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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595268/the-prognostic-role-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-at-the-onset-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#1
Vitaliano Nicola Quaranta, Pierluigi Carratù, Mario Francesco Damiani, Silvano Dragonieri, Alberto Capozzolo, Anna Cassano, Onofrio Resta
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of central and peripheral motor neurons. Some studies have found discordant data in the presence of sleep apnea in ALS patients. An obstructive component also occurs with upper airways hypotonia and muscle weakness that may result in an excessive reduction of airway lumen, leading to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of this study was to assess the role of obstructive apneic events at disease onset in the ALS prognosis...
September 6, 2016: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504105/non-motor-symptoms-in-patients-suffering-from-motor-neuron-diseases
#2
René Günther, Nicole Richter, Anna Sauerbier, Kallol Ray Chaudhuri, Pablo Martinez-Martin, Alexander Storch, Andreas Hermann
BACKGROUND: The recently postulated "disease spreading hypothesis" has gained much attention, especially for Parkinson's disease (PD). The various non-motor symptoms (NMS) in neurodegenerative diseases would be much better explained by this hypothesis than by the degeneration of disease-specific cell populations. Motor neuron disease (MND) is primarily known as a group of diseases with a selective loss of motor function. However, recent evidence suggests disease spreading into non-motor brain regions also in MND...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463686/peculiarities-of-neurological-disorders-and-study-designs
#3
Ettore Beghi, Elisabetta Pupillo, Giorgia Giussani
BACKGROUND: Neurological disorders are heterogeneous clinical conditions with variable course and outcome. SUMMARY: The basic aspects of the commonest neurological disorders are addressed along with the proposed structure of randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Dementing disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), are clinical conditions in which altered cognitive functions are associated with behavioral and personality changes. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisystem disorder characterized by motor dysfunction associated with dysautonomia, sleep and olfactory disturbances, cognitive changes, and depression...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27353839/dipals-diaphragm-pacing-in-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Christopher J McDermott, Mike J Bradburn, Chin Maguire, Cindy L Cooper, Wendy O Baird, Susan K Baxter, Judith Cohen, Hannah Cantrill, Simon Dixon, Roger Ackroyd, Simon Baudouin, Andrew Bentley, Richard Berrisford, Stephen Bianchi, Stephen C Bourke, Roy Darlison, John Ealing, Mark Elliott, Patrick Fitzgerald, Simon Galloway, Hisham Hamdalla, C Oliver Hanemann, Philip Hughes, Ibrahim Imam, Dayalan Karat, Roger Leek, Nick Maynard, Richard W Orrell, Abeezar Sarela, John Stradling, Kevin Talbot, Lyn Taylor, Martin Turner, Anita K Simonds, Tim Williams, Wisia Wedzicha, Carolyn Young, Pamela J Shaw
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease resulting in death, usually from respiratory failure, within 2-3 years of symptom onset. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a treatment that when given to patients in respiratory failure leads to improved survival and quality of life. Diaphragm pacing (DP), using the NeuRx/4(®) diaphragm pacing system (DPS)™ (Synapse Biomedical, Oberlin, OH, USA), is a new technique that may offer additional or alternative benefits to patients with ALS who are in respiratory failure...
June 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103193/high-accuracy-detection-of-early-parkinson-s-disease-through-multimodal-features-and-machine-learning
#5
R Prashanth, Sumantra Dutta Roy, Pravat K Mandal, Shantanu Ghosh
Early (or preclinical) diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is crucial for its early management as by the time manifestation of clinical symptoms occur, more than 60% of the dopaminergic neurons have already been lost. It is now established that there exists a premotor stage, before the start of these classic motor symptoms, characterized by a constellation of clinical features, mostly non-motor in nature such as Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep Behaviour Disorder (RBD) and olfactory loss. In this paper, we use the non-motor features of RBD and olfactory loss, along with other significant biomarkers such as Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) measurements and dopaminergic imaging markers from 183 healthy normal and 401 early PD subjects, as obtained from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) database, to classify early PD subjects from normal using Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Boosted Trees and Random Forests classifiers...
June 2016: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27046648/circadian-rhythm-dysfunction-a-novel-environmental-risk-factor-for-parkinson-s-disease
#6
E Lauretti, A Di Meco, S Merali, D Praticò
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Although rare genetically linked cases of PD have been reported, most incidences are sporadic in nature. Late-onset, sporadic PD is thought to result from the combined effects of genetic and environmental risk factors exposure. Sleep and circadian rhythm disorders are recurrent among PD patients and appear early in the disease. Although some evidence supports a relationship between circadian disruption (CD) and PD, whether this is secondary to the motor symptoms or, indeed, is a factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of the disease remains to be investigated...
April 5, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27016581/oxytocin-neuron-activation-prevents-hypertension-that-occurs-with-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-hypercapnia-in-rats
#7
Heather Jameson, Ryan Bateman, Peter Byrne, Jhansi Dyavanapalli, Xin Wang, Vivek Jain, David Mendelowitz
Hypertension is a common outcome associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a prevalent yet poorly treated cardiovascular disease. Recent studies showed oxytocin (OXT), released from hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons, activates cardiac vagal neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNX) and may blunt cardiovascular responses to stress. This study tests whether the release of OXT from PVN fibers in the DMNX is diminished with chronic intermittent hypoxia-hypercapnia (CIH/H) exposure, an animal model of OSA, and whether activation of PVN OXT neurons restores OXT release in the DMNX and prevents the hypertension resulting from CIH/H...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27007844/thalamic-reticular-impairment-underlies-attention-deficit-in-ptchd1-y-mice
#8
Michael F Wells, Ralf D Wimmer, L Ian Schmitt, Guoping Feng, Michael M Halassa
Developmental disabilities, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), intellectual disability (ID), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), affect one in six children in the USA. Recently, gene mutations in patched domain containing 1 (PTCHD1) have been found in ~1% of patients with ID and ASD. Individuals with PTCHD1 deletion show symptoms of ADHD, sleep disruption, hypotonia, aggression, ASD, and ID. Although PTCHD1 is probably critical for normal development, the connection between its deletion and the ensuing behavioural defects is poorly understood...
April 7, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26904266/update-on-clinical-trials-in-home-mechanical-ventilation
#9
REVIEW
Luke E Hodgson, Patrick B Murphy
Home mechanical ventilation (HMV) is an increasingly common intervention and is initiated for a range of pathological processes, including neuromuscular disease (NMD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obesity related respiratory failure. There have been important recent data published in this area, which helps to guide practice by indicating which populations may benefit from this intervention and the optimum method of setting up and controlling sleep disordered breathing. Recent superficially conflicting data has been published regarding HMV in COPD, with a trial in post-exacerbation patients suggesting no benefit, but in stable chronic hypercapnic patients suggesting a clear and sustained mortality benefit...
February 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26765842/influences-of-chronic-mild-stress-exposure-on-motor-non-motor-impairments-and-neurochemical-variables-in-specific-brain-areas-of-mptp-probenecid-induced-neurotoxicity-in-mice
#10
Udaiyappan Janakiraman, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Arokiasamy Justin Thenmozhi, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Rajamani Barathidasan, Chidambaram SaravanaBabu, Gilles J Guillemin, Mohammed A S Khan
Parkinson's disease (PD) is regarded as a movement disorder mainly affecting the elderly population and occurs due to progressive loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in nigrostriatal pathway. Patients suffer from non-motor symptoms (NMS) such as depression, anxiety, fatigue and sleep disorders, which are not well focussed in PD research. Depression in PD is a predominant /complex symptom and its pathology lies exterior to the nigrostriatal system. The main aim of this study is to explore the causative or progressive effect of chronic mild stress (CMS), a paradigm developed as an animal model of depression in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (25 mg/kg...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26499757/gastric-motor-dysfunctions-in-parkinson-s-disease-current-pre-clinical-evidence
#11
REVIEW
Carolina Pellegrini, Luca Antonioli, Rocchina Colucci, Vigilio Ballabeni, Elisabetta Barocelli, Nunzia Bernardini, Corrado Blandizzi, Matteo Fornai
Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with several non-motor symptoms, such as behavioral changes, urinary dysfunction, sleep disorders, fatigue and, above all, gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, including gastric dysmotility, constipation and anorectal dysfunction. Delayed gastric emptying, progressing to gastroparesis, is reported in up to 100% of patients with PD, and it occurs at all stages of the disease with severe consequences to the patient's quality of life. The presence of α-synuclein (α-syn) aggregates in myenteric neurons throughout the digestive tract, as well as morpho-functional alterations of the enteric nervous system (ENS), have been documented in PD...
December 2015: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26472532/nicotine-and-nicotinic-receptor-drugs-potential-for-parkinson-s-disease-and-drug-induced-movement-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Maryka Quik, Tanuja Bordia, Danhui Zhang, Xiomara A Perez
Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia, as well as nonmotor symptoms including autonomic impairments, olfactory dysfunction, sleep disturbances, depression, and dementia. Although the major neurological deficit is a loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, multiple neurotransmitters systems are compromised in Parkinson's disease. Consistent with this observation, dopamine replacement therapy dramatically improves Parkinson's disease motor symptoms...
2015: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26446126/brain-damage-and-motor-cortex-impairment-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-implication-of-nonrapid-eye-movement-sleep-desaturation
#13
Francois Alexandre, Nelly Heraud, Anthony M J Sanchez, Emilie Tremey, Nicolas Oliver, Philippe Guerin, Alain Varray
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep desaturation may cause neuronal damage due to the withdrawal of cerebrovascular reactivity. The current study (1) assessed the prevalence of NREM sleep desaturation in nonhypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and (2) compared a biological marker of cerebral lesion and neuromuscular function in patients with and without NREM sleep desaturation. METHODS: One hundred fifteen patients with COPD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] grades 2 and 3), resting PaO2 of 60-80 mmHg, aged between 40 and 80 y, and without sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index < 15) had polysomnographic sleep recordings...
2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26138728/the-influence-of-mild-carbon-dioxide-on-brain-functional-homotopy-using-resting-state-fmri
#14
Olga Marshall, Jinsoo Uh, Daniel Lurie, Hanzhang Lu, Michael P Milham, Yulin Ge
Homotopy reflects the intrinsic functional architecture of the brain through synchronized spontaneous activity between corresponding bilateral regions, measured as voxel mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC). Hypercapnia is known to have clear impact on brain hemodynamics through vasodilation, but have unclear effect on neuronal activity. This study investigates the effect of hypercapnia on brain homotopy, achieved by breathing 5% carbon dioxide (CO2 ) gas mixture. A total of 14 healthy volunteers completed three resting state functional MRI (RS-fMRI) scans, the first and third under normocapnia and the second under hypercapnia...
October 2015: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26093062/alpha7-nicotinic-receptors-as-therapeutic-targets-for-parkinson-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
Maryka Quik, Danhui Zhang, Matthew McGregor, Tanuja Bordia
Accumulating evidence suggests that CNS α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are important targets for the development of therapeutic approaches for Parkinson's disease. This progressive neurodegenerative disorder is characterized by debilitating motor deficits, as well as autonomic problems, cognitive declines, changes in affect and sleep disturbances. Currently l-dopa is the gold standard treatment for Parkinson's disease motor problems, particularly in the early disease stages. However, it does not improve the other symptoms, nor does it reduce the inevitable disease progression...
October 15, 2015: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25957614/new-insights-on-the-role-of-the-insular-cortex-and-habenula-in-osa
#16
Ming-Xian Li, Chao-Ying Yan, Shao Wang
PURPOSE: Abnormal structure or function in the central nervous system (CNS) can also affect obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Because human afferent and motor pathways that regulate apnea are still poorly understood, it is not possible to modify the behavior of motor neurons to control airway function. The purpose of this article is to clear the central control mechanism of genioglossus (GG) and to discuss how altered activity in the limbic system and its related structures might affect OSA development, in order to provide help for the treatment of this disease...
December 2015: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25926462/intermittent-hypoxia-induced-spinal-inflammation-impairs-respiratory-motor-plasticity-by-a-spinal-p38-map-kinase-dependent-mechanism
#17
Adrianne G Huxtable, Stephanie M C Smith, Timothy J Peterson, Jyoti J Watters, Gordon S Mitchell
Inflammation is characteristic of most clinical disorders that challenge the neural control of breathing. Since inflammation modulates neuroplasticity, we studied the impact of inflammation caused by prolonged intermittent hypoxia on an important form of respiratory plasticity, acute intermittent hypoxia (three, 5 min hypoxic episodes, 5 min normoxic intervals) induced phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF). Because chronic intermittent hypoxia elicits neuroinflammation and pLTF is undermined by lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammation, we hypothesized that one night of intermittent hypoxia (IH-1) elicits spinal inflammation, thereby impairing pLTF by a p38 MAP kinase-dependent mechanism...
April 29, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25851178/anticonvulsant-and-sedative-effects-of-eudesmin-isolated-from-acorus-tatarinowii-on-mice-and-rats
#18
Hao Liu, Zhi Song, Da-Guang Liao, Tian-Yi Zhang, Feng Liu, Kai Zhuang, Kui Luo, Liang Yang, Jing He, Jian-Ping Lei
This paper was designed to investigate anticonvulsant and sedative effects of eudesmin isolated from Acorus tatarinowii. The eudesmin (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.). The maximal electroshock test (MES) and pentylenetertrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in male mice were used to evaluate anticonvulsant activities of eudesmin, and sedative effects of eudesmin were evaluated by pentobarbital sodium-induced sleeping time (PST) and locomotor activity in mice. Finally, the mechanisms of eudesmin were investigated by determining contents of glutamic acid (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in epileptic mice, and expressions of glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65), GABAA , Bcl-2, and caspase-3 in the brain of chronic epileptic rats...
July 2015: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25736971/diminished-event-related-cortical-arousals-and-altered-heart-rate-response-in-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Michael Sommerauer, Lukas L Imbach, Mohan Jarallah, Christian R Baumann, Philipp O Valko
OBJECTIVES: In Parkinson's disease (PD), partial neuronal loss occurs in several arousal-promoting structures, but the effects on arousability have not yet been studied. METHODS: Polysomnographic analysis of 70 PD patients and 70 control subjects matched for age, sex, body mass index, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and periodic limb movements in sleep index (PLMSI). RESULTS: In PD patients, arousal frequency was diminished by 50% compared with controls (9...
May 2015: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25510818/biomarkers-of-parkinson-s-disease-present-and-future
#20
REVIEW
Diane B Miller, James P O'Callaghan
Sporadic or idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder of unknown origin that ranks only second behind Alzheimer's disease (AD) in prevalence and its consequent social and economic burden. PD neuropathology is characterized by a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta; however, more widespread involvement of other CNS structures and peripheral tissues now is widely documented. The onset of molecular and cellular neuropathology of PD likely occurs decades before the onset of the motor symptoms characteristic of PD...
March 2015: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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