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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148818/dissociation-constants-of-cytochrome-p450-2c9-cytochrome-p450-reductase-complexes-in-a-lipid-bilayer-membrane-depend-on-nadph-a-single-protein-tracking-study
#1
Carlo Barnaba, Evan Taylor, James A Brozik
Cytochrome P450-Reductase (CPR) is a versatile NADPH-dependent electron donor located in the cytoplasmic side of the endoplasmic reticulum. It is an electron transferase that is able to deliver electrons to a variety of membrane-bound oxidative partners, including the drug-metabolizing enzymes of the cytochrome P450s (P450). CPR is also stoichiometrically limited compared to its oxidative counterparts and hypotheses have arisen about possible models that can overcome the stochiometric imbalance, including quaternary organization of P450 and diffusion-limited models...
November 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136681/assessment-of-multiple-cytochrome-p450-activities-in-metabolically-inactivated-human-liver-microsomes-and-roles-of-p450-2c-isoforms-in-reaction-phenotyping-studies
#2
Norie Murayama, Kanako Yajima, Mikiko Hikawa, Kanami Shimura, Yu Ishii, Masaki Takada, Yasuhiro Uno, Masahiro Utoh, Kazuhide Iwasaki, Hiroshi Yamazaki
The fraction of substrate metabolized (fm ) can be used to estimate drug interactions and can be determined by comparison of the intrinsic clearances (CLint ) of victim drugs obtained from inhibited and uninhibited hepatic enzymes. Commercially available human liver microsomes were recently developed in which one cytochrome P450 (P450) isoform is selectively inactivated. These inactivated liver microsomes were used to evaluate the roles of P450 2C isoforms in the depletion and oxidation of probe substrates...
November 14, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133569/efficacy-of-tilorone-dihydrochloride-against-ebola-virus-infection
#3
Sean Ekins, Mary A Lingerfelt, Jason E Comer, Alexander N Freiberg, Jon C Mirsalis, Kathleen O'Loughlin, Anush Harutyunyan, Claire McFarlane, Carol E Green, Peter B Madrid
Tilorone dihydrochloride (tilorone) is a small-molecule, orally bioavailable drug that is used clinically as an antiviral outside of the US. A machine learning model trained on anti-Ebola virus (EBOV) screening data previously identified tilorone as a potent in vitro EBOV inhibitor, making it a candidate for the treatment of Ebola virus disease (EVD). In the present study, a series of in vitro ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity) assays demonstrated the drug has excellent solubility, high Caco-2 permeability, was not a P-glycoprotein substrate and had no inhibitory activity against five human CYP450 enzymes (3A4, 2D6, 2C19, 2C9 and 1A2)...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121650/flavin-containing-monooxygenase-3-fmo3-role-in-busulphan-metabolic-pathway
#4
Ibrahim El-Serafi, Ylva Terelius, Manuchehr Abedi-Valugerdi, Seán Naughton, Maryam Saghafian, Ali Moshfegh, Jonas Mattsson, Zuzana Potácová, Moustapha Hassan
Busulphan (Bu) is an alkylating agent used in the conditioning regimen prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Bu is extensively metabolized in the liver via conjugations with glutathione to form the intermediate metabolite (sulfonium ion) which subsequently is degraded to tetrahydrothiophene (THT). THT was reported to be oxidized forming THT-1-oxide that is further oxidized to sulfolane and finally 3-hydroxysulfolane. However, the underlying mechanisms for the formation of these metabolites remain poorly understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120380/in-vitro-phase-i-metabolism-of-crv431-a-novel-oral-drug-candidate-for-chronic-hepatitis-b
#5
Daniel J Trepanier, Daren R Ure, Robert T Foster
The cytochrome P450-mediated Phase I in vitro metabolism of CRV431 was studied using selective chemical inhibition and recombinant human enzymes. Additionally, the metabolic profile of CRV431 in human, rat, and monkey liver microsomes was investigated. Liver microsomes were incubated for 0-80 min with CRV431, and the metabolite profile was assessed by electrospray ionization liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (ESI-LCMS). CRV431 was extensively metabolized through oxidation to produce various hydroxylated and demethylated species...
November 9, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119333/physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modelling-of-cytochrome-p450%C3%A2-2c9-related-tolbutamide-drug-interactions-with-sulfaphenazole-and-tasisulam
#6
Everett J Perkins, Maria Posada, P Kellie Turner, Jill Chappell, Wee Teck Ng, Chris Twelves
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) is involved in the biotransformation of many commonly used drugs, and significant drug interactions have been reported for CYP2C9 substrates. Previously published physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of tolbutamide are based on an assumption that its metabolic clearance is exclusively through CYP2C9; however, many studies indicate that CYP2C9 metabolism is only responsible for 80-90% of the total clearance. Therefore, these models are not useful for predicting the magnitude of CYP2C9 drug-drug interactions (DDIs)...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100760/comparative-study-on-the-interaction-between-3-cyp2c9-allelic-isoforms-and-benzbromarone-by-using-lc-ms-ms-method
#7
Lingli He, Chuan Li, Xuyuan Liu, Qingqing Yang, Haizhi Zhang, Weiren Xu, Luyong Zhang, Changxiao Liu
Benzbromarone is a uricosuric drug metabolized predominantly by cytochrome P450 2C9 from in vitro findings. Human CYP2C9 exhibits extensive genetic polymorphism and numbers of clinic studies have demonstrated that CYP2C9 genetic polymorphism has a significant influence on the pharmacokinetics of benzbromarone. But in vitro study on the interaction between CYP2C9 allelic isoforms and benzbromarone was rare. Here, an LC-MS/MS method was established and validated to determine the concentration of benzbromarone in different CYP2C9 enzyme incubation systems for the drug-enzyme interaction study...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096568/preclinical-evaluation-of-safety-of-fucoidan-extracts-from-undaria-pinnatifida-and-fucus-vesiculosus-for-use-in-cancer-treatment
#8
Lata Mathew, Maryam Burney, Anjali Gaikwad, Pranavand Nyshadham, Elizabeth K Nugent, Anneliese Gonzalez, Judith A Smith
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate potential hepatic metabolism-mediated drug interactions with fucoidan from Undaria pinnatifida (UPF) or Fucus vesiculosus (FVF) and potential growth inhibition activity with either fucoidan alone or with chemotherapy. In vivo studies were done to confirm safety and investigate fucoidan-mediated immune modulation. METHODS: Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) 3A4, 2C8, 2C9, and 2D6 inhibition experiments were conducted in vitro followed by an ex vivo human hepatocytes model to evaluate the CYP450 induction potential of each fucoidan at highest theoretical concentrations...
December 2017: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076107/pharmacokinetic-evaluation-of-the-interactions-of-amenamevir-asp2151-with-ketoconazole-rifampicin-midazolam-and-warfarin-in-healthy-adults
#9
Tomohiro Kusawake, Martin den Adel, Dorien Groenendaal-van de Meent, Alberto Garcia-Hernandez, Akitsugu Takada, Kota Kato, Yoshiaki Ohtsu, Masataka Katashima
INTRODUCTION: Amenamevir is a nonnucleoside antiherpes virus compound available for treating herpes zoster infections. Four studies aimed to determine any potential interactions between amenamevir and ketoconazole, rifampicin, midazolam, or warfarin in healthy male participants. METHODS: Two studies were open-label studies that evaluated the effects of multiple doses of ketoconazole (400 mg) and rifampicin (600 mg) on the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of amenamevir...
October 26, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054967/prediction-of-cytochrome-p450-mediated-drug-clearance-in-humans-based-on-the-measured-activities-of-selected-cyps
#10
Jie Gao, Jie Wang, Na Gao, Xin Tian, Jun Zhou, Yan Fang, Hai-Feng Zhang, Qiang Wen, Lin-Jing Jia, Dan Zou, Hai-Ling Qiao
Determining drug-metabolizing enzyme activities on an individual basis is an important component of personalized medicine, and cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play a principal role in hepatic drug metabolism. Herein, a simple method for predicting the major CYP-mediated drug clearance in vitro and in vivo is presented. Ten CYP-mediated drug metabolic activities in human liver microsomes (HLMs) from 105 normal liver samples were determined. The descriptive models for predicting the activities of these CYPs in HLMs were developed solely on the basis of the measured activities of a smaller number of more readily assayed CYPs...
October 20, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034770/association-with-polymorphic-marmoset-cytochrome-p450-2c19-of-in-vivo-hepatic-clearances-of-chirally-separated-r-omeprazole-and-s-warfarin-using-individual-marmoset-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-models
#11
Takashi Kusama, Akiko Toda, Makiko Shimizu, Shotaro Uehara, Takashi Inoue, Yasuhiro Uno, Masahiro Utoh, Erika Sasaki, Hiroshi Yamazaki
1. Simulated clearances of R-warfarin and efavirenz were recently reported for individual cynomolgus monkeys genotyped for cytochrome P450 2C19 and 2C9, respectively. To expand and verify this modeling procedure, simulations of R/S-omeprazole and R/S-warfarin clearances after oral administrations in individual marmosets were performed using individual simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling consisting of gut, liver, and central compartments. 2. Pharmacokinetics of R/S-omeprazole were chirally determined using the previously reported plasma microsamples in this study...
October 16, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994497/effects-of-vernonia-cinerea-compounds-on-drug-metabolizing-cytochrome-p450s-in-human-liver-microsomes
#12
Phisit Pouyfung, Songklod Sarapusit, Pornpimol Rongnoparut
Vernonia cinerea has been widely used in traditional medicines for various diseases and shown to aid in smoking abstinence and has anticancer properties. V. cinerea bioactive compounds, including flavonoids and hirsutinolide-type sesquiterpene lactones, have shown an inhibition effect on the nicotine-metabolizing cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) enzyme and hirsutinolides reported suppressing cancer growth. In this study, V. cinerea ethanol extract and its bioactive compounds, including four flavonoids and four hirsutinolides, were investigated for an inhibitory effect on human liver microsomal CYPs 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4 using cocktail inhibition assays combined with LC-MS/MS analysis...
October 10, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976882/genetic-polymorphisms-of-cyp2c9-cyp2c19-and-cyp3a5-in-kosovar-population
#13
Valon Krasniqi, Aleksandar Dimovski, Hasime Qorraj Bytyqi, Aleksandar Eftimov, Livija Šimičević, Nada Božina
Cytochrome P450 genetic polymorphisms are responsible for individual variations in drug metabolism and drug-drug interactions. They are very important for pharmacogenetics, and their frequency varies across different populations. There is a big gap in the knowledge about the CYP gene family polymorphisms in the population of Kosovo, and the aim of our study was to fill that gap by determining the frequency of the most important variant alleles of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A5 in 234 nonrelated Kosovars. The allele frequencies of CYP2C9*2 and 2C9*3 were 17...
September 26, 2017: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972767/structural-basis-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-cytochrome-p450-2c9
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Keiko Maekawa, Motoyasu Adachi, Yumiko Matsuzawa, Qinghai Zhang, Ryota Kuroki, Yoshiro Saito, Manish B Shah
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are important contributors to interindividual differences in drug metabolism leading to adverse drug reactions. Despite their extensive characterization and importance in pharmacogenetics of clinical drugs, the structural basis of CYP polymorphisms has remained scant. Here we report the crystal structures of human CYP2C9 and its polymorphic variants, *3 (I359L) and *30 (A477T), with an antihypertensive drug losartan. The structures show distinct interaction and occupation of losartan in the active site, the access channel, and the peripheral binding site...
October 17, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934153/inhibitory-effect-of-selaginellins-from-selaginella-tamariscina-beauv-spring-against-cytochrome-p450-and-uridine-5-diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase-isoforms-on-human-liver-microsomes
#15
Jae-Kyung Heo, Phi-Hung Nguyen, Won Cheol Kim, Nguyen Minh Phuc, Kwang-Hyeon Liu
Selaginella tamariscina (Beauv.) has been used for traditional herbal medicine for treatment of cancer, hepatitis, and diabetes in the Orient. Numerous bioactive compounds including alkaloids, flavonoids, lignans, and selaginellins have been identified in this medicinal plant. Among them, selaginellins having a quinone methide unit and an alkylphenol moiety have been known to possess anticancer, antidiabetic, and neuroprotective activity. Although there have been studies on the biological activities of selaginellins, their modulatory potential of cytochrome P450 (P450) and uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activities have not been previously evaluated...
September 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927781/function-of-38-variants-cyp2c9-polymorphism-on-ketamine-metabolism-in%C3%A2-vitro
#16
Xiang Zheng, Ping Fang, Su-Su Bao, Dan Lin, Jian-Ping Cai, Guo-Xin Hu
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450 proteins (CYP 450) is the most important enzyme system of drug phase I metabolism in liver. In previous reports, reduced efficiency or increased risk of adverse events can be affected by primary sequence mutation in CYP450. AIM: To investigate the effect of gene polymorphism on the metabolism of ketamine in vitro, including the new alleles: 2C9*58, *59 and *60. METHOD: Incubation system which was contained insect microsome, b5, NADPH and 1M PBS incubated 10 μM-1000 μM ketamine in 37 °C for 40 min concentration of norketamine was analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system (UPLC-MS/MS)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919331/production-and-characterization-of-monoclonal-antibodies-against-cathepsin-b-and-cathepsin-b-like-proteins-of-naegleria-fowleri
#17
Gi-Sang Seong, Hae-Jin Sohn, Heekyoung Kang, Ga-Eun Seo, Jong-Hyun Kim, Ho-Joon Shin
Naegleria fowleri causes fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans and experimental animals. In previous studies, cathepsin B (nfcpb) and cathepsin B-like (nfcpb-L) genes of N. fowleri were cloned, and it was suggested that refolding rNfCPB and rNfCPB-L proteins could play important roles in host tissue invasion, immune response evasion and nutrient uptake. In this study, we produced anti-NfCPB and anti-NfCPB-L monoclonal antibodies (McAb) using a cell fusion technique, and observed their immunological characteristics...
September 14, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901251/case-report-severe-hematological-muscle-and-liver-toxicity-caused-by-drugs-and-artichoke-infusion-interaction-in-an-elderly-polymedicated-patient
#18
M G Campos, J Machado, M L Costa, S Lino, F Correia, F Maltez
Case report, in a patient with a history of diabetes and hypertension, treated with metformin, gliclazide, enalapril + hydrochlorothiazide, amlodipine, aspirin and diazepam, recently medicated for a gouty crisis with colchicine and clonixin without improvement. Believing it could help in the treatment of gouty crisis symptoms he took about 1.5 L of artichoke infusion (Cynara cardunculus). He felt better and did agriculture work but developed a distal muscle pain, severe anemia, standard biochemical liver cholestasis, increase of alkaline phosphatase and marked increase of inflammatory parameters (hyperleucocytosis) and enters in the emergency department at the hospital...
September 12, 2017: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834279/the-cytochrome-p450-enzyme-responsible-for-the-production-of-z-norendoxifen-in-vitro
#19
Dabei Tang, Zhong Chu, Jessica Bo Li Lu, Jinzhong Liu, Qingyuan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Norendoxifen, an active metabolite of tamoxifen, is a potent aromatase inhibitor. Little information is available regarding production of norendoxifen in vitro. Here, we conducted a series of kinetic and inhibition studies in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and expressed P450s to study the metabolic disposition of norendoxifen. METHODS: To validate that norendoxifen was the metabolite of endoxifen, metabolites in HLMs incubates of endoxifen were measured using a HPLC/MS/MS method...
August 17, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782945/fame-2-simple-and-effective-machine-learning-model-of-cytochrome-p450-regioselectivity
#20
Martin Šícho, Christina de Bruyn Kops, Conrad Stork, Daniel Svozil, Johannes Kirchmair
We report on the further development of FAst MEtabolizer (FAME; J. Chem. Inf. MODEL: 2013, 53, 2896-2907), a collection of random forest models for the prediction of sites of metabolism (SoMs) of xenobiotics. A broad set of descriptors was explored, from simple 2D descriptors such as those used in FAME, to quantum chemical descriptors employed in some of the most accurate models for SoM prediction currently available. In line with the original FAME approach, our objective was to keep things simple and to come up with accurate and robust models that are based on a small number of 2D descriptors...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
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