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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075416/phosphorylated-radix-cyathulae-officinalis-polysaccharides-act-as-adjuvant-via-promoting-dendritic-cell-maturation
#1
Haibo Feng, Sean P McDonough, Jing Fan, Shiping Yang, Xuelian Zhao, Yong Lu, Yun Gan, Xiao Yi, Yung-Fu Chang
The aim of this study was to investigate whether phosphorylated Radix Cyathulae officinalis Kuan polysaccharides (pRCPS) used as adjuvant with foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (FMDV) can stimulate specific humoral and cellular immune responses in ICR mice. The results demonstrated that pRCPS significantly up-regulated FMDV-specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2b and IgG2a antibody levels and splenocyte proliferation. pRCPS also promoted the killing activities of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer cells (NK). In addition, pRCPS enhanced the expression levels of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-γ in CD4⁺ T cells and the level of IFN-γ in CD8⁺ T cells...
January 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039100/utility-of-systematic-isolation-of-immune-cell-subsets-from-hiv-infected-individuals-for-mirna-profiling
#2
Manel E Bargalló, Alberto C Guardo, Maria J Maleno, Laia Miralles, Lander Egaña-Gorroño, Tuixent Escribà, Felipe García, Jose M Gatell, Mireia Arnedo, Montserrat Plana
INTRODUCTION: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are frequently used for genomic analyses, but several factors can affect the yield and integrity of nucleic acids, including the methods of cell collection and isolation. The goal of this work was to analyze the utility of systematic isolation of different immune cell subsets by immunomagnetic separation and the RNA integrity after isolated cells from samples of HIV-infected patients. METHODS: PBMC from Healthy Controls (HC, n=15), Elite Controllers (EC, n=15), Viremic Controllers (VC, n=15), Viremic Progressors (VP, n=15) and HIV-infected patients on therapy (ART, n=15) were isolated by Ficoll-Paque density gradient centrifugation...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018351/allorecognition-of-hla-c-mismatches-by-cd8-t-cells-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-is-a-complex-interplay-between-mismatched-peptide-binding-region-residues-hla-c-expression-and-hla-dpb1-disparities
#3
Florence Bettens, Stéphane Buhler, Jean-Marie Tiercy
HLA-C locus mismatches (MMs) are the most frequent class I disparities in unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and have a detrimental impact on clinical outcome. Recently, a few retrospective clinical studies have reported some variability in the immunogenicity of HLA-C incompatibilities. To get better insight into presumably permissive HLA-C MMs, we have developed a one-way in vitro mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) assay allowing to quantify activated CD56(-)CD137(+)CD8(+) lymphocytes in HLA-C incompatible combinations...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011931/htlv-1-tax-specific-ctl-epitope-pulsed-dendritic-cell-therapy-reduces-proviral-load-in-infected-rats-with-immune-tolerance-against-tax
#4
Satomi Ando, Atsuhiko Hasegawa, Yuji Murakami, Na Zeng, Natsuko Takatsuka, Yasuhiro Maeda, Takao Masuda, Youko Suehiro, Mari Kannagi
Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), a CD4(+) T cell malignancy with a poor prognosis, is caused by human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. High proviral load (PVL) is a risk factor for the progression to ATL. We previously reported that some asymptomatic carriers had severely reduced functions of CTLs against HTLV-1 Tax, the major target Ag. Furthermore, the CTL responses tended to be inversely correlated with PVL, suggesting that weak HTLV-1-specific CTL responses may be involved in the elevation of PVL...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925010/the-effects-of-a-simple-method-for-cryopreservation-and-thawing-procedures-on-cord-blood-derived-dc-based-esophageal-carcinoma-vaccine
#5
J Yu, L Xie, S Chen, J Zhang, G Guo, B Chen
BACKGROUND: Producing sufficient numbers of DCs at one time point and subsequently cryopreserving the generated DCs in ready-for-use aliquots for clinical application is useful in cancer treatment. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of a simplified cryopreservation method and thawing procedures acting on the biological characteristics and specific cytotoxic activity of cord blood derived DC-based esophageal carcinoma vaccine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells were isolated from cord blood using CD34+ Progenitor Cell Isolation Kit by magnetic cell sorting system (MACS)...
July 2016: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924731/improved-immunogenicity-against-a-her2-neu-derived-peptide-by-employment-of-a-pan-hla-dr-binding-epitope-and-cpg-in-a-balb-c-mice-model
#6
Sahar Tahaghoghi-Hajghorbani, Jalil Tavakkol-Afshari, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Haniyeh Ghaffari-Nazari, Elham Masoumi, Seyed Amir Jalali
BACKGROUND: An efficient strategy to improve the immunogenicity of peptide vaccines is the use of a synthetic peptide containing cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes with T-helper (Th) inducing-epitopes. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine the use of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (Her2/neu)-specific CTL epitopes plus the pan HLA DR-binding epitope (PADRE) and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) to induce antitumor effects in vaccinated mice. METHOD: Female BALB/c mice were immunized with subcutaneously the different vaccines...
December 6, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895776/establishment-of-specific-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-culture-system-and-its-inhibitory-effect-on-ovarian-cancer
#7
Mingxing Sui, Lihui Si, Tianmin Xu, Manhua Cui
The present study aimed to establish a novel method for efficiently inducing cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in vitro, in order to develop an immune-based therapy for suppressing and killing ovarian cancer cells with a high safety and efficacy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpGODN) and ginsenoside Rg1, which were united as an immune adjuvant, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) antigen peptide, in order to establish a specific CTL culture system in vitro...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872100/regeneration-of-cd8%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-from-t-cell-derived-ipsc-imparts-potent-tumor-antigen-specific-cytotoxicity
#8
Takuya Maeda, Seiji Nagano, Hiroshi Ichise, Keisuke Kataoka, Daisuke Yamada, Seishi Ogawa, Haruhiko Koseki, Toshio Kitawaki, Norimitsu Kadowaki, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo, Kyoko Masuda, Hiroshi Kawamoto
Although adoptive transfer of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) offer a promising cancer therapeutic direction, the generation of antigen-specific CTL from patients has faced difficulty in efficient expansion in ex vivo culture. To resolve this issue, several groups have proposed that induced pluripotent stem cell technology be applied for the expansion of antigen-specific CTL, which retain expression of the same T-cell receptor as original CTL. However, in these previous studies, the regenerated CTL are mostly of the CD8αα(+) innate type and have less antigen-specific cytotoxic activity than primary CTL...
December 1, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853459/immunosenescence-related-transcriptomic-and-immunologic-changes-in-older-individuals-following-influenza-vaccination
#9
Richard B Kennedy, Inna G Ovsyannikova, Iana H Haralambieva, Ann L Oberg, Michael T Zimmermann, Diane E Grill, Gregory A Poland
The goal of annual influenza vaccination is to reduce mortality and morbidity associated with this disease through the generation of protective immune responses. The objective of the current study was to examine markers of immunosenescence and identify immunosenescence-related differences in gene expression, gene regulation, cytokine secretion, and immunologic changes in an older study population receiving seasonal influenza A/H1N1 vaccination. Surprisingly, prior studies in this cohort revealed weak correlations between immunosenescence markers and humoral immune response to vaccination...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837106/cutting-edge-t-regulatory-cell-depletion-reactivates-latent-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-siv-in-controller-macaques-while-boosting-siv-specific-t-lymphocytes
#10
Tianyu He, Egidio Brocca-Cofano, Benjamin B Policicchio, Ranjit Sivanandham, Rajeev Gautam, Kevin D Raehtz, Cuiling Xu, Ivona Pandrea, Cristian Apetrei
T regulatory cells (Tregs) are critical in shaping the latent HIV/SIV reservoir, as they are preferentially infected, reverse CD4(+) T cell activation status, and suppress CTL responses. To reactivate latent virus and boost cell-mediated immune responses, we performed in vivo Treg depletion with Ontak (denileukin diftitox) in two SIVsab-infected controller macaques. Ontak induced significant (>75%) Treg depletion and major CD4(+) T cell activation, and only minimally depleted CD8(+) T cells. The overall ability of Tregs to control immune responses was significantly impaired despite their incomplete depletion, resulting in both reactivation of latent virus (virus rebound to 10(3) viral RNA copies/ml plasma in the absence of antiretroviral therapy) and a significant boost of SIV-specific CD8(+) T cell frequency, with rapid clearance of reactivated virus...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806296/opposing-development-of-cytotoxic-and-follicular-helper-cd4%C3%A2-t-cells-controlled-by-the-tcf-1-bcl6-nexus
#11
Tiziano Donnarumma, George R Young, Julia Merkenschlager, Urszula Eksmond, Nadine Bongard, Stephen L Nutt, Claude Boyer, Ulf Dittmer, Vu Thuy Khanh Le-Trilling, Mirko Trilling, Wibke Bayer, George Kassiotis
CD4(+) T cells develop distinct and often contrasting helper, regulatory, or cytotoxic activities. Typically a property of CD8(+) T cells, granzyme-mediated cytotoxic T cell (CTL) potential is also exerted by CD4(+) T cells. However, the conditions that induce CD4(+) CTLs are not entirely understood. Using single-cell transcriptional profiling, we uncover a unique signature of Granzyme B (GzmB)(+) CD4(+) CTLs, which distinguishes them from other CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells, including Th1 cells, and strongly contrasts with the follicular helper T (Tfh) cell signature...
November 1, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780916/efficient-generation-of-antigen-specific-ctls-by-the-baff-activated-human-b-lymphocytes-as-apcs-a-novel-approach-for-immunotherapy
#12
Zhang Yiwen, Gao Shilin, Chen Yingshi, Su Lishi, Luo Baohong, Liu Chao, Li Linghua, Pan Ting, Zhang Hui
Efficient antigen presentation is indispensable for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immunotherapy. B-lymphocytes propagated with CD40L have been developed as antigen-presenting cells (APCs), but this capacity needs further optimization. Here, we aimed to expand human B-lymphocytes on a large scale while maintaining their antigen-presenting ability by using both CD40L and B-cell activating factor (BAFF). The addition of BAFF enhanced the expansion efficiency and prolonged the culture time without causing apoptosis of the expanded B-cells...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769524/dynamic-acquisition-of-htlv-1-tax-protein-by-mononuclear-phagocytes-role-in-neurologic-disease
#13
Eiji Matsuura, Yoshimi Enose-Akahata, Karen Yao, Unsong Oh, Yuetsu Tanaka, Hiroshi Takashima, Steven Jacobson
Pathology of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/Tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is believed to be the result of "bystander damage" involving effector CD8 (+) T lymphocytes (CTLs) killing of virus infected cells. But the specific cellular events leading up to tissue injury are still unclear. Here, we developed the Microscopy Imaging of Cytotoxic T lymphocyte assay with Fluorescence emission (MI-CaFé), an optimized visualization analysis to explore the interactions between CTLs and virus infected or viral antigen presenting target cells...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755110/early-evolution-of-human-leucocyte-antigen-associated-escape-mutations-in-variable-gag-proteins-predicts-cd4-decline-in-hiv-1-subtype-c-infected-women
#14
Denis R Chopera, Roman Ntale, Nonkululeko Ndabambi, Nigel Garrett, Clive M Gray, David Matten, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Salim Abdool Karim, Carolyn Williamson
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 escape from cytotoxic T-lymphocytes results in the accumulation of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-associated mutations in the viral genome. To understand the contribution of early escape to disease progression, this study investigated the evolution and pathogenic implications of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte escape in a cohort followed from infection for 5 years. METHODS: Viral loads and CD4 cell counts were monitored in 78 subtype C-infected individuals from onset of infection until CD4 cell count decline to less than 350 cells/μl or 5 years postinfection...
January 14, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722177/th17-cells-exhibit-antitumor-effects-in-mds-possibly-through-augmenting-functions-of-cd8-t-cells
#15
Jing Li, Lanzhu Yue, Huaquan Wang, Chunyan Liu, Hui Liu, Jinglian Tao, Weiwei Qi, Yihao Wang, Wei Zhang, Rong Fu, Zonghong Shao
Th17 cells are a newly found subset of distinct CD4+ Th effector cells' family and are found to play an important role in cancers. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a common malignant hematological disease. Here, we showed that both the percentage and the function of Th17 cells were elevated in low-risk MDS while being decreased in high-risk MDS. Levels of upstream molecules of Th17 cells, IL-6 and IL-23, were higher in low-risk MDS but lower in high-risk MDS patients. The abnormal percentage of Th17 cells was closely related to clinical parameters including karyotype, morphologic blast percentage of bone marrow, peripheral absolute neutrophil count, and hemoglobin concentration...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692091/marek-s-disease-virus-immunosuppression-alters-host-cellular-responses-and-immune-gene-expression-in-the-skin-of-infected-chickens
#16
Mohammad Heidari, Dan Wang, Phillip Delekta, Shuhong Sun
Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated lymphotropic α-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of Marek's disease (MD) in domestic chickens. MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4(+) T cells. The latently infected CD4(+) T cells carry the virus to visceral organs, peripheral nerves, and feather follicle epithelium (FFE). FFE is the only anatomical site where infectious enveloped cell-free virus particles are produced and disseminated into the environment...
November 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669687/an-effective-cytokine-adjuvant-vaccine-induces-autologous-t-cell-response-against-colon-cancer-in-an-animal-model
#17
Huanyu Ju, Wenjing Xing, Jinfeng Yang, Yang Zheng, Xiuzhi Jia, Benning Zhang, Huan Ren
BACKGROUND: Despite recent advances in early detection and improvements in chemotherapy for colon cancer, the patients still face poor prognosis of postoperative recurrence and metastasis, the median survival for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer is approximately 22-24 months. Some immunotherapeutic approaches had been attempted in colon cancer patients to significantly increase overall survival. A vaccine based approach has shown a novel direction for colon cancer prevention and therapy...
September 26, 2016: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639281/the-primary-immune-response-to-vaccinia-virus-vaccination-includes-cells-with-a-distinct-cytotoxic-effector-cd4-t-cell-phenotype
#18
C Mee Ling Munier, David van Bockel, Michelle Bailey, Susanna Ip, Yin Xu, Sheilajen Alcantara, Sue Min Liu, Gareth Denyer, Warren Kaplan, Kazuo Suzuki, Nathan Croft, Anthony Purcell, David Tscharke, David A Cooper, Stephen J Kent, John J Zaunders, Anthony D Kelleher
BACKGROUND: Smallpox was eradicated by a global program of inoculation with Vaccinia virus (VV). Robust VV-specific CD4 T-cell responses during primary infection are likely essential to controlling VV replication. Although there is increasing interest in cytolytic CD4 T-cells across many viral infections, the importance of these cells during acute VV infection is unclear. METHODS: We undertook a detailed functional and genetic characterization of CD4 T-cells during acute VV-infection of humans...
October 17, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630237/monitoring-integration-over-time-supports-a-role-for-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-and-ongoing-replication-as-determinants-of-reservoir-size
#19
Marilia Rita Pinzone, Erin Graf, Lindsay Lynch, Brigit McLaughlin, Frederick M Hecht, Mark Connors, Stephen A Migueles, Wei-Ting Hwang, Giuseppe Nunnari, Una O'Doherty
: The dynamics of HIV reservoir accumulation off antiretroviral therapy (ART) is underexplored. Levels of integrated HIV DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were longitudinally monitored before and after antiviral therapy. HIV integration increased over time in both elite controllers (ECs; n = 8) and noncontrollers (NCs; n = 6) before ART, whereas integration remained stable in patients on ART (n = 4). The median annual fold change was higher in NCs than in ECs and negatively correlated with CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622060/biphasic-function-of-tlr3-adjuvant-on-tumor-and-spleen-dendritic-cells-promotes-tumor-t-cell-infiltration-and-regression-in-a-vaccine-therapy
#20
Masahiro Azuma, Yohei Takeda, Hiroko Nakajima, Haruo Sugiyama, Takashi Ebihara, Hiroyuki Oshiumi, Misako Matsumoto, Tsukasa Seya
Successful cancer immunotherapy necessitates T cell proliferation and infiltration into tumor without exhaustion, a process closely links optimal maturation of dendritic cells (DC), and adjuvant promotes this process as an essential prerequisite. Poly(I:C) has contributed to adjuvant immunotherapy that evokes an antitumor response through the Toll-loke receptor 3 (TLR3)/TICAM-1 pathway in DC. However, the mechanism whereby Poly(I:C) acts on DC for T cell proliferation and migration remains undetermined. Subcutaneous injection of Poly(I:C) regressed implant tumors (WT1-C1498 or OVA-EG7) in C57BL/6 mice, which coincided with tumor-infiltration of CD8(+) T cells...
August 2016: Oncoimmunology
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