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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549159/a-non-photosynthetic-diatom-reveals-early-steps-of-reductive-evolution-in-plastids
#1
Ryoma Kamikawa, Daniel Moog, Stefan Zauner, Goro Tanifuji, Ken-Ichiro Ishida, Hideaki Miyashita, Shigeki Mayama, Tetsuo Hashimoto, Uwe-G Maier, John M Archibald, Yuji Inagaki
Non-photosynthetic plastids retain important biological functions and are indispensable for cell viability. However, the detailed processes underlying the loss of plastidal functions other than photosynthesis remain to be fully understood. In this study, we used transcriptomics, subcellular localization, and phylogenetic analyses to characterize the biochemical complexity of the non-photosynthetic plastids of the apochlorotic diatom Nitzschia sp. NIES-3581. We found that these plastids have lost isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) biosynthesis and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO)-based carbon fixation but have retained various proteins for other metabolic pathways, including amino acid biosynthesis, and a portion of the Calvin-Benson cycle comprised only of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, and the reductive pentose phosphate pathway (rPPP)...
May 26, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545086/cancer-cell-spheroids-are-a-better-screen-for-the-photodynamic-efficiency-of-glycosylated-photosensitizers
#2
Patrícia M R Pereira, Naxhije Berisha, N V S Dinesh K Bhupathiraju, Rosa Fernandes, João P C Tomé, Charles Michael Drain
Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) relies on the use of non-toxic photosensitizers that are locally and selectively activated by light to induce cell death or apoptosis through reactive oxygen species generation. The conjugation of porphyrinoids with sugars that target cancer is increasingly viewed as an effective way to increase the selectivity of PDT. To date, in vitro PDT efficacy is mostly screened using two-dimensional monolayer cultures. Compared to monolayer cultures, three-dimensional spheroid cultures have unique spatial distributions of nutrients, metabolites, oxygen and signalling molecules; therefore better mimic in vivo conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542523/impact-of-maintenance-immunosuppressive-therapy-on-the-fecal-microbiome-of-renal-transplant-recipients-comparison-between-an-everolimus-and-a-standard-tacrolimus-based-regimen
#3
Gianluigi Zaza, Alessandra Dalla Gassa, Giovanna Felis, Simona Granata, Sandra Torriani, Antonio Lupo
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome is the full set of microbes living in the gastrointestinal tract and is emerging as an important dynamic/fluid system that, if altered by environmental, dietetic or pharmacological factors, could considerably influence drug response. However, the immunosuppressive drug-induced modifications of this system are still poorly defined. METHODS: We employed an innovative bioinformatics approach to assess differences in the whole-gut microbial metagenomic profile of 20 renal transplant recipients undergoing maintenance treatment with two different immunosuppressive protocols...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534307/acanthus-ilicifolius-l-a-promising-candidate-for-phytostabilization-of-zinc
#4
A M Shackira, Jos T Puthur, E Nabeesa Salim
The potential of a halophyte species-Acanthus ilicifolius L.-to phytostabilize zinc (Zn) grown under hydroponics culture conditions was critically evaluated in this study. The propagules after treating with ZnSO4 (4 mM) were analysed for the bioaccumulation pattern, translocation rate of Zn to the shoot, effects of Zn accumulation on organic solutes and the antioxidant defence system. It was found that most of the Zn absorbed by the plant was retained in the root (47%) and only a small portion was transported to stem (12%) and leaves (11%)...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533358/role-of-type-2-nad-p-h-dehydrogenase-ndbc-in-regulation-of-carbon-allocation-in-synechocystis-6803
#5
Tuomas Huokko, Dorota Muth-Pawlak, Natalia Battchikova, Yagut Allahverdiyeva, Eva-Mari Aro
NAD(P)H dehydrogenases comprise type 1 (NDH-1) and type 2 (NDH-2s) enzymes. Even though the NDH-1 complex is a well characterized protein complex in the thylakoid membrane of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (hereafter Synechocystis) the exact roles of different NDH2s remain poorly understood. To elucidate this question we studied the function of NdbC, one of the three NDH-2s in Synechocystis, by constructing a deletion mutant (ΔndbC) for corresponding protein and submitting the mutant to physiological and biochemical characterisation as well as to comprehensive proteomics analysis...
May 22, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527765/lignocellulosic-sugar-management-for-xylitol-and-ethanol-fermentation-with-multiple-cell-recycling-by-kluyveromyces-marxianus-iipe453
#6
Diptarka Dasgupta, Debashish Ghosh, Sheetal Bandhu, Dilip K Adhikari
Optimum utilization of fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass to deliver multiple products under biorefinery concept has been reported in this work. Alcohol fermentation has been carried out with multiple cell recycling of Kluyveromyces marxianus IIPE453. The yeast utilized xylose-rich fraction from acid and steam treated biomass for cell generation and xylitol production with an average yield of 0.315±0.01g/g while the entire glucose rich saccharified fraction had been fermented to ethanol with high productivity of 0...
July 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526983/low-source-sink-ratio-reduces-reserve-starch-in-grapevine-woody-canes-and-modulates-sugar-transport-and-metabolism-at-transcriptional-and-enzyme-activity-levels
#7
Angélica Silva, Henrique Noronha, Zhanwu Dai, Serge Delrot, Hernâni Gerós
Severe leaf removal decreases storage starch and sucrose in grapevine cv. Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings and modulates the activity of key enzymes and the expression of sugar transporter genes. Leaf removal is an agricultural practice that has been shown to modify vineyard efficiency and grape and wine composition. In this study, we took advantage of the ability to precisely control the number of leaves to fruits in Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings to study the effect of source-sink ratios (2 (2L), 6 (6L) and 12 (12) leaves per cluster) on starch metabolism and accumulation...
May 19, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526726/are-phloem-sieve-tubes-leaky-conduits-supported-by-numerous-aquaporins
#8
Ryan C Stanfield, Uwe G Hacke, Joan Laur
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Aquaporin membrane water channels have been previously identified in the phloem of angiosperms, but currently their cellular characterization is lacking, especially in tree species. Pinpointing the cellular location will help generate new hypotheses of how membrane water exchange facilitates sugar transport in plants. METHODS: We studied histological sections of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.) in leaf, petiole, and stem organs. Immuno-labeling techniques were used to characterize the distribution of PIP1 and PIP2 subfamilies of aquaporins along the phloem pathway...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525299/early-diverging-fungi-diversity-and-impact-at-the-dawn-of-terrestrial-life
#9
Mary L Berbee, Timothy Y James, Christine Strullu-Derrien
As decomposers or plant pathogens, fungi deploy invasive growth and powerful carbohydrate active enzymes to reduce multicellular plant tissues to humus and simple sugars. Fungi are perhaps also the most important mutualistic symbionts in modern ecosystems, transporting poorly soluble mineral nutrients to plants and thus enhancing the growth of vegetation. However, at their origin over a billion years ago, fungus-like plants and animals were unicellular marine microbes. Like the other multicellular kingdoms, Fungi evolved increased size, complexity, and metabolic functioning...
May 19, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522226/electron-crystallography-reveals-that-substrate-release-from-the-pts-iic-glucose-transporter-is-coupled-to-a-subtle-conformational-change
#10
David Kalbermatter, Po-Lin Chiu, Jean-Marc Jeckelmann, Zöhre Ucurum, Thomas Walz, Dimitrios Fotiadis
The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a structurally and functionally complex system that mediates sugar uptake in bacteria. Besides several soluble subunits, the glucose-specific PTS includes the integral membrane protein IICB that couples the transmembrane transport of glucose to its phosphorylation. Here, we used electron crystallography of sugar-embedded tubular crystals of the glucose-specific IIC transport domain from Escherichia coli (ecIIC(glc)) to visualize the structure of the transporter in the presence and absence of its substrate...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513687/modeling-dna-oxidation-in-water
#11
Amedeo Capobianco, Alessandro Landi, Andrea Peluso
A novel set of hole-site energies and electronic coupling parameters to be used, in the framework of the simplest tight-binding approximation, for predicting DNA hole trapping efficiencies and rates of hole transport in oxidized DNA is proposed. The novel parameters, significantly different from those previously reported in the literature, have been inferred from reliable density functional calculations, including both the sugar-phosphate ionic backbone and the effects of the aqueous environment. It is shown that most of the experimental oxidation free energies of DNA tracts and of oligonucleotides available from photoelectron spectroscopy and voltammetric measurements are reproduced with great accuracy, without the need for introducing sequence dependent parameters...
May 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512179/cooperative-regulatory-functions-of-mir858-and-myb83-during-cyst-nematode-parasitism
#12
Sarbottam Piya, Christina Kihm, J Hollis Rice, Thomas J Baum, Tarek Hewezi
microRNAs (miRNAs) recently have been established as key regulators of transcriptome reprogramming that defines cell function and identity. Nevertheless, the molecular functions of the greatest number of miRNA genes remain to be determined. Here, we report cooperative regulatory functions of miR858 and its MYB83 transcription factor target gene in transcriptome reprogramming during Heterodera cyst nematode parasitism of Arabidopsis. Gene expression analyses and promoter-GUS fusion assays documented a role of miR858 in post-transcriptional regulation of MYB83 in the Heterodera schachtii-induced feeding sites, the syncytia...
May 16, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511796/attenuation-of-deregulated-mir-369-3p-expression-sensitizes-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-to-cisplatin-via-modulation-of-the-nucleotide-sugar-transporter-slc35f5
#13
Guang-Jun Hao, Yan-Hui Ding, Hui Wen, Xiao-Feng Li, Wei Zhang, Hu-Yan Su, Dong-Mei Liu, Nian-Lin Xie
Deregulation of the microRNAs (miRNAs), a cluster of important posttranscriptional regulators, has been frequently associated with lung cancer (LCa). However, the emerging mechanism for how miRNAs is linked causally in the development of LCa chemoresistance is poorly understood. Herein, we established for the time the up-regulation of miR-369-3p in cisplatin (DDP)-resistant nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues and cells. Its deregulation was found to be correlated to the magnitude of malignancy in well-characterized LCa cells...
May 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506526/molecular-simulation-and-biochemical-studies-support-an-elevator-type-transport-mechanism-in%C3%A2-eiic
#14
Jumin Lee, Zhenning Ren, Ming Zhou, Wonpil Im
Enzyme IIC (EIIC) is a membrane-embedded sugar transport protein that is part of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferases. Crystal structures of two members of the glucose EIIC superfamily, bcChbC in the inward-facing conformation and bcMalT in the outward-facing conformation, were previously solved. Comparing the two structures led us to the hypothesis that sugar translocation could be achieved by an elevator-type transport mechanism in which a transport domain binds to the substrate and, through rigid body motions, transports it across the membrane...
May 13, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499643/pharmacokinetic-profile-of-bilberry-anthocyanins-in-rats-and-the-role-of-glucose-transporters-lc-ms-ms-and-computational-studies
#15
G Baron, A Altomare, L Regazzoni, V Redaelli, S Grandi, A Riva, P Morazzoni, A Mazzolari, M Carini, G Vistoli, G Aldini
The aim of the present investigation was to better understand the pharmacokinetic profile of bilberry (Vaccinium Myrtillus) anthocyanins and the role of glucose transporters (sGLT1 and GLUT2) on their absorption. In particular, the absorption of 15 different anthocyanins contained in a standardized bilberry extract (Mirtoselect(®)) was measured in rats by a validated LC-ESI-MS/MS approach. The plasma concentration peak (Cmax) of 11.1ng/mL was reached after 30min and fasting condition significantly increased the bioavailability of anthocyanins by more than 7 fold in respect to fed rats...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490771/some-dietary-factors-can-modulate-the-effect-of-the-zinc-transporters-8-polymorphism-on-the-risk-of-metabolic-syndrome
#16
Firoozeh Hosseini-Esfahani, Parvin Mirmiran, Gelareh Koochakpoor, Maryam S Daneshpour, Kamran Guity, Fereidoun Azizi
There are conflicting data on the impact of zinc transporter 8 (ZNT8) gene variations on the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Hence, the effects of the interaction between rs13266634 and dietary factors on the risk of MetS were investigated in this study. Subjects of this nested case-control study were selected from the participants in Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Each of the cases (n = 817) was individually matched with a control. Dietary patterns were determined using factor analysis. The ZNT8 rs13266634 were genotyped by the Tetra-refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction analysis...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488188/spring-bud-growth-depends-on-sugar-delivery-by-xylem-and-water-recirculation-by-phloem-m%C3%A3-nch-flow-in-juglans-regia
#17
Aude Tixier, Or Sperling, Jessica Orozco, Bruce Lampinen, Adele Amico Roxas, Sebastian Saa, J Mason Earles, Maciej A Zwieniecki
During spring, bud growth relies on long-distance transport of remotely stored carbohydrates. A new hypothesis suggests this transport is achieved by the interplay of xylem and phloem. During the spring, carbohydrate demand of developing buds often exceeds locally available storage, thus requiring the translocation of sugars from distant locations like limbs, stems and roots. Both the phloem and xylem have the capacity for such long-distance transport, but their functional contribution is unclear. To address this ambiguity, the spatial and temporal dynamics of carbohydrate availability in extension shoots of Juglans regia L...
May 9, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486119/plant-physiology-unveiling-the-dark-side-of-phloem-translocation
#18
Elisabeth Truernit
Sugars and other macromolecules arrive in heterotrophic plant tissues through the phloem, a long-distance transport system. Owing to a recent study, we now have a better understanding of how these molecules exit the phloem at their final destinations.
May 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485150/acyclic-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-tripeptides-with-fluorinated-and-nonfluorinated-furanoid-sugar-framework-importance-of-fluoro-substituent-in-reverse-turn-induced-self-assembly-and-transmembrane-ion-transport-activity
#19
Sachin S Burade, Sopan Valiba Shinde, Naresh Bhuma, Navanath Kumbhar, Amol Kotmale, Pattuparambil R Rajamohanan, Rajesh G Gonnade, Pinaki Talukdar, Dilip D Dhavale
Acyclic αγα-tripeptides derived from fluorinated-furanoid sugar amino acid frameworks act as reverse-turn inducers with a U-shaped conformation, whereas the corresponding nonfluorinated αγα-tripeptides show random peptide conformations. The NMR studies showed the presence of bifurcated weak intramolecular hydrogen bonding (F···HN) and N(+)···F(δ-) charge-dipole attraction compel the amide carbonyl groups to orient antiperiplanar to the C-F bond, thus, demonstrating the role of the fluorine substituent in stabilizing the U-shaped conformation...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481247/epigenetic-bases-of-aberrant-glycosylation-in-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Fabio Dall'Olio, Marco Trinchera
In this review, the sugar portions of glycoproteins, glycolipids, and glycosaminoglycans constitute the glycome, and the genes involved in their biosynthesis, degradation, transport and recognition are referred to as "glycogenes". The extreme complexity of the glycome requires the regulatory layer to be provided by the epigenetic mechanisms. Almost all types of cancers present glycosylation aberrations, giving rise to phenotypic changes and to the expression of tumor markers. In this review, we discuss how cancer-associated alterations of promoter methylation, histone methylation/acetylation, and miRNAs determine glycomic changes associated with the malignant phenotype...
May 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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