work in concert to determine the overall epithelial absorption of key nutrients (e.g. sugars, amino acids) over a wide range of dietary and/or luminal concentrations. Our broader, integrative understanding of intestinal absorption requires more than the reductionist dissection of all the components and their elaboration at molecular and genetic levels...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719478/a-review-of-nonfatal-drowning-in-the-pediatric-age-group-a-10-year-experience-at-a-university-hospital-in-saudi-arabia
#12
Faisal O Al-Qurashi, Abdullah A Yousef, Abdullah Aljoudi, Saleh M Alzahrani, Nasser Y Al-Jawder, Abdulrahman K Al-Ahmar, Mosab S Al-Majed, Hussam M Abouollo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nonfatal drowning experience, risk factors, intrahospital assessment and postincidental outcomes for children admitted to King Fahd Hospital of the University, AlKhobar, Saudi Arabia, over a 10-year period. METHODS: Children up to the age of 14 years who were admitted with the diagnosis of nonfatal drowning from July 2005 to June 2015 were included. Data regarding demographics, timing, season and location of drowning, presence of an assigned lifeguard, duration of submersion and transport to hospital, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, initial Glasgow Coma Scale, temperature, pH, blood sugar level, total hospital stay, and discharge status were extrapolated, and their effects on the patient's outcome analyzed...
July 17, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716923/molecular-mechanism-of-environmental-d-xylose-perception-by-a-xylfii-lyts-complex-in-bacteria
#13
Jianxu Li, Chengyuan Wang, Gaohua Yang, Zhe Sun, Hui Guo, Kai Shao, Yang Gu, Weihong Jiang, Peng Zhang
d-xylose, the main building block of plant biomass, is a pentose sugar that can be used by bacteria as a carbon source for bio-based fuel and chemical production through fermentation. In bacteria, the first step for d-xylose metabolism is signal perception at the membrane. We previously identified a three-component system in Firmicutes bacteria comprising a membrane-associated sensor protein (XylFII), a transmembrane histidine kinase (LytS) for periplasmic d-xylose sensing, and a cytoplasmic response regulator (YesN) that activates the transcription of the target ABC transporter xylFGH genes to promote the uptake of d-xylose...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713408/transcriptome-analyses-shed-new-insights-into-primary-metabolism-and-regulation-of-blumeria-graminis-f-sp-tritici-during-conidiation
#14
Fan-Song Zeng, Fabrizio Menardo, Min-Feng Xue, Xue-Jiang Zhang, Shuang-Jun Gong, Li-Jun Yang, Wen-Qi Shi, Da-Zhao Yu
Conidia of the obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) play a vital role in its survival and rapid dispersal. However, little is known about the genetic basis for its asexual reproduction. To uncover the primary metabolic and regulatory events during conidiation, we sequenced the transcriptome of Bgt epiphytic structures at 3 (vegetative hyphae growth), 4 (foot cells initiation), and 5 (conidiophore erection) days post-inoculation (dpi). RNA-seq analyses identified 556 and 404 (combined 685) differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 4 and 5 dpi compared with their expression levels at 3 dpi, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711856/rnaseq-based-transcriptome-comparison-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strains-isolated-from-diverse-fermentative-environments
#15
Clara Ibáñez, Roberto Pérez-Torrado, Miguel Morard, Christina Toft, Eladio Barrio, Amparo Querol
Transcriptome analyses play a central role in unraveling the complexity of gene expression regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This species, one of the most important microorganisms for humans given its industrial applications, shows an astonishing degree of genetic and phenotypic variability among different strains adapted to specific environments. In order to gain novel insights into the Saccharomyces cerevisiae biology of strains adapted to different fermentative environments, we analyzed the whole transcriptome of three strains isolated from wine, flor wine or mezcal fermentations...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710276/atp-binding-and-hydrolysis-disrupts-the-high-affinity-interaction-between-the-heme-abc-transporter-hmuuv-and-its-cognate-substrate-binding-protein
#16
Hiba Qasem Abdullah, Michal Perach, Nurit Livnat-Levanon, Oded Lewinson
Using the energy of ATP hydrolysis ABC transporters catalyze the trans-membrane transport of molecules. In bacteria they partner with a high affinity substrate binding protein (SBP) to import essential micronutrients. ATP binding by Type-I ABC transporters (importers of amino acids, sugars, peptides, small ions) stabilizes the interaction between the transporter and the SBP, thus allowing transfer of the substrate from the latter to the former. In Type-II ABC transporters (importers of trace elements, e.g., vitamin B12, heme, iron-siderophores) the role of ATP remains debatable...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710263/enzymatic-mechanism-for-arabinan-degradation-and-transport-in-the-thermophilic-bacterium-caldanaerobius-polysaccharolyticus
#17
Daniel Wefers, Jia Dong, Ahmed M Abdel-Hamid, Hans Müller Paul, Gabriel V Pereira, Yejun Han, Dylan Dodd, Ramiya Baskaran, Beth Mayer, Roderick I Mackie, Isaac Cann
The plant cell wall polysaccharide arabinan is an important supply of arabinose, and unraveling arabinan degrading strategies by microbes is important for understanding its use as a source of energy. Here, we explored the arabinan degrading enzymes in the thermophilic bacterium Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus and identified a gene cluster encoding two glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 51 α-L-arabinofuranosidases (CpAbf51A, CpAbf51B), a GH43 endo-arabinanase (CpAbn43A), a GH27 β-L-arabinopyranosidase (CpAbp27A), and two GH127 β-L-arabinofuranosidases (CpAbf127A, CpAbf127B)...
July 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704953/sugar-metabolism-in-hummingbirds-and-nectar-bats
#18
REVIEW
Raul K Suarez, Kenneth C Welch
Hummingbirds and nectar bats coevolved with the plants they visit to feed on floral nectars rich in sugars. The extremely high metabolic costs imposed by small size and hovering flight in combination with reliance upon sugars as their main source of dietary calories resulted in convergent evolution of a suite of structural and functional traits. These allow high rates of aerobic energy metabolism in the flight muscles, fueled almost entirely by the oxidation of dietary sugars, during flight. High intestinal sucrase activities enable high rates of sucrose hydrolysis...
July 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695409/selection-and-validation-of-reference-genes-for-rt-qpcr-indicates-that-juice-of-sugarcane-varieties-modulate-the-expression-of-c-metabolism-genes-in-the-endophytic-diazotrophic-herbaspirillum-rubrisubalbicans-strain-hcc103
#19
Valéria Polese, Cleiton de Paula Soares, Paula Renata Alves da Silva, Jean Luiz Simões-Araújo, José Ivo Baldani, Marcia Soares Vidal
Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) is an important tool for evaluating gene expression. However, this technique requires that specific internal normalizing genes be identified for different experimental conditions. To date, no internal normalizing genes are available for validation of data analyses for Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans strain HCC103, an endophyte that is part of the sugarcane consortium inoculant. This work seeks to identify and evaluate suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in HCC103 grown until middle log phase in sugarcane juice obtained from four sugarcane varieties or media with three different carbon sources...
July 10, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692262/the-family-of-ricinus-communis-monosaccharide-transporters-and-the-rcstp1-in-promoting-the-uptake-of-a-glucose-fipronil-conjugate
#20
Gen-Lin Mao, Ying Yan, Yan Chen, Bing-Feng Wang, Fei-Fei Xu, Zhi-Xiang Zhang, Fei Lin, Han-Hong Xu
Enhancement of the systemic distribution of a chemical control agent by exploiting the normal movement of a solute through a plant's vascular system will surely increase its efficacy, and thereby allows for a reduction in both the volume and frequency of their application. Foliar uptake and phloem transport of N-[3-cyano-1-[2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4-[(trifluoromethyl)sulfinyl]-1H-pyrazol-5-yl]-1-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-methanamine (GTF), a glucose-fipronil conjugate, involved a carrier-mediated mechanism in Ricinus communis by utilizing castor bean monosaccharide transporters...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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