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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914172/big-lessons-from-tiny-flies-drosophila-melanogaster-as-a-model-to-explore-dysfunction-of-dopaminergic-and-serotonergic-neurotransmitter-systems
#1
REVIEW
Ameya Sanjay Kasture, Thomas Hummel, Sonja Sucic, Michael Freissmuth
The brain of Drosophila melanogaster is comprised of some 100,000 neurons, 127 and 80 of which are dopaminergic and serotonergic, respectively. Their activity regulates behavioral functions equivalent to those in mammals, e.g., motor activity, reward and aversion, memory formation, feeding, sexual appetite, etc. Mammalian dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons are known to be heterogeneous. They differ in their projections and in their gene expression profile. A sophisticated genetic tool box is available, which allows for targeting virtually any gene with amazing precision in Drosophila melanogaster ...
June 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866443/in-vivo-staging-of-pathology-in-rem-sleep-behaviour-disorder-a-multimodality-imaging-case-control-study
#2
Karoline Knudsen, Tatyana D Fedorova, Allan K Hansen, Michael Sommerauer, Marit Otto, Kristina B Svendsen, Adjmal Nahimi, Morten G Stokholm, Nicola Pavese, Christoph P Beier, David J Brooks, Per Borghammer
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that α-synuclein aggregates-a defining pathology of Parkinson's disease-display cell-to-cell transmission. α-synuclein aggregation is hypothesised to start in autonomic nerve terminals years before the appearance of motor symptoms, and subsequently spread via autonomic nerves to the spinal cord and brainstem. To assess this hypothesis, we investigated sympathetic, parasympathetic, noradrenergic, and dopaminergic innervation in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder, a prodromal phenotype of Parkinson's disease...
June 1, 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846796/the-rem-sleep-circuit-and-how-its-impairment-leads-to-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#3
REVIEW
Alex Iranzo
REM sleep is characterized by rapid eye movements, desynchronized electroencephalographic activity, dreams and muscle paralysis that preclude the individual from acting out the action of dreams. REM sleep is generated and modulated by a complex and still poorly understood, neuronal network that involves multiple nuclei and neurotransmission systems. The key structures that generate REM sleep muscle paralysis are the subcoeruleus nucleus in the mesopontine tegmentum and the reticular formation of the ventral medial medulla...
May 30, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747690/a53t-%C3%AE-synuclein-overexpression-in-murine-locus-coeruleus-induces-parkinson-s-disease-like-pathology-in-neurons-and-glia
#4
Martin Timo Henrich, Fanni Fruzsina Geibl, Bolam Lee, Wei-Hua Chiu, James Benjamin Koprich, Jonathan Michael Brotchie, Lars Timmermann, Niels Decher, Lina Anita Matschke, Wolfgang Hermann Oertel
Degeneration of noradrenergic locus coeruleus neurons occurs during the prodromal phase of Parkinson's disease and contributes to a variety of non-motor symptoms, e.g. depression, anxiety and REM sleep behavior disorder. This study was designed to establish the first locus coeruleus α-synucleinopathy mouse model, which should provide sufficient information about the time-course of noradrenergic neurodegeneration, replicate cardinal histopathological features of the human Parkinson's disease neuropathology and finally lead to robust histological markers, which are sufficient to assess the pathological changes in a quantitative and qualitative way...
May 10, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681884/glutathione-s-transferase-alpha-4-prevents-dopamine-neurodegeneration-in-a-rat-alpha-synuclein-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Michael Jewett, Elna Dickson, Kajsa Brolin, Matilde Negrini, Itzia Jimenez-Ferrer, Maria Swanberg
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common, progressive neurodegenerative disease, which typically presents itself with a range of motor symptoms, like resting tremor, bradykinesia, and rigidity, but also non-motor symptoms such as fatigue, constipation, and sleep disturbance. Neuropathologically, PD is characterized by loss of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and Lewy bodies, neuronal inclusions containing α-synuclein (α-syn). Mutations and copy number variations of SNCA , the gene encoding α-syn, are linked to familial PD and common SNCA gene variants are associated to idiopathic PD...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656343/lateralisation-in-parkinson-disease
#6
REVIEW
P Riederer, K A Jellinger, P Kolber, G Hipp, J Sian-Hülsmann, R Krüger
Asymmetry of dopaminergic neurodegeneration and subsequent lateralisation of motor symptoms are distinctive features of Parkinson's disease compared to other forms of neurodegenerative or symptomatic parkinsonism. Even 200 years after the first description of the disease, the underlying causes for this striking clinicopathological feature are not yet fully understood. There is increasing evidence that lateralisation of disease is due to a complex interplay of hereditary and environmental factors that are reflected not only in the concept of dominant hemispheres and handedness but also in specific susceptibilities of neuronal subpopulations within the substantia nigra...
April 14, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510495/age-related-changes-in-the-behavior-of-apolipoprotein-e-knockout-mice
#7
Dasha Fuentes, Nidia Fernández, Yenela García, Teidy García, Ana Ruth Morales, Roberto Menéndez
The knockout mouse model, B6.129P2-Apoetm1Unc is homozygotic for the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) deletion; thus, it is capable of developing hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis but ApoE is also a lipid-transport protein abundantly expressed in most neurons in the central nervous system, so these animals could also be models of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to determine age-related changes in spontaneous behavior and in learning and memory of Apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Spontaneous behavioral measurements included sleeping pattern, motor coordination and balance by rotarod and open field activity, whereas learning and memory tests included forced alternation in Y-maze, novel object recognition and passive avoidance conditioning...
March 3, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509806/obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-cortical-thickness-in-females-and-males
#8
Paul M Macey, Natasha Haris, Rajesh Kumar, M Albert Thomas, Mary A Woo, Ronald M Harper
INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects approximately 10% of adults, and alters brain gray and white matter. Psychological and physiological symptoms of the disorder are sex-specific, perhaps related to greater injury occurs in female than male patients in white matter. Our objective was to identify influences of OSA separated by sex on cortical gray matter. METHODS: We assessed cortical thickness in 48 mild-severe OSA patients (mean age±std[range] = 46...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431270/modelling-the-dopamine-and-noradrenergic-cell-loss-that-occurs-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-the-impact-on-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#9
Charlotte M Ermine, Jordan L Wright, Stefano Frausin, Jessica A Kauhausen, Clare L Parish, Davor Stanic, Lachlan H Thompson
Key pathological features of Parkinson's Disease (PD) include the progressive degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons and hindbrain noradrenergic (NA) neurons. The loss of DA neurons has been extensively studied and is the main cause of motor dysfunction. Importantly, however, there are a range of 'non-movement' related features of PD including cognitive dysfunction, sleep disturbances and mood disorders. The origins for these non-motor symptoms are less clear, but a possible substrate for cognitive decline may be reduced adult-hippocampal neurogenesis, which is reported to be impaired in PD...
May 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415556/patterns-of-use-survival-and-prognostic-factors-in-patients-receiving-home-mechanical-ventilation-in-western-australia-a-single-centre-historical-cohort-study
#10
Geak Poh Tan, Nigel McArdle, Satvinder Singh Dhaliwal, Jane Douglas, Clare Siobhan Rea, Bhajan Singh
Home mechanical ventilation (HMV) is used in a wide range of disorders associated with chronic hypoventilation. We describe the patterns of use, survival and predictors of death in Western Australia. We identified 240 consecutive patients (60% male; mean age 58 years and body mass index 31 kg m-2 ) referred for HMV between 2005 and 2010. The patients were grouped into four categories: motor neurone disorders (MND; 39%), pulmonary disease (PULM; 25%, mainly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), non-MND neuromuscular and chest wall disorders (NMCW; 21%) and the obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS; 15%)...
January 1, 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305687/genetics-and-treatment-response-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-update-on-pharmacogenetic-studies
#11
REVIEW
Cristina Politi, Cinzia Ciccacci, Giuseppe Novelli, Paola Borgiani
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive loss of dopamine neurons of the central nervous system. The disease determines a significant disability due to a combination of motor symptoms such as bradykinesia, rigidity and rest tremor and non-motor symptoms such as sleep disorders, hallucinations, psychosis and compulsive behaviors. The current therapies consist in combination of drugs acting to control only the symptoms of the illness by the replacement of the dopamine lost...
March 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128393/rem-sleep-deprivation-and-dopaminergic-d2-receptors-modulation-increase-recognition-memory-in-an-animal-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Adriano D S Targa, Ana Carolina D Noseda, Lais S Rodrigues, Mariana F Aurich, Marcelo M S Lima
Cognitive impairment is an important non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). The neuronal death in nigrostriatal pathway is the main factor for motor symptoms and recent studies indicate a possible influence in non-motor symptoms as well. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) and basal ganglia are closely related anatomically and functionally and, since they are affected by neurodegeneration in PD, they might be involved in recognition memory. To investigate this, we promoted an ibotenic acid lesion within the PPT or a rotenone lesion within substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of Wistar rats, followed by 24h of REM sleep deprivation (REMSD)...
February 26, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083328/current-trends-in-etiology-prognosis-and-therapeutic-aspects-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-review
#13
REVIEW
A J Jagadeesan, R Murugesan, S Vimala Devi, M Meera, G Madhumala, M Vishwanathan Padmaja, A Ramesh, A Banerjee, S Sushmitha, A N Khokhlov, F Marotta, Surajit Pathak
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder, mainly affecting population consisting of the aged. PD occurs chiefly due to progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in nigrostriatal pathway. Largely, PD patients suffer from non-motor symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, fatigue, and sleep disorders, that needs further investigation and addressing during PD research. Depression in PD is a predominant and complex symptom, and its pathology exists extrinsic to the nigrostriatal system. This disease can  ultimately be managed by a combination of regular physiotherapy and proper medication...
October 23, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082554/sleep-fragmentation-and-parkinson-s-disease-pathology-in-older-adults-without-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Shahmir Sohail, Lei Yu, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett, Aron S Buchman, Andrew S P Lim
INTRODUCTION: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) frequently experience disrupted sleep, and several sleep abnormalities are associated with an increased risk of incident PD. However, there are few data concerning the relationship between objectively quantified sleep disruption and the cardinal histopathological features of PD, especially in individuals without clinical PD. METHODS: We studied 269 older adults without PD who had participated in the Rush Memory and Aging Project and undergone uniform structured neuropathologic evaluations upon death...
December 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982219/mechanical-ventilation-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-motor-neuron-disease
#15
REVIEW
Aleksandar Radunovic, Djillali Annane, Muhammad K Rafiq, Ruth Brassington, Naveed Mustfa
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease, is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. Neuromuscular respiratory failure is the most common cause of death, which usually occurs within two to five years of the disease onset. Supporting respiratory function with mechanical ventilation may improve survival and quality of life. This is the second update of a review first published in 2009. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of mechanical ventilation (tracheostomy-assisted ventilation and non-invasive ventilation (NIV)) on survival, functional measures of disease progression, and quality of life in ALS, and to evaluate adverse events related to the intervention...
October 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780783/implications-of-circadian-rhythm-in-dopamine-and-mood-regulation
#16
REVIEW
Jeongah Kim, Sangwon Jang, Han Kyoung Choe, Sooyoung Chung, Gi Hoon Son, Kyungjin Kim
Mammalian physiology and behavior are regulated by an internal time-keeping system, referred to as circadian rhythm. The circadian timing system has a hierarchical organization composed of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and local clocks in extra-SCN brain regions and peripheral organs. The circadian clock molecular mechanism involves a network of transcription-translation feedback loops. In addition to the clinical association between circadian rhythm disruption and mood disorders, recent studies have suggested a molecular link between mood regulation and circadian rhythm...
July 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766701/rationale-for-an-adjunctive-therapy-with-fenofibrate-in-pharmacoresistant-nocturnal-frontal-lobe-epilepsy
#17
Monica Puligheddu, Miriam Melis, Giuliano Pillolla, Giulia Milioli, Liborio Parrino, Giovanni Mario Terzano, Sonia Aroni, Claudia Sagheddu, Francesco Marrosu, Marco Pistis, Anna Lisa Muntoni
OBJECTIVE: Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is an idiopathic partial epilepsy with a family history in about 25% of cases, with autosomal dominant inheritance (autosomal dominant NFLE [ADNFLE]). Traditional antiepileptic drugs are effective in about 55% of patients, whereas the rest remains refractory. One of the key pathogenetic mechanisms is a gain of function of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the mutated α4 or β2 subunits. Fenofibrate, a common lipid-regulating drug, is an agonist at peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) that is a ligand-activated transcription factor, which negatively modulates the function of β2-containing nAChR...
October 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623510/the-implication-of-neuronimmunoendocrine-nie-modulatory-network-in-the-pathophysiologic-process-of-parkinson-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Yan Shen, Xingfang Guo, Chao Han, Fang Wan, Kai Ma, Shiyi Guo, Luxi Wang, Yun Xia, Ling Liu, Zhicheng Lin, Jinsha Huang, Nian Xiong, Tao Wang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder implicitly marked by the substantia nigra dopaminergic neuron degeneration and explicitly characterized by the motor and non-motor symptom complexes. Apart from the nigrostriatal dopamine depletion, the immune and endocrine study findings are also frequently reported, which, in fact, have helped to broaden the symptom spectrum and better explain the pathogenesis and progression of PD. Nevertheless, based on the neural, immune, and endocrine findings presented above, it is still difficult to fully recapitulate the pathophysiologic process of PD...
October 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574926/hyposmia-symptoms-of-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder-and-parkinsonian-motor-signs-suggest-prodromal-neurodegeneration-in-22q11-deletion-syndrome
#19
Ellen Buckley, Azeem Siddique, Alisdair McNeill
The 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is one of the most common genomic disorders in humans. There is an increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) in individuals with 22q11DS. The characteristic motor features of PD begin when more than 50% of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra have degenerated. Before this, there is a prodromal period, of up to 20 years, in which nonmotor features such as hyposmia, autonomic dysfunction, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and subtle motor dysfunction can occur...
August 2, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472332/the-spectrum-of-rem-sleep-related-episodes-in-children-with-type-1-narcolepsy
#20
Elena Antelmi, Fabio Pizza, Stefano Vandi, Giulia Neccia, Raffaele Ferri, Oliviero Bruni, Marco Filardi, Gaetano Cantalupo, Rocco Liguori, Giuseppe Plazzi
Type 1 narcolepsy is a central hypersomnia due to the loss of hypocretin-producing neurons and characterized by cataplexy, excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations and disturbed nocturnal sleep. In children, close to the disease onset, type 1 narcolepsy has peculiar clinical features with severe cataplexy and a complex admixture of movement disorders occurring while awake. Motor dyscontrol during sleep has never been systematically investigated. Suspecting that abnormal motor control might affect also sleep, we systematically analysed motor events recorded by means of video polysomnography in 40 children with type 1 narcolepsy (20 females; mean age 11...
June 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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