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Pregnancy and cardiovascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241449/the-small-dense-ldl-particle-large-buoyant-ldl-particle-ratio-is-associated-with-glucose-metabolic-status-in-pregnancy
#1
Yanmin Chen, Mengkai Du, Jianyun Xu, Danqing Chen
BACKGROUND: The lipoprotein subfraction particle profile can be used to improve clinical assessments of cardiovascular disease risk and contribute to early detection of atherogenic dyslipidemia. Lipid alterations in gestational diabetes have been extensively studied, but the results have been inconsistent. Here, we investigated serum lipoprotein subfraction particle levels and their association with glucose metabolic status in pregnancy. METHODS: Twenty-eight pregnant women with gestational diabetes and 56 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance matched for body mass index were enrolled in this study...
December 14, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230179/transplacental-nutrient-transport-mechanisms-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-in-rodent-models-and-humans
#2
REVIEW
Elke Winterhager, Alexandra Gellhaus
Although the causes of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have been intensively investigated, important information is still lacking about the role of the placenta as a link from adverse maternal environment to adverse pregnancy outcomes of IUGR and preterm birth. IUGR is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurological diseases later in life. Determination of the most important pathways that regulate transplacental transport systems is necessary for identifying marker genes as diagnostic tools and for developing drugs that target the molecular pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201593/a-policy-perspective-on-the-global-use-of-smokeless-tobacco
#3
REVIEW
Kamran Siddiqi, Aishwarya Lakshmi Vidyasagaran, Anne Readshaw, Ray Croucher
Background: Globally, over 300 million people consume diverse smokeless tobacco (ST) products. They are addictive, cause cancer, increased cardiovascular mortality risks and poor pregnancy outcomes. Purpose of Review: To identify gaps in implementing key ST demand-reduction measures, focused literature reviews were conducted and findings synthesized according to relevant WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Articles. Recent Findings: The literature supports implementation of ST demand-reduction measures...
2017: Current Addiction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198741/pregnancy-as-an-early-stress-test-for-cardiovascular-and-kidney-disease-diagnosis
#4
Thaís Alquezar Facca, Gianna Mastroianni-Kirsztajn, Amélia Rodrigues Pereira Sabino, Michelle Tiveron Passos, Larissa Fátima Dos Santos, Eduardo Augusto Brosco Famá, Sonia Kiyomi Nishida, Nelson Sass
OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy is a cardiometabolic and renal stress test for women, primarily when associated with hypertension syndrome, which can have deleterious effects in the long term. We undertook this study to make a long-term evaluation on these women. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to investigate voluntary women who had pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome versus normal pregnancy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We evaluated a total of 85 women, divided in case (n = 25) and control (n = 60) groups, by clinical, anthropometric and epidemiological profiles, general, metabolic and renal tests, and risk stratification for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
November 23, 2017: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196995/epigenetics-and-preeclampsia-programming-of-future-outcomes
#5
Alberto Borges Peixoto, Liliam Cristine Rolo, Luciano Marcondes Machado Nardozza, Edward Araujo Júnior
Pregnancy is known to induce rapid, progressive, and substantial changes to the cardiovascular system, ultimately facilitating successful pregnancy outcomes. Women who develop hypertensive disorders during pregnancy are considered to have "failed" the cardiovascular stress test of pregnancy and likely represent a subpopulation with inadequate cardiovascular accommodation. Preeclampsia is a serious complication with a myriad of manifestations in both mother and offspring. This pregnancy syndrome is a polygenic disease and has now been linked to a greater incidence of cardiovascular disease...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193660/preterm-birth-with-placental-evidence-of-malperfusion-is-associated-with-cardiovascular-risk-factors-after-pregnancy-a-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Janet M Catov, Matthew F Muldoon, Steven E Reis, Roberta B Ness, Lananh N Nguyen, Jose-Miguel Yamal, Hyunsoo Hwang, W Tony Parks
OBJECTIVE: Preterm birth (PTB) is associated with excess maternal cardiovascular disease risk. We considered that women with PTB and placental evidence of maternal malperfusion would be particularly affected. DESIGN: Pregnancy cohort study. SETTING: Pittsburgh Pennsylvania, US. POPULATION: Women with PTB (n=115) and term births (n=210) evaluated 4-12 years after pregnancy. METHODS: Cardiometabolic risk markers were compared in women with prior PTB vs...
November 28, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183107/insulin-sensitising-drugs-metformin-rosiglitazone-pioglitazone-d-chiro-inositol-for-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-oligo-amenorrhoea-and-subfertility
#7
REVIEW
Lara C Morley, Thomas Tang, Ephia Yasmin, Robert J Norman, Adam H Balen
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterised by infrequent or absent ovulation, and high levels of androgens and insulin (hyperinsulinaemia). Hyperinsulinaemia occurs secondary to insulin resistance and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Insulin-sensitising agents such as metformin may be effective in treating PCOS-related anovulation. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of insulin-sensitising drugs in improving reproductive and metabolic outcomes for women with PCOS undergoing ovulation induction...
November 29, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182088/perinatal-maternal-mortality-in-sickle-cell-anemia-two-case-reports-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Sanaa Rizk, Elizabeth D Pulte, David Axelrod, Samir K Ballas
As outcomes of patients with sickle cell anemia improve and survival into adulthood with good quality of life and expectation of long-term survival becomes more common, challenges have developed, including issues related to reproduction. Pregnancy is frequently complicated in patients with sickle cell anemia with mortality up to 4.0%. Here we report maternal perinatal mortality in two women with sickle cell anemia who died post-partum due to acute chest syndrome (ACS), caused by bone marrow fat embolism and review the literature pertinent to this subject...
November 28, 2017: Hemoglobin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179955/the-utility-of-bedside-simulation-for-training-in-critical-care-obstetrics
#9
REVIEW
Jean-Ju Sheen, Colleen Lee, Dena Goffman
Over the last 2 decades, the maternal mortality ratio in the United States has doubled from 7.4/100,000 live births in 1986 to 14.5/100,000 today. Despite great advances in health care, increasing rates of maternal morbidity and mortality in the United States have prompted calls to action to reverse this disturbing trend. Assisted reproductive technology has allowed women to delay childbearing to more advanced ages, resulting in a greater number of pregnancies complicated by one or more of the diseases associated with aging, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension...
November 24, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173677/cardiovascular-emergencies-in-pregnancy
#10
REVIEW
Tala K Al-Talib, Stanley S Liu, Mukta Srivastava
Heart disease in pregnancy may manifest as acute coronary syndromes, decompensated valvular disease, and acute heart failure. These disease processes may represent progression of preexisting disease versus newly developed disease resulting from the physiologic changes of pregnancy. Early recognition of clinical presentations, judicious use of diagnostic studies, and multidisciplinary management of patient and fetal considerations can lead to optimal outcomes in this unique patient subset.
February 2018: Cardiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173607/clinical-features-and-outcomes-of-acute-coronary-syndrome-in-women-with-previous-pregnancy-complications
#11
Sophie Grand'Maison, Louise Pilote, Kenny Schlosser, Duncan J Stewart, Marisa Okano, Natalie Dayan
BACKGROUND: Women with previous cardiometabolic complications of pregnancy experience double the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, few data exist on the clinical effect of these complications at the time of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The objective of this work was to compare risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes among women with premature ACS with or without previous pregnancy complications (gestational diabetes and/or hypertensive disorders of pregnancy). METHODS: Data were obtained from a multicentre cohort of individuals hospitalized with premature ACS...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167102/coffee-consumption-and-health-umbrella-review-of-meta-analyses-of-multiple-health-outcomes
#12
Robin Poole, Oliver J Kennedy, Paul Roderick, Jonathan A Fallowfield, Peter C Hayes, Julie Parkes
Objectives To evaluate the existing evidence for associations between coffee consumption and multiple health outcomes.Design Umbrella review of the evidence across meta-analyses of observational and interventional studies of coffee consumption and any health outcome.Data sources PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and screening of references.Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Meta-analyses of both observational and interventional studies that examined the associations between coffee consumption and any health outcome in any adult population in all countries and all settings...
November 22, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164116/potential-of-metformin-to-improve-cardiac-risk-in-postpartum-women-with-gestational-diabetes
#13
Oscar A Viteri, Mary Alice Sallman, Pauline M Berens, Pamela D Berens, Farah H Amro, Maria S Hutchinson, Susan M Ramin, Sean C Blackwell, Jerrie S Refuerzo, Judith A Smith
Objective: Pregnancy is associated with an increase in total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins (HDL), and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Postpartum, HDL and LDL decrease over the first 12 weeks postpartum. Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) is a marker of oxidative stress-related inflammation, which is associated with obesity and also with development of cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular protection and weight loss are benefits from metformin, especially in women with diabetes. The objective of this study was to compare changes in lipid profiles and biomarkers for obesity during the initial 6 weeks postpartum between women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) treated with metformin versus placebo...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161409/transfer-and-metabolism-of-cortisol-by-the-isolated-perfused-human-placenta
#14
Laura I Stirrat, Bram G Sengers, Jane E Norman, Natalie Z M Homer, Ruth Andrew, Rohan M Lewis, Rebecca M Reynolds
Context: Fetal overexposure to glucocorticoids in utero is associated with fetal growth restriction and is postulated to be a key mechanism linking suboptimal fetal growth with cardiovascular disease in later life. Objective: To develop a model to predict maternal-fetal glucocorticoid transfer. We hypothesised placental 11β-HSD2 would be the major rate-limiting step in maternal cortisol transfer to the fetus. Design: We used a deuterated cortisol tracer in the ex vivo placental perfusion model, in combination with computational modelling, to investigate the role of interconversion of cortisol and its inactive metabolite cortisone on transfer of cortisol from mother to fetus...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153673/pregnancy-complications-and-later-vascular-ultrasound-measures-a-cohort-study
#15
Emily W Harville, Markus Juonala, Jorma S A Viikari, Mika Kähönen, Olli T Raitakari
OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy complications predict or even predispose to later cardiovascular disease in the mother. We examined whether pregnancy complications are associated with post-pregnancy measures of endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort; Data for 847 women female participants in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study were linked with the national birth registry. Preterm birth (<37weeks), low birthweight (<2500g), small-for-gestational-age (weight <10th percentile for gestational age), and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were examined as predictors of later vascular measures...
October 2017: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153663/prognostic-model-for-chronic-hypertension-in-women-with-a-history-of-hypertensive-pregnancy-disorders-at-term
#16
V S Visser, W Hermes, J Twisk, A Franx, M G van Pampus, C Koopmans, B W J Mol, C J M de Groot
INTRODUCTION: The association between hypertensive pregnancy disorders and cardiovascular disease later in life is well described. In this study we aim to develop a prognostic model from patients characteristics known before, early in, during and after pregnancy to identify women at increased risk of cardiovascular disease e.g. chronic hypertension years after pregnancy complicated by hypertension at term. METHODS: We included women with a history of singleton pregnancy complicated by hypertension at term...
October 2017: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150171/similar-pro-nt-and-pro-rlx2-levels-after-preeclampsia-and-after-uncomplicated-pregnancy
#17
G A Gerbrand Zoet, B B Bas van Rijn, M Miriam Rehfeldt, A Arie Franx, A H E M Angela Maas
OBJECTIVE: Women are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) after preeclampsia. Proneurotensin 1-117 (pro-NT) and prorelaxin 2 connecting peptide (pro-RLX2) have recently emerged as potential biomarkers for CVD risk in women. We assessed pro-NT and pro-RLX2 levels in women with and without a history of preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: 339 women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia and 327 women with an uncomplicated pregnancy underwent cardiovascular screening 10 years after delivery (the Preeclampsia Risk EValuation in FEMales (PREVFEM) cohort)...
December 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150149/pregnancy-and-heart-disease-pregnancy-associated-hypertension-and-peripartum-cardiomyopathy
#18
Tobias Jonathan Pfeffer, Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner
Cardiovascular diseases are major complications in pregnancy worldwide and the number of patients who develop cardiac problems during pregnancy is increasing. Pregnancy-associated hypertensive complications such as pre-eclampsia (PE) or peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) are potentially life-threatening heart diseases emerging during pregnancy, under delivery or in the first postpartal months in previously healthy women. Both disease entities display substantial morbidity and mortality in the acute phase. Long-term effects are just beginning to be evaluated...
October 31, 2017: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149816/maternal-dyslipidaemia-in-pregnancy-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-possible-impact-in-the-foetoplacental-vascular-function-and-the-lipoprotein-in-the-neonatal-circulation
#19
Susana Contreras-Duarte, Lorena Carvajal, Barbara Fuenzalida, Claudette Cantin, Luis Sobrevia, Andrea Leiva
Dyslipidaemia occurs in pregnancy to secure foetal development. The mother shows a physiological increase in plasma total cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) as pregnancy progresses (i.e. maternal physiological dyslipidaemia in pregnancy). However, in some women pregnancy-associated dyslipidaemia exceeds this physiological adaptation. The consequences of this condition on the developing foetus include endothelial dysfunction of the foetoplacental vasculature and development of foetal aortic atherosclerosis. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) associates with abnormal function of the foetoplacental vasculature due to foetal hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, and associates with development of cardiovascular disease in adulthood...
November 16, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149254/invited-commentary-gestational-hypertension-and-diabetes-a-major-public-health-concern
#20
Lewis H Kuller, Janet Catov
The obesity epidemic in the United States and other countries has contributed to an increase in the rates of gestational diabetes and hypertension. In the past, it was thought that most cases of gestational diabetes and hypertension would resolve after completion of pregnancy. In this issue of the Journal, Pace et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2017;186(10):1115-1124) clearly documented that both gestational diabetes and hypertension lead to diabetes and hypertension and that the combination of both during pregnancy leads to very high rates of subsequent diabetes and hypertension...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
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