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Pregnancy and cardiovascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455772/prenatal-diagnosis-of-congenital-heart-disease-a-review-of-current-knowledge
#1
REVIEW
Nathalie Jeanne Bravo-Valenzuela, Alberto Borges Peixoto, Edward Araujo Júnior
This article reviews important features to improve the diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) by applying ultrasound in prenatal cardiac screening. As low and high-risk pregnancies for CHD are subject to routine obstetric ultrasound, the diagnosis of structural heart defects represents a challenge that involves a team of specialists and subspecialists on fetal ultrasonography. In this review, the images highlight normal anatomy of the heart as well as pathologic cases consistent with cardiac malposition and isomerism, septal defects, pulmonary stenosis/atresia, aortic malformations, hypoplastic left ventricle, conotruncal anomalies, tricuspid dysplasia, and Ebstein's anomaly, and univentricular heart, among other congenital cardiovascular defects...
January 2018: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452892/association-of-breastfeeding-duration-with-dyslipidemia-in-women-aged-over-20-years-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2010-2014
#2
Sunyoung Cho, Euna Han
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of dyslipidemia, particularly hypercholesterolemia, has been reported to increase after pregnancy and menopause in Korea. This suggests the importance of the management of dyslipidemia in women for preventing cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association of breastfeeding with 5 subtypes of dyslipidemia in Korean women aged over 20 years, by using the nationally representative Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2014...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449706/pre-pregnancy-endothelial-dysfunction-and-birth-outcomes-the-coronary-artery-risk-development-in-young-adults-cardia-study
#3
Abbi D Lane-Cordova, Erica P Gunderson, Mercedes R Carnethon, Janet M Catov, Alex P Reiner, Cora E Lewis, Annie M Dude, Philip Greenland, David R Jacobs
Endothelial dysfunction is a form of subclinical cardiovascular disease that may be involved in preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age deliveries. However, concentrations of biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction before pregnancy have rarely been measured. We hypothesized that higher levels of biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction (cellular adhesion molecules and selectins) would be associated with odds of preterm birth and/or small-for-gestational-age deliveries. We included 235 women from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study who were nulliparous at Y7, reported ≥1 live birth through Y25, and had ≥1 biomarker measured at Y7...
February 15, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446836/adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-and-future-maternal-cardiovascular-disease
#4
REVIEW
Alisse Hauspurg, Wendy Ying, Carl A Hubel, Erin D Michos, Pamela Ouyang
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death in women. Although traditional risk factors increase later-life CVD, pregnancy-associated complications additionally influence future CVD risk in women. Recent guidelines for the prevention of CVD in women have added adverse pregnancy outcomes as major CVD risk factors. Studies have shown that women with a history of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm delivery, and delivery of a small-for-gestational-age infant have an increased risk of developing cardiometabolic risk factors and subsequent CVD...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443421/diabetes-uk-evidence-based-nutrition-guidelines-for-the-prevention-and-management-of-diabetes
#5
P A Dyson, D Twenefour, C Breen, A Duncan, E Elvin, L Goff, A Hill, P Kalsi, N Marsland, P McCardle, D Mellor, L Oliver, K Watson
A summary of the latest evidence-based nutrition guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes is presented. These guidelines are based on existing recommendations last published in 2011, and were formulated by an expert panel of specialist dietitians after a literature review of recent evidence. Recommendations have been made in terms of foods rather than nutrients wherever possible. Guidelines for education and care delivery, prevention of Type 2 diabetes, glycaemic control for Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease risk management, management of diabetes-related complications, other considerations including comorbidities, nutrition support, pregnancy and lactation, eating disorders, micronutrients, food supplements, functional foods, commercial diabetic foods and nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners are included...
February 14, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435277/methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase-gene-c677t-and-a1298c-polymorphisms-and-susceptibility-to-recurrent-pregnancy-loss
#6
Domenico Dell'Edera, Antonella L'Episcopia, Francesca Simone, Maria Giovanna Lupo, Annunziata Anna Epifania, Arianna Allegretti
Several studies have investigated the link between two different polymorphisms (C677T and A1298T) of the gene encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and the risk of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL); however, the results remain controversial. This study aimed to provide greater insight into this debated topic. In the current study, two groups of pregnant women (group A: RPL women; group B: non-RPL women), each of which were subdivided further into two subgroups based on their gestational age, were screened for C677T and A1298T variants of the MTHFR gene...
February 2018: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421161/therapies-for-gestational-diabetes-and-their-implications-for-maternal-and-offspring-health-evidence-from-human-and-animal-studies
#7
REVIEW
Gabriel M Brawerman, Vernon W Dolinsky
Obesity prior to and during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of complications during pregnancy. One of the most common complications of pregnancy is gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a condition characterized by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance that is diagnosed in the third trimester of pregnancy. GDM predisposes both mothers and their children to increased obesity and cardiometabolic disorders, namely type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Current treatments include lifestyle changes and insulin injections, but oral anti-diabetic drugs such as metformin and glyburide are increasingly prescribed as they do not require injections...
February 5, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419921/the-evolving-contribution-of-non-communicable-diseases-ncds-to-maternal-mortality-in-jamaica-1998-2015-a-population-based-study
#8
Affette M McCaw-Binns, Leroy V Campbell, Simone S Spence
OBJECTIVE: Describe trends in indirect cause-specific pregnancy-related mortality from 1998-2015. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of annual, national cross-sectional database of maternal and late maternal deaths, identified through active surveillance of deaths among women 10-50 years. SETTING: Jamaica, a middle-income Caribbean country. POPULATION: Maternal and late maternal deaths. METHODS: Descriptive trend analyses of demographic and cause-specific maternal and pregnancy-related mortality ratios undertaken comparing the periods 1998-2003, 2004-9 and 2010-15...
February 8, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410188/blunted-cerebral-oxygenation-during-exercise-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-associations-with-macrovascular-function-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#9
Evangelia Kintiraki, Konstantina Dipla, Areti Triantafyllou, Nikolaos Koletsos, Iris Grigoriadou, Pavlos Poulakos, Vasileios Sachpekidis, Ioannis S Vrabas, Andreas Zafeiridis, Eleni Bili, Stella Douma, Dimitrios G Goulis
AIM / HYPOTHESIS: This cross-sectional, observational, controlled study examined cerebral oxygenation during exercise, an index of cerebrovascular function and cortical activation, in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and unaffected pregnancies. The association of cerebral oxygenation with macrovascular and cardiovascular function indices was also evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Vascular function and structure [aortic pulse-wave-velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AI), carotid intima-media thickness], as well as 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) were assessed in women with GDM (n = 21) and uncomplicated pregnancies (n = 16), at 26-32 gestational weeks...
February 1, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406939/cardiovascular-disease-in-women
#10
REVIEW
Elizabeth Anne Leonard, Robert James Marshall
Cardiovascular disease in women as a distinct disease entity is underappreciated relative to other female-specific diseases. A perception that cardiovascular disease affects men more commonly and a lack of understanding about the underlying pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease in women contribute to this phenomenon. Hormonal changes, pregnancy-related conditions, and cancer therapies have an impact on endothelial function, vascular anatomy, and myocardial contractility. Women with heart disease often present later, receive care not consistent with accepted guidelines, and have less access to diagnostic and therapeutic resources...
March 2018: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396261/maternal-lipid-profile-6-years-after-a-gestational-hypertensive-disorder
#11
Laura Benschop, Nienke E Bergen, Sarah Schalekamp-Timmermans, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Monique T Mulder, Eric A P Steegers, Jeanine E Roeters van Lennep
BACKGROUND: Gestational hypertensive disorders (GHDs), including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life, possibly through an atherogenic lipid profile. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess if women with a previous GHD have a more atherogenic lipid profile 6 years after pregnancy compared to women with a previous normotensive pregnancy. METHODS: In a population-based prospective cohort study, we included 4933 women during pregnancy, including 302 women with a GHD...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385062/a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-trial-investigating-the-effect-of-fish-oil-supplementation-on-gene-expression-related-to-insulin-action-blood-lipids-and-inflammation-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-fish-oil-supplementation-and-gestational-diabetes
#12
Mehri Jamilian, Mansooreh Samimi, Naghmeh Mirhosseini, Faraneh Afshar Ebrahimi, Esmat Aghadavod, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Zatollah Asemi
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common complication of pregnancy, and it is mostly associated with postpartum diabetes, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Fish oil (omega-3) supplementation has been shown to reduce the risk of different chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancers, though the evidence of its impact on gestational diabetes is scarce. Our goal in this study was to determine the effect of fish oil administration on gene expression related to insulin action, blood lipids, and inflammation in women with GDM...
January 31, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379948/mid-and-long-term-health-risks-in-living-kidney-donors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Linda M O'Keeffe, Anna Ramond, Clare Oliver-Williams, Peter Willeit, Ellie Paige, Patrick Trotter, Jonathan Evans, Jonas Wadström, Michael Nicholson, Dave Collett, Emanuele Di Angelantonio
Background: Long-term health risks for adults who donate kidneys are unclear. Purpose: To summarize evidence about mid- and long-term health risks associated with living kidney donation in adults. Data Sources: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and PsycINFO without language restriction from April 1964 to July 2017. Study Selection: Observational studies with at least 1 year of follow-up that compared health outcomes in adult living kidney donors versus nondonor populations...
January 30, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377113/lga-newborn-from-patients-with-pregestational-obesity-present-reduced-adiponectin-mediated-vascular-relaxation-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-fetoplacental-arteries
#14
E C Muñoz-Muñoz, B J Krause, R Uauy, P Casanello
Maternal obesity is associated with large-for-gestational-age (LGA) neonates and programming of obesity-related cardiovascular disease in the offspring, however, the mechanisms that lead to the later are unclear. Presently, interpretations of NO-dependent changes in vascular function in LGA newborn from obese mothers are conflicting. Adiponectin improves endothelial function by increasing eNOS activity and NO production. We propose that LGAs from obese mothers present a diminished vascular response to adiponectin; thus, affecting eNOS and AMPK activation...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373330/the-importance-of-cohort-research-starting-early-in-life-to-understanding-child-health
#15
Nigel Paneth, Catherine Monk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review addresses the importance of the prospective cohort design in large, unselected populations starting early in life for understanding the origins of childhood health disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Cohort studies originating in healthy populations have contributed to great advances in health, especially in cardiovascular diseases, but have only recently been applied systematically to study the origins of childhood disorders. Several large population-based pregnancy and/or birth cohorts have been developed in different parts of the world, and these are beginning to contribute to better understanding of the underlying causes of rare but important childhood disorders, such as autism...
January 25, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373045/maternal-high-fat-diet-acts-on-the-brain-to-induce-baroreflex-dysfunction-and-sensitization-of-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertension-in-adult-offspring
#16
Yu-Ping Zhang, Yan-Li Huo, Zhi-Qin Fang, Xue-Fang Wang, Jian-Dong Li, Hai-Ping Wang, Wei Peng, Alan Kim Johnson, Baojian Xue
Accumulating evidence indicates that maternal high fat diet (HFD) is associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in adult offspring. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal HFD modulates the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS), oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines that alter angiotensin II and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) actions and sensitize the angiotensin II-elicited hypertensive response in adult offspring. All offspring were cross-fostered by dams on the same or opposite diet to yield 4 groups: offspring from normal fat control diet (CD)-fed dams suckled by CD-fed dams (OCC) or by HFD-fed dams (OCH), and offspring from HFD-fed dams fed HFD suckled by CD-fed dams (OHC) or by HFD-fed dams (OHH)...
January 26, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372537/sex-and-management-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#17
REVIEW
Ennio Giulio Favalli, Martina Biggioggero, Chiara Crotti, Andrea Becciolini, Maria Gabriella Raimondo, Pier Luigi Meroni
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and progressive autoimmune disease more common in women than men (3:1). Although sex-based differences may play a complex role in promoting an autoimmune dysfunction, to date the comprehensive knowledge of the link between sex and RA is still partially lacking. Furthermore, males and females have been demonstrated to differently deal with their chronic pathologies, modifying the perceived sex-based burden of disease. Gender medicine is a newly approach focusing on the impact of gender differences on human physiology, pathophysiology, and clinical features of diseases, analyzing the complex interrelation and integration of sex and psychological and cultural behavior...
January 26, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368790/pravastatin-for-preventing-and-treating-preeclampsia-a-systematic-review
#18
Enrique Esteve-Valverde, Raquel Ferrer-Oliveras, Natàlia Gil-Aliberas, Antònia Baraldès-Farré, Elisa Llurba, Jaume Alijotas-Reig
Importance: We have performed a systematic search to summarize the role of statins for preventing and treating severe preeclampsia. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine whether pravastatin is a useful and safe alternative for treating preeclampsia during pregnancy. Evidence Acquisition: A systematic MEDLINE (PubMed) search was performed (1979 to June 2017), which was restricted to articles published in English, using the relevant key words of "statins," "pregnancy," "preeclampsia," "obstetrical antiphospholipid syndrome," and "teratogenicity...
January 2018: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362642/subclinical-hypothyroidism-whether-and-when-to-start-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Milena Cojić, Ljiljana Cvejanov-Kezunović
Subclinical hypothyroidism represents a state with increased values of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and normal values of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The disorder is asymptomatic, and the diagnosis is made based on the results of laboratory findings when the level of TSH reaches values above 4.0 mU/l. It is still subject to debate whether patients with subclinical hypothyroidism are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, neuropsychiatric and neuromuscular disorders. Studies have shown that the appearance of general symptoms and complications are more common in patients whose values of TSH are above 10 mU/l...
December 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353133/maternal-serum-uric-acid-levels-and-blood-pressure-during-pregnancy-a-community-based-cohort-study
#20
Guoli Zhou, Claudia Holzman, Zhehui Luo, Claire Margerison
OBJECTIVE: Studies find both very low and high serum uric acid (UA) levels are related to oxidative stress and to conditions such as cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease in the general population. Pregnancy studies have focused only on high maternal UA. In present study, we tested whether unusually high and low levels of maternal serum UA are associated with increases in blood pressure (BP) during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: The Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health Study enrolled 3019 pregnant women between their 16th-27th week of pregnancy from 52 clinics in 5 Michigan communities (1998-2004)...
January 9, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
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