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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923184/the-complexity-of-child-protection-recurrence-the-case-for-a-systems-approach
#1
Brian Q Jenkins, Clare Tilbury, Paul Mazerolle, Hennessey Hayes
OBJECTIVE: Research on child protection recurrence has found consistent child, family, and case characteristics associated with repeated involvement with the child protection system. Despite the considerable body of empirical research, knowledge about why recurrence occurs, and what can be done to reduce it, is limited. METHOD: This paper reviews the empirical literature and analyses the approaches of prior recurrence research. Four related conceptual challenges are identified: (1) a tendency to conflate child protection recurrence with repeated child maltreatment; (2) uncertainty about how best to operationalize and measure child protection recurrence in research; (3) inconsistency between prevailing explanations for the most frequently observed patterns of recurrence; and (4) difficulty in developing coherent strategies to address child protection recurrence based on research...
December 3, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920428/mitigating-herding-in-hierarchical-crowdsourcing-networks
#2
Han Yu, Chunyan Miao, Cyril Leung, Yiqiang Chen, Simon Fauvel, Victor R Lesser, Qiang Yang
Hierarchical crowdsourcing networks (HCNs) provide a useful mechanism for social mobilization. However, spontaneous evolution of the complex resource allocation dynamics can lead to undesirable herding behaviours in which a small group of reputable workers are overloaded while leaving other workers idle. Existing herding control mechanisms designed for typical crowdsourcing systems are not effective in HCNs. In order to bridge this gap, we investigate the herding dynamics in HCNs and propose a Lyapunov optimization based decision support approach - the Reputation-aware Task Sub-delegation approach with dynamic worker effort Pricing (RTS-P) - with objective functions aiming to achieve superlinear time-averaged collective productivity in an HCN...
December 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919375/software-intelligent-system-for-effective-solutions-for-hearing-impaired-subjects
#3
Rajkumar S, Muttan S, Sapthagirivasan V, Jaya V, Vignesh S S
PURPOSE: The anatomy and physiology of the ear is complex in nature, which makes it a challenge for audiologists to prescribe solutions for varied hearing-impaired subjects. There is a need to increase the satisfaction level of hearing-aid users by adopting better strategies that involve modern technological advancements. AIM: To design and develop a decision support Software Intelligent System (SIS) that performs audiological investigations to assess the degree of hearing loss and to suggest appropriate hearing-aid gain values...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919368/clinical-reasoning-in-the-context-of-active-decision-support-during-medication-prescribing
#4
Jan Horsky, Jos Aarts, Leonie Verheul, Diane L Seger, Heleen van der Sijs, David W Bates
OBJECTIVE: Describe and analyze reasoning patterns of clinicians responding to drug-drug interaction alerts in order to understand the role of patient-specific information in the decision-making process about the risks and benefits of medication therapy. Insights could be used to inform the design of decision-support interventions. METHODS: Thirty-two clinicians working with five EHRs in two countries completed sets of six medication orders each and responded to high- and low-severity drug-drug interaction alerts while verbalizing their thoughts in a standard think-aloud protocol...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906960/perceptions-and-attitudes-towards-medication-error-reporting-in-primary-care-clinics-a-qualitative-study-in-malaysia
#5
A Samsiah, Noordin Othman, Shazia Jamshed, Mohamed Azmi Hassali
OBJECTIVE: To explore and understand participants' perceptions and attitudes towards the reporting of medication errors (MEs). METHODS: A qualitative study using in-depth interviews of 31 healthcare practitioners from nine publicly funded, primary care clinics in three states in peninsular Malaysia was conducted for this study. The participants included family medicine specialists, doctors, pharmacists, pharmacist assistants, nurses and assistant medical officers...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894307/regional-health-workforce-monitoring-as-governance-innovation-a-german-model-to-coordinate-sectoral-demand-skill-mix-and-mobility
#6
E Kuhlmann, O Lauxen, C Larsen
BACKGROUND: As health workforce policy is gaining momentum, data sources and monitoring systems have significantly improved in the European Union and internationally. Yet data remain poorly connected to policy-making and implementation and often do not adequately support integrated approaches. This brings the importance of governance and the need for innovation into play. CASE: The present case study introduces a regional health workforce monitor in the German Federal State of Rhineland-Palatinate and seeks to explore the capacity of monitoring to innovate health workforce governance...
November 28, 2016: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890590/can-cleanerfish-overcome-temptation-a-selective-role-for-dopamine-influence-on-cooperative-based-decision-making
#7
Marta C Soares, Sónia C Cardoso, João T Malato, João P M Messias
Evidence suggests that animals are selected to make accurate choices and prioritize goals within the constraints of a given social environment to maximize fitness. These decisions are mostly based on complex processes in which value is linked to reward and cues may carry variable incentive salience. However, the level in which the incentive elicited by a cue is able to shift individual choices should differ between individuals and neurophysiological states. Here we used a notorious cooperative cleanerfish species Labroides dimidiatus to probe for differences in the incentive motivational valences given to food cues and then tested for the role of the dopaminergic system in the appraisal of such cues...
November 24, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878940/people-processes-and-systems-an-observational-study-of-the-role-of-technology-in-rural-youth-mental-health-services
#8
Simone Orlowski, Sharon Lawn, Ben Matthews, Anthony Venning, Gabrielle Jones, Megan Winsall, Gaston Antezana, Niranjan Bidargaddi, Peter Musiat
The merits of technology-based mental health service reform have been widely debated among academics, practitioners, and policy makers. The design of new technologies must first be predicated on a detailed appreciation of how the mental health system works before it can be improved or changed through the introduction of new products and services. Further work is required to better understand the nature of face-to-face mental health work and to translate this knowledge to computer scientists and system designers responsible for creating technology-based solutions...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875145/vidx-visual-diagnostics-of-assembly-line-performance-in-smart-factories
#9
Panpan Xu, Honghui Mei, Liu Ren, Wei Chen
Visual analytics plays a key role in the era of connected industry (or industry 4.0, industrial internet) as modern machines and assembly lines generate large amounts of data and effective visual exploration techniques are needed for troubleshooting, process optimization, and decision making. However, developing effective visual analytics solutions for this application domain is a challenging task due to the sheer volume and the complexity of the data collected in the manufacturing processes. We report the design and implementation of a comprehensive visual analytics system, ViDX...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869876/-smart-web-support-a-new-tool-to-help-information-sharing-in-managing-complex-paediatric-diseases-study-protocol
#10
Paola Rosati, Armando Grossi, Alessandro Inserra, Graziamaria Ubertini, Giusy Ferro, Barbara Baldini Ferroli, Ludovica Martini, Daniela Cotzia
As devices for learning, smart-web support (SWS) multimedia hypertexts on the web now provide more versatile and interactive reading systems than those traditionally available in static printed texts. Designing similar tools for clinical practice would make complex scientific information easier to comprehend, and present the various therapeutic options to patients as minimally alarming graphical representations. In a pilot project we intend to produce a SWS tool for parents or tutors of children with primary differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), a heretofore rare disease whose incidence has increased over recent years...
November 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869655/a-shared-decision-making-approach-to-telemedicine-engaging-rural-patients-in-glycemic-management
#11
Michelle L Griffith, Linda Siminerio, Tammie Payne, Jodi Krall
Telemedicine can connect specialist health care providers with patients in remote and underserved areas. It is especially relevant in diabetes care, where a proliferation of treatment options has added further complexity to the care of an already complex, highly prevalent disease. Recent developments in health reform encourage delivery systems to use team-based models and engage patients in shared decision-making (SDM), where patients and providers together make health care decisions that are tailored to the specific characteristics and values of the patient...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866799/inhibitory-control-in-the-cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamocortical-loop-complex-regulation-and-interplay-with-memory-and-decision-processes
#12
Wei Wei, Xiao-Jing Wang
We developed a circuit model of spiking neurons that includes multiple pathways in the basal ganglia (BG) and is endowed with feedback mechanisms at three levels: cortical microcircuit, corticothalamic loop, and cortico-BG-thalamocortical system. We focused on executive control in a stop signal task, which is known to depend on BG across species. The model reproduces a range of experimental observations and shows that the newly discovered feedback projection from external globus pallidus to striatum is crucial for inhibitory control...
November 16, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862866/utility-of-patient-specific-silicone-renal-models-for-planning-and-rehearsal-of-complex-tumor-resections-prior-to-robotic-assisted-laparoscopic-partial-nephrectomy
#13
Friedrich-Carl von Rundstedt, Jason M Scovell, Smriti Agrawal, Jacques Zaneveld, Richard E Link
OBJECTIVE: Surgical planning for robotic partial nephrectomy (RALPN) depends on preoperative imaging and interpretation of spatial relationships between tumor and renal anatomy. We describe our experience using patient specific tissue-like kidney models created with advanced 3D printing technology for preoperative planning and surgical rehearsal prior to RALPN . PATIENTS AND METHODS: A feasibility study of 10 patients with solid renal masses who underwent RALPN after preoperative rehearsal using 3D print models...
November 10, 2016: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852907/scoring-the-current-risk-stratification-guidelines-in-follow-up-evaluation-of-patients-after-metal-on-metal-hip-arthroplasty-a-proposal-for-a-metal-on-metal-risk-score-supporting-clinical-decision-making
#14
Daniel K Hussey, Rami Madanat, Gabrielle S Donahue, Ola Rolfson, Charles R Bragdon, Orhun K Muratoglu, Henrik Malchau
BACKGROUND: In the follow-up evaluation of patients with metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacements, current evidence suggests that orthopaedic surgeons should avoid reliance on any single investigative tool. Current risk stratification guidelines can be difficult to interpret because they do not provide guidance when there are several risk factors in different groups (high and low risk). To improve the clinical utility of risk stratification guidelines, we designed a scoring system to assess the risk of revision...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844153/-erratum-to-shared-decision-making-even-for-complex-systemic-autoimmune-diseases-such-as-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-sle
#15
M Schneider, H Carnarius, T Schlegl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835670/robust-satisficing-decision-making-for-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-complex-missions-under-severe-uncertainty
#16
Xiaoting Ji, Yifeng Niu, Lincheng Shen
This paper presents a robust satisficing decision-making method for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) executing complex missions in an uncertain environment. Motivated by the info-gap decision theory, we formulate this problem as a novel robust satisficing optimization problem, of which the objective is to maximize the robustness while satisfying some desired mission requirements. Specifically, a new info-gap based Markov Decision Process (IMDP) is constructed to abstract the uncertain UAV system and specify the complex mission requirements with the Linear Temporal Logic (LTL)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834600/challenges-and-opportunities-for-disinvestment-in-australia
#17
Rebecca Trowman Day, Richard Norman, Suzanne Robinson
Purpose Worldwide, there is significant growth in the cost of (and demand for) healthcare, which often clashes with a requirement to contain expenditure. This duality leads to an increasing need for a systematic approach to disinvestment in health technologies. The purpose of this paper is to consider the challenges and opportunities for disinvestment policy decisions in Australia. It discusses the implementation of the Choosing Wisely campaign and the need for rigorous evaluation of such campaigns in the Australian healthcare system...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823735/long-term-health-issues-related-to-disorders-or-differences-in-sex-development-intersex
#18
REVIEW
Jennifer M Beale, Sarah M Creighton
DSD (Disorders or Differences in Sex Development) and Intersex are terms used to describe a diverse group of congenital conditions where the development of the reproductive system is different from what is usually expected. These conditions usually present at birth or adolescence and the health implications are wide ranging and often life-long. Given the complexity of many of the conditions, health care input when required should be provided by a multidisciplinary team who have appropriate expertise. Holistic care should include the consideration of the risk of cancer, prevention of osteoporosis, advice on hormones, sexual health and fertility options, and ongoing support in order to optimise quality of life and wellbeing...
December 2016: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810622/generic-feature-learning-for-wireless-capsule-endoscopy-analysis
#19
Santi Seguí, Michal Drozdzal, Guillem Pascual, Petia Radeva, Carolina Malagelada, Fernando Azpiroz, Jordi Vitrià
The interpretation and analysis of wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) recordings is a complex task which requires sophisticated computer aided decision (CAD) systems to help physicians with video screening and, finally, with the diagnosis. Most CAD systems used in capsule endoscopy share a common system design, but use very different image and video representations. As a result, each time a new clinical application of WCE appears, a new CAD system has to be designed from the scratch. This makes the design of new CAD systems very time consuming...
October 19, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797151/interrogating-feature-learning-models-to-discover-insights-into-the-development-of-human-expertise-in-a-real-time-dynamic-decision-making-task
#20
Catherine Sibert, Wayne D Gray, John K Lindstedt
Tetris provides a difficult, dynamic task environment within which some people are novices and others, after years of work and practice, become extreme experts. Here we study two core skills; namely, (a) choosing the goal or objective function that will maximize performance and (b)a feature-based analysis of the current game board to determine where to place the currently falling zoid (i.e., Tetris piece) so as to maximize the goal. In Study 1, we build cross-entropy reinforcement learning (CERL) models (Szita & Lorincz, 2006) to determine whether different goals result in different feature weights...
October 31, 2016: Topics in Cognitive Science
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