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complexity, decision making, systems

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352526/ectrims-ean-guideline-on-the-pharmacological-treatment-of-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#1
X Montalban, R Gold, A J Thompson, S Otero-Romero, M P Amato, D Chandraratna, M Clanet, G Comi, T Derfuss, F Fazekas, H P Hartung, E Havrdova, B Hemmer, L Kappos, R Liblau, C Lubetzki, E Marcus, D H Miller, T Olsson, S Pilling, K Selmaj, A Siva, P S Sorensen, M P Sormani, C Thalheim, H Wiendl, F Zipp
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease of the central nervous system. As new drugs are becoming available, knowledge on diagnosis and treatment must continuously evolve. There is therefore a need for a reference tool compiling current data on benefit and safety, to aid professionals in treatment decisions and use of resources across Europe. The European Committee of Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) and the European Academy of Neurology (EAN) have joined forces to meet this need...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351297/a-fast-combination-method-in-dsmt-and-its-application-to-recommender-system
#2
Yilin Dong, Xinde Li, Yihai Liu
In many applications involving epistemic uncertainties usually modeled by belief functions, it is often necessary to approximate general (non-Bayesian) basic belief assignments (BBAs) to subjective probabilities (called Bayesian BBAs). This necessity occurs if one needs to embed the fusion result in a system based on the probabilistic framework and Bayesian inference (e.g. tracking systems), or if one needs to make a decision in the decision making problems. In this paper, we present a new fast combination method, called modified rigid coarsening (MRC), to obtain the final Bayesian BBAs based on hierarchical decomposition (coarsening) of the frame of discernment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344894/systems-biology-approaches-in-cancer-pathology
#3
Aaron DeWard, Rebecca J Critchley-Thorne
The complex network of the tissue system, in both pre-neoplastic tissues and tumors, demonstrates the need for a systems biology approach to cancer pathology, in which quantification of key tissue system processes is combined with informatics tools to produce actionable scores to aid clinical decision-making. A systems biology approach to cancer pathology enables integration of key system features that are relevant to diagnoses, patient outcomes, and responses to therapies. Key tissue system features relevant to cancer pathology include molecular and morphologic abnormalities in epithelia, cellular changes in the stroma such as immune infiltrates, and relationships between components of the system, such as interactions and spatial relationships between epithelial and stromal components, and also between specific immune cell subsets...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341110/eurogin-roadmap-2017-triage-strategies-for-the-management-of-hpv-positive-women-in-cervical-screening-programmes
#4
REVIEW
K Cuschieri, G Ronco, A Lorincz, L Smith, G Ogilvie, L Mirabello, F Carozzi, H Cubie, N Wentzensen, P Snijders, M Arbyn, J Monsonego J, S Franceschi
Cervical cancer screening will rely, increasingly, on HPV testing as a primary screen. The requirement for triage tests which can delineate clinically significant infection is thus prescient. In this EUROGIN 2017 roadmap, justification behind the most evidenced triages is outlined, as are challenges for implementation. Cytology is the triage with the most follow-up data; the existence of an HR-HPV positive, cytology negative group presents a challenge and re-testing intervals for this group (and choice of re-test) require careful consideration...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339310/distant-from-input-evidence-of-regions-within-the-default-mode-network-supporting-perceptually-decoupled-and-conceptually-guided-cognition
#5
Charlotte Murphy, Elizabeth Jefferies, Shirley-Ann Rueschemeyer, Mladen Sormaz, Hao-Ting Wang, Daniel S Margulies, Jonathan Smallwood
The default mode network supports a variety of mental operations such as semantic processing, episodic memory retrieval, mental time travel and mind-wandering, yet the commonalities between these functions remains unclear. One possibility is that this system supports cognition that is independent of the immediate environment; alternatively or additionally, it might support higher-order conceptual representations that draw together multiple features. We tested these accounts using a novel paradigm that separately manipulated the availability of perceptual information to guide decision-making and the representational complexity of this information...
January 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336903/one-year-experience-of-a-regional-service-model-of-teleconsultation-for-planning-and-treatment-of-complex-thoracoabdominal-aortic-disease
#6
Emiliano Chisci, Gianmarco de Donato, Aaron Fargion, Giorgio Ventoruzzo, Gianbattista Parlani, Carlo Setacci, Leonardo Ercolini, Stefano Michelagnoli
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to report the methodology and 1-year experience of a regional service model of teleconsultation for planning and treatment of complex thoracoabdominal aortic disease (TAAD). METHODS: Complex TAADs without a feasible conventional surgical repair were prospectively evaluated by vascular surgeons of the same public health service (National Health System) located in a huge area of 22,994 km2 with 3.7 million inhabitants and 11 tertiary hospitals...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334170/representing-causal-knowledge-in-environmental-policy-interventions-advantages-and-opportunities-for-qualitative-influence-diagram-applications
#7
John F Carriger, Brian E Dyson, William H Benson
This article develops and explores a methodology for using qualitative influence diagrams in environmental policy and management to support decision making efforts that minimize risk and increase resiliency. Influence diagrams are representations of the conditional aspects of a problem domain. Their graphical properties are useful for structuring causal knowledge relevant to policy interventions and can be used to enhance inference and inclusivity of multiple viewpoints. Qualitative components of influence diagrams are beneficial tools for identifying and examining the interactions among the critical variables in complex policy development and implementation...
January 15, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334168/representing-causal-knowledge-in-environmental-policy-interventions-advantages-and-opportunities-for-qualitative-influence-diagram-applications
#8
John F Carriger, Brian E Dyson, William H Benson
This article develops and explores a methodology for using qualitative influence diagrams in environmental policy and management to support decision making efforts that minimize risk and increase resiliency. Influence diagrams are representations of the conditional aspects of a problem domain. Their graphical properties are useful for structuring causal knowledge relevant to policy interventions and can be used to enhance inference and inclusivity of multiple viewpoints. Qualitative components of influence diagrams are beneficial tools for identifying and examining the interactions among the critical variables in complex policy development and implementation...
January 15, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333577/prostate-cancer-patients-understanding-of-the-gleason-scoring-system-implications-for-shared-decision-making
#9
Erin K Tagai, Suzanne M Miller, Alexander Kutikov, Michael A Diefenbach, Ronak A Gor, Tahseen Al-Saleem, David Y T Chen, Sara Fleszar, Gem Roy
The Gleason scoring system is a key component of a prostate cancer diagnosis, since it indicates disease aggressiveness. It also serves as a risk communication tool that facilitates shared treatment decision-making. However, the system is highly complex and therefore difficult to communicate: factors which have been shown to undermine well-informed and high-quality shared treatment decision-making. To systematically explore prostate cancer patients' understanding of the Gleason scoring system (GSS), we assessed knowledge and perceived importance among men who had completed treatment (N = 50)...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331967/understanding-frailty-a-qualitative-study-of-european-healthcare-policy-makers-approaches-to-frailty-screening-and-management
#10
Holly Gwyther, Rachel Shaw, Eva-Amparo Jaime Dauden, Barbara D'Avanzo, Donata Kurpas, Maria Bujnowska-Fedak, Tomasz Kujawa, Maura Marcucci, Antonio Cano, Carol Holland
OBJECTIVE: To elicit European healthcare policy-makers' views, understanding and attitudes about the implementation of frailty screening and management strategies and responses to stakeholders' views. DESIGN: Thematic analysis of semistructured qualitative interviews. SETTING: European healthcare policy departments. PARTICIPANTS: Seven European healthcare policy-makers representing the European Union (n=2), UK (n=2), Italy (n=1), Spain (n=1) and Poland (n=1)...
January 13, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326036/exploring-young-mothers-experiences-with-postpartum-contraception-in-ottawa-results-from-a-multi-methods-qualitative-study
#11
Elyse Fortier, Angel M Foster
OBJECTIVES: Postpartum contraception plays a significant role in reducing subsequent pregnancy. However, young mothers in Ottawa, the capital of Canada, face various barriers when trying to access contraception after delivery. Through this project we aimed to explore these barriers and understand the decision-making processes of young mothers surrounding postpartum contraception. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted 10 semi-structured in-depth interviews with young mothers living in Ottawa who had experienced a subsequent pregnancy within 24 months of their first childbirth...
January 8, 2018: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311282/a-multimodal-strategy-used-by-a-large-c-di-gmp-network
#12
Kurt M Dahlstrom, Alan J Collins, Georgia Doing, Jaclyn N Taroni, Timothy J Gauvin, Casey S Greene, Deborah A Hogan, George A O'Toole
The Pseudomonas fluorescens genome encodes for 50+ proteins predicted to be involved in c-di-GMP signaling. Here, we demonstrate that when tested across 188 nutrients, these enzymes and effectors appear capable of impacting biofilm formation. Transcriptional analysis of network members across ∼50 nutrient conditions indicates that altered gene expression can explain a subset, but not all, of biofilm-formation responses to the nutrients. Additional organization of the network is likely achieved through physical interaction, as determined via probing ∼2000 interactions by bacterial two-hybrid assays...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295004/leaving-and-beyond-voices-of-survivors-of-domestic-violence-from-kyrgyzstan
#13
Saltanat Childress, Subadra Panchanadeswaran, Manisha Joshi
Despite the global nature of domestic violence against women, few studies have examined the phenomenon in Kyrgyzstan. This grounded theory study gives voice to survivors of domestic violence by examining women's experiences of various forms of violence and the complexities surrounding Kyrgyz women's decision making about leaving violent relationships. Findings revealed that survivors move through a three-stage process of leaving: (a) reaching a turning point, (b) implementing the leaving process, and (c) reclaiming self...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291053/decision-landscapes-visualizing-mouse-tracking-data
#14
A Zgonnikov, A Aleni, P T Piiroinen, D O'Hora, M di Bernardo
Computerized paradigms have enabled gathering rich data on human behaviour, including information on motor execution of a decision, e.g. by tracking mouse cursor trajectories. These trajectories can reveal novel information about ongoing decision processes. As the number and complexity of mouse-tracking studies increase, more sophisticated methods are needed to analyse the decision trajectories. Here, we present a new computational approach to generating decision landscape visualizations based on mouse-tracking data...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288419/based-real-time-remote-health-monitoring-systems-a-review-on-patients-prioritization-and-related-big-data-using-body-sensors-information-and-communication-technology
#15
REVIEW
Naser Kalid, A A Zaidan, B B Zaidan, Omar H Salman, M Hashim, H Muzammil
The growing worldwide population has increased the need for technologies, computerised software algorithms and smart devices that can monitor and assist patients anytime and anywhere and thus enable them to lead independent lives. The real-time remote monitoring of patients is an important issue in telemedicine. In the provision of healthcare services, patient prioritisation poses a significant challenge because of the complex decision-making process it involves when patients are considered 'big data'. To our knowledge, no study has highlighted the link between 'big data' characteristics and real-time remote healthcare monitoring in the patient prioritisation process, as well as the inherent challenges involved...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287301/-position-paper-of-the-ag-digital-health-dnvf-on-digital-health-applications-framework-conditions-for-use-in-health-care-structural-development-and-science
#16
Horst Christian Vollmar, Ursula Kramer, Hardy Müller, Maria Griemmert, Guido Noelle, Matthias Schrappe
The term "digital health" is currently the most comprehensive term that includes all information and communication technologies in healthcare, including e-health, mobile health, telemedicine, big data, health apps and others. Digital health can be seen as a good example of the use of the concept and methodology of health services research in the interaction between complex interventions and complex contexts. The position paper deals with 1) digital health as the subject of health services research; 2) digital health as a methodological and ethical challenge for health services research...
December 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282068/advancing-beyond-the-system-telemedicine-nurses-clinical-reasoning-using-a-computerised-decision-support-system-for-patients-with-copd-an-ethnographic-study
#17
Tina Lien Barken, Elin Thygesen, Ulrika Söderhamn
BACKGROUND: Telemedicine is changing traditional nursing care, and entails nurses performing advanced and complex care within a new clinical environment, and monitoring patients at a distance. Telemedicine practice requires complex disease management, advocating that the nurses' reasoning and decision-making processes are supported. Computerised decision support systems are being used increasingly to assist reasoning and decision-making in different situations. However, little research has focused on the clinical reasoning of nurses using a computerised decision support system in a telemedicine setting...
December 28, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278737/network-science-in-clinical-trials-a-patient-centered-approach
#18
REVIEW
Venkata Manem, Roberto Salgado, Philippe Aftimos, Christos Sotiriou, Benjamin Haibe-Kains
There has been a paradigm shift in translational oncology with the advent of novel molecular diagnostic tools in the clinic. However, several challenges are associated with the integration of these sophisticated tools into clinical oncology and daily practice. High-throughput profiling at the DNA, RNA and protein levels (omics) generate a massive amount of data. The analysis and interpretation of these is non-trivial but will allow a more thorough understanding of cancer. Linear modelling of the data as it is often used today is likely to limit our understanding of cancer as a complex disease, and at times under-performs to capture a phenotype of interest...
December 23, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273040/multiple-constraints-compromise-decision-making-about-implantable-medical-devices-for-individual-patients-qualitative-interviews-with-physicians
#19
Anna R Gagliardi, Ariel Ducey, Pascale Lehoux, Thomas Turgeon, Jeremy Kolbunik, Sue Ross, Patricia Trbovich, Anthony Easty, Chaim Bell, David R Urbach
BACKGROUND: Little research has examined how physicians choose medical devices for treating individual patients to reveal if interventions are needed to support decision-making and reduce device-associated morbidity and mortality. This study explored factors that influence choice of implantable device from among available options. METHODS: A descriptive qualitative approach was used. Physicians who implant orthopedic and cardiovascular devices were identified in publicly available directories and web sites...
December 22, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248085/recommendations-on-arresting-global-health-challenges-facing-adolescents-and-young-adults
#20
Zohra S Lassi, Rehana A Salam, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: The health challenges faced by young people are more complex than adults and can compromise their full growth and development. Attention must be paid to the health of this age group, yet adolescents and youth remain largely invisible and often disappear from the major global datasets. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to discuss the global health challenges faced by adolescents and youth, global legislations and guidelines pertaining to this particular age group, recommendations to arrest these challenges, and research priorities...
September 2017: Annals of Global Health
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