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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162758/public-health-challenges-for-the-21st-century-convergence-of-demography-economics-environment-and-biology-nalanda-distinguished-lecture
#1
K M Venkat Narayan
The rapidly changing and interdependent world under the mega-force of globalization presents unique challenges and opportunities for public health. Focusing on the example of type 2 diabetes, I argue that an appreciation for the evolution of demographic and economic contexts is essential to appropriately address today's dynamic and complex health challenges. For the vast majority of the past 2000 years, India and China were the world's largest economies until the rise of western European nations in the 18th century and later the USA...
July 2017: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154468/fight-flight-or-remain-silent-juggling-multiple-accountabilities-throughout-the-formative-stage-of-a-neighborhood-revitalization-initiative
#2
Stacey M Kesten, Deborah A Perez, Denise S Marques, Scot D Evans, Adrienne Sulma
This paper describes the experiences of a research team as they navigated uncertain ethical and political terrain throughout the formative stage of a public housing redevelopment project. Specifically, we discuss the challenges related to balancing multiple accountabilities and the tensions among the various roles and responsibilities that emanated from different accountabilities. Due to contractual obligations to our funding source, established relations with community partners, and an ethical imperative to align with those holding the least power, we grappled with embodying multiple and often conflicting roles...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152598/study-protocol-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-comprehensive-breast-cancer-treatment-patient-decision-tool-icandecide
#3
Sarah T Hawley, Yun Li, L Alexandra Jeanpierre, Stefanie Goodell, Reshma Jagsi, Kevin C Ward, Michael S Sabel, Steven J Katz
Background: Patients newly diagnosed with breast cancer face a series of complex decisions regarding locoregional and systemic treatment. There is a need to improve the quality of locoregional and systemic decisions for breast cancer patients, and to help patients understand the role of evaluative tests in this decision process. We are now conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of an online decision tool-called iCanDecide, which we expect will help patients with these difficult decisions...
March 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151821/streamqre-modular-specification-and-efficient-evaluation-of-quantitative-queries-over-streaming-data
#4
Konstantinos Mamouras, Mukund Raghothaman, Rajeev Alur, Zachary G Ives, Sanjeev Khanna
Real-time decision making in emerging IoT applications typically relies on computing quantitative summaries of large data streams in an efficient and incremental manner. To simplify the task of programming the desired logic, we propose StreamQRE, which provides natural and high-level constructs for processing streaming data. Our language has a novel integration of linguistic constructs from two distinct programming paradigms: streaming extensions of relational query languages and quantitative extensions of regular expressions...
June 2017: Proc ACM SIGPLAN Conf Program Lang Des Implement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150615/balancing-a-genetic-toggle-switch-by-real-time-feedback-control-and-periodic-forcing
#5
Jean-Baptiste Lugagne, Sebastián Sosa Carrillo, Melanie Kirch, Agnes Köhler, Gregory Batt, Pascal Hersen
Cybergenetics is a novel field of research aiming at remotely pilot cellular processes in real-time with to leverage the biotechnological potential of synthetic biology. Yet, the control of only a small number of genetic circuits has been tested so far. Here we investigate the control of multistable gene regulatory networks, which are ubiquitously found in nature and play critical roles in cell differentiation and decision-making. Using an in silico feedback control loop, we demonstrate that a bistable genetic toggle switch can be dynamically maintained near its unstable equilibrium position for extended periods of time...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149641/site-closure-management-strategies-and-the-responsiveness-of-conservation-outcomes-in-recreational-fishing
#6
Lei Gao, Atakelty Hailu
We develop and use an empirically based model, which integrates fishing behaviour and a coral reef system, to evaluate outcomes from site closure strategies to manage the effects of recreational fishing. The model is designed to estimate management effects in complex settings with two-way feedback effects (between fishing and ecosystem dynamics) as well as spillover effects where the closure of a site (or sites) leads to the redistribution of fishing effort. An iconic coral reef system is used as a case study...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132778/discourse-coalitions-in-swiss-waste-management-gridlock-or-winds-of-change
#7
Mert Duygan, Michael Stauffacher, Grégoire Meylan
As a complex socio-technical system, waste management is crucially important for the sustainable management of material and energy flows. Transition to better performing waste management systems requires not only determining what needs to be changed but also finding out how this change can be realized. Without understanding the political context, insights from decision support tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) are likely to be lost in translation to decision and policy making. This study strives to provide a first insight into the political context and address the opportunities and barriers pertinent to initiating a change in Swiss waste management...
November 10, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130645/distributed-decision-making-in-action-diagnostic-imaging-investigations-within-the-bigger-picture
#8
Chandra R Makanjee, Anne-Marie Bergh, Willem A Hoffmann
INTRODUCTION: Decision making in the health care system - specifically with regard to diagnostic imaging investigations - occurs at multiple levels. Professional role players from various backgrounds are involved in making these decisions, from the point of referral to the outcomes of the imaging investigation. The aim of this study was to map the decision-making processes and pathways involved when patients are referred for diagnostic imaging investigations and to explore distributed decision-making events at the points of contact with patients within a health care system...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126423/the-many-meanings-of-evidence-a-comparative-analysis-of-the-forms-and-roles-of-evidence-within-three-health-policy-processes-in-cambodia
#9
Helen Walls, Marco Liverani, Kannarath Chheng, Justin Parkhurst
BACKGROUND: Discussions within the health community routinely emphasise the importance of evidence in informing policy formulation and implementation. Much of the support for the evidence-based policy movement draws from concern that policy decisions are often based on inadequate engagement with high-quality evidence. In many such discussions, evidence is treated as differing only in quality, and assumed to improve decisions if it can only be used more. In contrast, political science scholars have described this as an overly simplistic view of the policy-making process, noting that research 'use' can mean a variety of things and relies on nuanced aspects of political systems...
November 10, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124365/change-in-reimbursement-and-costs-in-german-oncological-head-and-neck-surgery-over-the-last-decade-ablative-tongue-cancer-surgery-and-reconstruction-with-split-thickness-skin-graft-vs-microvascular-radial-forearm-flap
#10
Sebastian Hoefert, Oliver Lotter
OBJECTIVES: Defects after ablative tongue cancer surgery can be reconstructed by split-thickness skin grafts or free microvascular flaps. The different surgical options may influence costs, reimbursement, and therefore possible profits. Our goal was to analyze the development of these parameters for different procedures in head and neck reconstruction in Germany over the last decade. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After tumor resection and neck dissection of tongue cancer, three different scenarios were chosen to calculate costs, reimbursement, length of stay (LoS), and profits...
November 9, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123355/economics-of-palliative-and-end-of-life-care-in-india-a-concept-paper
#11
Arunangshu Ghoshal, Anuja Damani, Naveen Salins, Jayita Deodhar, M A Muckaden
Only a few studies have assessed the economic outcomes of palliative care in India. The major areas of interest include hospice care, the process and structure of care, symptom management, and palliative chemotherapy compared to best supportive care. At present, there is no definite health-care system followed in India. Medical bankruptcy is common. In situations where patients bear most of the costs, medical decision-making might have significant implications on economics of health care. Game theory might help in deciphering the underlying complexities of decision-making when considered as a two person nonzero sum game...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120612/cell-free-and-in-vivo-characterization-of-lux-las-and-rpa-quorum-activation-systems-in-e-coli
#12
Andrew Halleran, Richard M Murray
Synthetic biologists have turned towards quorum systems as a path for building sophisticated microbial consortia that exhibit group decision making. Currently, however, even the most complex consortium circuits rely on only one or two quorum sensing systems, greatly restricting the available design space. High-throughput characterization of available quorum sensing systems is useful for finding compatible sets of systems that are suitable for a defined circuit architecture. Recently, cell-free systems have gained popularity as a test-bed for rapid prototyping of genetic circuitry...
November 9, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120295/perspectives-of-displaced-syrian-women-and-service-providers-on-fertility-behaviour-and-available-services-in-west-bekaa-lebanon
#13
Tamar Kabakian-Khasholian, Rima Mourtada, Hyam Bashour, Faysal El Kak, Huda Zurayk
Prior to the conflict, Syria had relatively high fertility rates. In 2010, it had the sixth highest total fertility rate in the Arab World, but it witnessed a fertility decline before the conflict in 2011. Displacement during conflict influences fertility behaviour, and meeting the contraceptive needs of displaced populations is complex. This study explored the perspectives of women and service providers about fertility behaviour of and service provision to Syrian refugee women in Bekaa, Lebanon. We used qualitative methodology to conduct 12 focus group discussions with Syrian refugee women grouped in different age categories and 13 in-depth interviews with care providers from the same region...
October 2017: Reproductive Health Matters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118581/complexity-and-wide-range-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-more-than-typical-manifestations
#14
REVIEW
Jinming Han, Meng-Ge Yang, Jie Zhu, Tao Jin
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), considered to be mediated by autoantibodies, often cause severely disabling disorders of the central nervous system, and predominantly cause optic nerve damage and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Remarkable progress has been made in deciphering NMO pathogenesis during the past decade. In 2015, the International Panel for NMO Diagnosis proposed the unifying term "NMO spectrum disorders" (NMOSD) and the updated NMOSD criteria reflects a wide range of disease and maintains reasonable specificity...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114434/usability-evaluation-of-laboratory-information-systems
#15
Althea Mathews, David Marc
Background: Numerous studies have revealed widespread clinician frustration with the usability of electronic health records (EHRs) that is counterproductive to adoption of EHR systems to meet the aims of health-care reform. With poor system usability comes increased risk of negative unintended consequences. Usability issues could lead to user error and workarounds that have the potential to compromise patient safety and negatively impact the quality of care.[1] While there is ample research on EHR usability, there is little information on the usability of laboratory information systems (LISs)...
2017: Journal of Pathology Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113142/a-real-time-smooth-weighted-data-fusion-algorithm-for-greenhouse-sensing-based-on-wireless-sensor-networks
#16
Tengyue Zou, Yuanxia Wang, Mengyi Wang, Shouying Lin
Wireless sensor networks are widely used to acquire environmental parameters to support agricultural production. However, data variation and noise caused by actuators often produce complex measurement conditions. These factors can lead to nonconformity in reporting samples from different nodes and cause errors when making a final decision. Data fusion is well suited to reduce the influence of actuator-based noise and improve automation accuracy. A key step is to identify the sensor nodes disturbed by actuator noise and reduce their degree of participation in the data fusion results...
November 6, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102046/shared-decision-making-among-children-with-medical-complexity-results-from-a-population-based-survey
#17
Jody L Lin, Eyal Cohen, Lee M Sanders
OBJECTIVE: To compare the rates of shared decision making (SDM) reported by parents of children with medical complexity (CMC) with the rates of SDM reported by parents of noncomplex children with special health care needs (CSHCN). STUDY DESIGN: We examined the 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, a representative survey of 40 242 parents of CSHCN. CMC was defined as needing or using more medical care than usual, seeing 2 or more subspecialists, and positive response on at least 3 other items on the CSHCN screener...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099826/-governance-in-a-project-addressing-care-of-disabled-elderly-persons-within-the-regional-healthcare-system-of-tuscany-italy
#18
Claudio Pedace, Antonella Rosa, Paolo Francesconi, Anna Acampora, Walter Ricciardi, Gianfranco Damiani
Population aging and the concurrent increase of age-related chronic degenerative diseases and disability are associated with an increased proportion of elderly persons who are dependent in activities of daily living (ADL). ADL-dependent persons need continuous and long-term health and social care according to the "taking charge" rationale, in order to warrant access and continuity of care. A healthcare system needs to respond to the long-term and complex needs, such as those of disabled elderly people, by providing appropriate health and social care services in Primary Care...
July 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082570/galenic-pial-arteriovenous-fistulas-angioarchitecture-clinical-presentation-and-therapeutic-considerations
#19
REVIEW
Michael George Zaki Ghali
Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAMs) are complex vascular lesions. Their etiopathogenesis is extensively debated and remains poorly understood. Strictly speaking, true VGAMs are Galenic pial arteriovenous fistulas. They are believed to arise in utero and are contended to drain either into the true vein of Galen or the median prosencephalic vein of Markowski. Several classification systems have been proposed and are widely used. With the advent of endovascular therapy, precise understanding of the angioarchitecture is critical for management and therapeutic decision making...
October 30, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081308/priorities-for-health-economic-methodological-research-results-of-an-expert-consultation
#20
David Tordrup, Christos Chouaid, Pim Cuijpers, William Dab, Johanna Maria van Dongen, Jaime Espin, Bengt Jönsson, Christian Léonard, David McDaid, Martin McKee, José Pereira Miguel, Anita Patel, Jean-Yves Reginster, Walter Ricciardi, Maureen Rutten-van Molken, Valentina Prevolnik Rupel, Tracey Sach, Franco Sassi, Norman Waugh, Roberto Bertollini
BACKGROUND: The importance of economic evaluation in decision making is growing with increasing budgetary pressures on health systems. Diverse economic evidence is available for a range of interventions across national contexts within Europe, but little attention has been given to identifying evidence gaps that, if filled, could contribute to more efficient allocation of resources. One objective of the Research Agenda for Health Economic Evaluation project is to determine the most important methodological evidence gaps for the ten highest burden conditions in the European Union (EU), and to suggest ways of filling these gaps...
October 30, 2017: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
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