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Pregnancy and cardiovascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816365/hypertensive-disorders-in-pregnancy-and-the-risk-of-subsequent-cardiovascular-disease
#1
Sonia M Grandi, Karine Vallée-Pouliot, Pauline Reynier, Maria Eberg, Robert W Platt, Roxane Arel, Olga Basso, Kristian B Filion
BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP) have been shown to predict later risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, previous studies have not accounted for subsequent pregnancies and their complications, which are potential confounders and intermediates of this association. METHODS: A cohort of 146 748 women with a first pregnancy was constructed using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. HDP was defined using diagnostic codes, elevated blood pressure readings, or new use of an anti-hypertensive drug between 18 weeks' gestation and 6 weeks post-partum...
August 17, 2017: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807713/opioid-drug-use-and-acute-cardiac-events-among-pregnant-women-in-the-united-states
#2
Hamisu M Salihu, Jason L Salemi, Anjali Aggarwal, Beverly F Steele, Ross C Pepper, Mulubrhan F Mogos, Muktar H Aliyu
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of pregnancy-associated deaths in the United States (US). The extent to which increasing opioid use among pregnant women contributes to fatal cardiovascular events is unknown. We examine trends in opioid use among pregnant women over the previous decade, and the association between changes in temporal trends in opioid drug use and the incidence of acute cardiac events among mothers. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis of the Healthcare and Cost Utilization Project (HCUP), we utilized a two-stage stratified cluster sampling of all inpatient hospital discharges from non-federal hospitals between 01/01/2002 through 12/31/2014...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803548/gestational-hypertensive-disorders-and-retinal-microvasculature-the-generation-r-study
#3
Laura Benschop, Sarah Schalekamp-Timmermans, Jeanine E Roeters van Lennep, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Tien Yin Wong, Carol Y Cheung, Eric A P Steegers, Kamran M Ikram
BACKGROUND: Changes in the microvasculature associated with pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension have been proposed as a potential pathway in the development of cardiovascular disease. We examined whether gestational hypertensive disorders, such as pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension, are related to the maternal retinal microvasculature status after pregnancy. METHODS: This study is part of an ongoing population-based prospective cohort study. During pregnancy and 6...
August 14, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798077/cardiovascular-susceptibility-to-in-vivo-ischemic-myocardial-injury-in-male-and-female-rat-offspring-exposed-to-prenatal-hypoxia
#4
Amin Shah, Nobutoshi Matsumura, Anita Quon, Jude S Morton, Jason R B Dyck, Sandra T Davidge
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) following prenatal hypoxia exposure leads to a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in later life. Our aim was to evaluate cardiac susceptibility and its pathophysiological mechanisms following acute myocardial infarction (MI) in adult rat offspring exposed to prenatal hypoxia. Male and female rat offspring, which experienced normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (11% O2) in utero underwent sham or MI surgery at 12 weeks of age. Echocardiographic data revealed that both sexes had systolic dysfunction following MI surgery, independent of prenatal hypoxia...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796427/epidemiology-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-africa-a-systematic-review
#5
C Danwang, M N Temgoua, V N Agbor, A T Tankeu, J J Noubiap
Essentials Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is among the three main causes of cardiovascular disease worldwide. This review is the first to summarize the epidemiology of VTE in African populations. The prevalence of VTE in Africa is high following surgery, in pregnancy and post-partum. At least one quarter of patients at risk of VTE in Africa are not receiving prophylaxis. SUMMARY: Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is among the three leading causes of cardiovascular disease worldwide...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794104/prenatal-hypoxia-and-placental-oxidative-stress-linkages-to-developmental-origins-of-cardiovascular-disease
#6
Mais M Aljunaidy, Jude S Morton, Christy-Lynn Cooke, Sandra T Davidge
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, a pregnancy complication where the fetus does not reach its genetic growth potential) is a leading cause of fetal morbidity and mortality with a significant impact on population health. IUGR is associated with gestational hypoxia; which can lead to placental oxidative stress and fetal programming of cardiovascular disease. Mitochondria are a major source of placental oxidative stress and may provide a therapeutic target to mitigate the detrimental effects of placental oxidative stress on pregnancy outcomes...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780660/update-on-valvular-heart-disease-in-pregnancy
#7
REVIEW
Lucy M Safi, Sarah V Tsiaras
Valvular heart disease in women of childbearing age poses an increased risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, and management in pregnancy can be challenging. Ideally, patients with suspected valvular disease should have preconception counseling by a multidisciplinary team including cardiologists with expertise in pregnancy and a maternal-fetal medicine specialist. Preconception planning should include a cardiac assessment of maternal risk, determination of frequency of surveillance, and a cardiovascular management plan during delivery...
September 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765277/blood-pressure-in-6-year-old-children-born-extremely-preterm
#8
Anna-Karin Edstedt Bonamy, Lilly-Ann Mohlkert, Jenny Hallberg, Petru Liuba, Vineta Fellman, Magnus Domellöf, Mikael Norman
BACKGROUND: Advances in perinatal medicine have increased infant survival after very preterm birth. Although this progress is welcome, there is increasing concern that preterm birth is an emerging risk factor for hypertension at young age, with implications for the lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured casual blood pressures (BPs) in a population-based cohort of 6-year-old survivors of extremely preterm birth (<27 gestational weeks; n=171) and in age- and sex-matched controls born at term (n=172)...
August 1, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762539/the-impact-of-antibody-profile-in-thrombosis-associated-with-primary-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#9
Sabrina da Silva Saraiva, Bruna de Moraes Mazetto, Lais Quinteiro Tobaldine, Marina Pereira Colella, Erich Vinícius De Paula, Joyce Annichinno-Bizzachi, Fernanda Andrade Orsi
Triple positivity (TP) for antiphospholipid antibodies(aPL) may identify aPL carriers with poorer prognosis. The clinical impact of TP in primary antiphospholipid syndrome(PAPS) remains unclear and further clinical evidences are needed to validate TP as a marker of severity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of TP on the clinical course of PAPS with thrombosis(t-PAPS). We performed a retrospective analysis of a cohort of t-PAPS patients, comparing groups of patients with TP and non-TP profiles according to their demographic, clinical and laboratory features...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757108/celastrol-synergizes-with-oral-nifedipine-to-attenuate-hypertension-in-preeclampsia-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-and-double-blinded-trial
#10
Sha Xiao, Ming Zhang, Yuan Liang, Deling Wang
Preeclampsia, a disease mainly manifesting as serious hypertension during pregnancy, affects expectant mothers around the globe. Celastrol, a naturally existing triterpenoid, is known to exhibit beneficial effects attenuating cardiovascular symptoms including hypertension. We here assessed the treatment outcome against preeclampsia with a combined use of celastrol and nifedipine. A total of 626 patients with preeclampsia were enrolled, screened, and assigned by random to groups receiving either nifedipine + placebo or nifedipine + celastrol orally...
July 20, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756697/early-detection-of-oral-health-status-and-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-among-reproductive-aged-women-in-rural-areas-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Yen-Ying Ma, Tung-Jung Huang, Ming-Shyan Lin, Po-Han Chen, Mei-Yen Chen
BACKGROUND: Oral health status is associated with many chronic ailments, including diseases of the cardiovascular system, diabetes, as well as pregnancy complications, such as low birth weight, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, and early pregnancy loss. The health status of reproductive-aged women is important, not only for the women themselves, but also for the health of fetus. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore cardiometabolic risk factors, oral health status, and associated factors among reproductive-aged women...
August 2017: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754745/cardiovascular-susceptibility-to-in-vivo-ischemic-myocardial-injury-in-male-and-female-rat-offspring-exposed-to-prenatal-hypoxia
#12
Amin Shah, Nobutoshi Matsumura, Anita Quon, Jude Sally Morton, Jason Dyck, Sandra Thomas Davidge
Intrauterine growth restriction following prenatal hypoxia exposure leads to a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease in later life. Our aim was to evaluate cardiac susceptibility and its pathophysiological mechanisms following acute myocardial infarction (MI) in adult rat offspring exposed to prenatal hypoxia. Male and female rat offspring which experienced normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (11% O2) in utero underwent sham or MI surgery at 12 weeks of age. Echocardiographic data revealed that both sexes had systolic dysfunction following MI surgery, independent of prenatal hypoxia...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749442/long-term-effects-of-pregnancy-complications-on-maternal-health-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Ran Neiger
Background: Most pregnancy-related medical complications appear to resolve at delivery or shortly thereafter. Common examples are preterm labor, placental abruption, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes. Women who developed such complications are known to be at increased risk of developing similar complications in future pregnancies. It has recently become evident that these women are at an increased risk of long term medical complications. Methods: A search through scientific publications in English regarding the association of obstetric complications and long-term maternal illness...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730459/fetal-programming-as-a-predictor-of-adult-health-or-disease-the-need-to-reevaluate-fetal-heart-function
#14
REVIEW
Joana O Miranda, Carla Ramalho, Tiago Henriques-Coelho, José Carlos Areias
Epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggests that adverse stimuli during critical periods in utero permanently alters organ structure and function and may have persistent consequences for the long-term health of the offspring. Fetal hypoxia, maternal malnutrition, or ventricular overloading are among the major adverse conditions that can compromise cardiovascular development in early life. With the heart as a central organ in fetal adaptive mechanisms, a deeper understanding of the fetal cardiovascular physiology and of the echocardiographic tools to assess both normal and stressed pregnancies would give precious information on fetal well-being and hopefully may help in early identification of special risk groups for cardiovascular diseases later in life...
July 20, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728509/do-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-contribute-to-accelerated-cardiovascular-events-seen-in-young-women-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#15
M C Soh, C Nelson-Piercy, M Westgren, L McCowan, D Pasupathy
Cardiovascular events (CVEs) are prevalent in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and it is the young women who are disproportionately at risk. The risk factors for accelerated cardiovascular disease remain unclear, with multiple studies producing conflicting results. In this paper, we aim to address both traditional and SLE-specific risk factors postulated to drive the accelerated vascular disease in this cohort. We also discuss the more recent hypothesis that adverse pregnancy outcomes in the form of maternal-placental syndrome and resultant preterm delivery could potentially contribute to the CVEs seen in young women with SLE who have fewer traditional cardiovascular risk factors...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722160/placental-proteomics-reveal-insights-into-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#16
Katie L Davis-Anderson, Sebastian Berger, Emilie R Lunde-Young, Vishal D Naik, Heewon Seo, Greg A Johnson, Hanno Steen, Jayanth Ramadoss
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) describe many of the well-known neurodevelopmental deficits afflicting children exposed to alcohol in utero. The effects of alcohol on the maternal-fetal interface, especially the placenta, have been less explored. We herein hypothesized that chronic binge alcohol exposure during pregnancy significantly alters the placental protein profile in a rat FASD model METHODS: Pregnant rats were orogastrically treated daily with alcohol (4.5 g/kg, gestational day (GD) 5-10; 6...
July 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713290/advanced-maternal-age-worsens-postpartum-vascular-function
#17
Jude S Morton, Alison S Care, Raven Kirschenman, Christy-Lynn Cooke, Sandra T Davidge
The age at which women experience their first pregnancy has increased throughout the decades. Pregnancy has an important influence on maternal short- and long-term cardiovascular outcomes. Pregnancy at an advanced maternal age increases maternal risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, placenta previa and caesarian delivery; complications which predict worsened cardiovascular health in later years. Aging also independently increases the risk of cardiovascular disease; therefore, combined risk in women of advanced maternal age may lead to detrimental cardiovascular outcomes later in life...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711078/preeclampsia-pathogenesis-prevention-and-long-term-complications
#18
Belinda Jim, S Ananth Karumanchi
Preeclampsia continues to afflict 5% to 8% of all pregnancies throughout the world and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality to the mother and the fetus. Although the pathogenesis of the disorder has not yet been fully elucidated, current evidence suggests that imbalance in angiogenic factors is responsible for the clinical manifestations of the disorder, and may explain why certain populations are risk. In this review, we begin by demonstrating the roles that angiogenic factors play in pathogenesis of preeclampsia and its complications in the mother and the fetus...
July 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708846/sex-pregnancy-and-aortic-disease-in-marfan-syndrome
#19
Marjolijn Renard, Laura Muiño-Mosquera, Elise C Manalo, Sara Tufa, Eric J Carlson, Douglas R Keene, Julie De Backer, Lynn Y Sakai
BACKGROUND: Sex-related differences as well as the adverse effect of pregnancy on aortic disease outcome are well-established phenomena in humans with Marfan syndrome (MFS). The underlying mechanisms of these observations are largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: In an initial (pilot) step we aimed to confirm the differences between male and female MFS patients as well as between females with and without previous pregnancy. We then sought to evaluate whether these findings are recapitulated in a pre-clinical model and performed in-depth cardiovascular phenotyping of mutant male and both nulliparous and multiparous female Marfan mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708773/angiotensin-ii-responsiveness-after-preeclampsia-translational-data-from-an-experimental-rat-model-and-early-onset-human-preeclampsia
#20
Anne M van der Graaf, Tsjitske J Toering, Mienke W K van der Wiel, Anne-Roos S Frenay, Gerd Wallukat, Ralf Dechend, Gerjan Navis, Henk Groen, A Titia Lely, Marijke M Faas
OBJECTIVE: Formerly preeclamptic women have an increased risk for cardiovascular and renal disease later in life. It is unknown which mechanisms contribute to this increased risk and whether this is induced by preeclampsia or by prepregnancy factors. We hypothesized that the increased risk for cardiovascular disease is partly due to an increased angiotensin II (ang II) responsiveness postpartum and that preeclampsia itself is involved in inducing this increased ang II responsiveness. METHODS: In never-pregnant, formerly healthy pregnant rats and rats with former experimental preeclampsia [experimental preeclampsia model induced by low-dose endotoxin infusion on day 14 of pregnancy; endotoxin-infused pregnant rats (EP-rats)], ang II responsiveness was studied by measuring changes in blood pressure (BP) and proteinuria after chronic ang II infusion with osmotic minipumps (200 ng/kg per min)...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
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