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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738005/accuracy-and-repeatability-of-long-bone-replicas-of-small-animals-fabricated-by-use-of-low-end-and-high-end-commercial-three-dimensional-printers
#1
Jamie A Cone, Thomas M Martin, Denis J Marcellin-Little, Ola L A Harrysson, Emily H Griffith
OBJECTIVE To assess the repeatability and accuracy of polymer replicas of small, medium, and large long bones of small animals fabricated by use of 2 low-end and 2 high-end 3-D printers. SAMPLE Polymer replicas of a cat femur, dog radius, and dog tibia were fabricated in triplicate by use of each of four 3-D printing methods. PROCEDURES 3-D renderings of the 3 bones reconstructed from CT images were prepared, and length, width of the proximal aspect, and width of the distal aspect of each CT image were measured in triplicate...
August 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737630/first-in-the-nation-one-unit-s-journey-to-achieving-fragility-fracture-certification
#2
Audry McDonald, Samantha Church, Laura Hixon, Linda Vo, Martha Sleutel
Osteoporosis is related to more than 2 million fractures and $19 billion in healthcare costs each year (). A fragility fracture (FF) is a low-energy fracture of the distal radius, proximal humerus, ankle, or proximal femur (hip) from minimal trauma such as a fall from a standing height. In addition to cost, FFs often result in the loss of independence and productivity (). In 2015, our orthopaedic unit received the first certification ever awarded for FFs. Fragility fracture certification is a new certification demonstrating that a healthcare facility complies with national patient care standards and uses evidence-based practice guidelines to deliver quality outcomes...
July 2017: Orthopaedic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736652/statistical-properties-of-dynamic-speckles-from-flowing-brownian-scatterers-in-the-vicinity-of-the-image-plane-in-optical-coherence-tomography
#3
Ivan Popov, Andrew Weatherbee, I Alex Vitkin
A closed-form analytical expression is obtained for the spatio-temporal correlation function of the scattered radiation detected in fiber-based optical coherence tomography (OCT), assuming a clean optical system arrangement in the OCT sample arm. It is shown that the transverse flow component causes purely translational speckle motion with the predicted speckle velocity 2x higher than the velocity of the flowing particles as would be observed in the image plane under incoherent illumination. It is also shown that both speckle velocity and speckle radius do not depend on the position of the scattering volume relative to the focal plane, hence the derived correlation function is independent of the position of the scattering volume relative to the focal plane...
April 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736469/improved-automatic-optic-nerve-radius-estimation-from-high-resolution-mri
#4
Robert L Harrigan, Alex K Smith, Louise A Mawn, Seth A Smith, Bennett A Landman
The optic nerve (ON) is a vital structure in the human visual system and transports all visual information from the retina to the cortex for higher order processing. Due to the lack of redundancy in the visual pathway, measures of ON damage have been shown to correlate well with visual deficits. These measures are typically taken at an arbitrary anatomically defined point along the nerve and do not characterize changes along the length of the ON. We propose a fully automated, three-dimensionally consistent technique building upon a previous independent slice-wise technique to estimate the radius of the ON and surrounding cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on high-resolution heavily T2-weighted isotropic MRI...
February 11, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735363/routine-follow-up-radiographs-for-distal-radius-fractures-are-seldom-clinically-substantiated
#5
N L Weil, M El Moumni, S M Rubinstein, P Krijnen, M F Termaat, I B Schipper
INTRODUCTION: The value of routine radiographs during follow-up after distal radius fractures is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether routine radiographs performed during the follow-up period in patients with a distal radius fracture influenced clinical decision making. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included patients aged ≥18 years who were treated for a distal radius fracture at four hospitals in The Netherlands in 2012. Demographic and clinical and radiographic characteristics were collected from medical records...
July 22, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735018/safety-and-feasibility-of-direct-mri-guided-transperineal-prostate-biopsy-using-a-novel-mri-safe-robotic-device
#6
Mark W Ball, Ashley E Ross, Kamyar Ghabili, Chunwoo Kim, Changhan Jun, Doru Petrisor, Li Pan, Jonathan I Epstein, Katarzyna J Macura, Dan S Stoianovici, Mohamad E Allaf
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate safety and feasibility in a first in human trial of direct MRI-guided prostate biopsy using a novel robotic device. METHODS: MrBot is an MRI-safe robotic device constructed entirely of nonconductive, nonmetallic, and nonmagnetic materials, developed by our group. A safety and feasibility clinical trial was designed to assess the safety and feasibility of direct MRI-guided biopsy with MrBot and determine its targeting accuracy. Men with elevated PSA, prior negative prostate biopsy and cancer suspicious region (CSR) on MRI were enrolled in the study...
July 19, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735008/trehalose-induced-structural-modulation-of-bovine-serum-albumin-at-ambient-temperature
#7
Ahana Das, Pijush Basak, Rudradip Pattanayak, Turban Kar, Rajib Majumder, Debadrita Pal, Anindita Bhattacharya, Maitree Bhattacharyya, Samudra Prosad Banik
Trehalose is a well-known protein stabilizing osmolyte. The present study has been designed to understand the interaction of trehalose with BSA at ambient temperature. Steady state fluorescence and life-time analysis along with CD, DLS and ITC have been employed to show that trehalose causes surface-associated structural perturbation of BSA to promote its compaction. Trehalose at 0.1M concentration resulted in increased solvent exposure of one of the two tryptophans of BSA with a 5nm redshift in emission and enhanced susceptibility to acrylamide quenching with an increase in KSV from 2...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734309/universal-two-dimensional-characteristics-in-perovskite-type-oxyhydrides-atio2h-a-li-na-k-rb-cs
#8
Nobuya Sato, Ryosuke Akashi, Shinji Tsuneyuki
A series of unsynthesized perovskite-type oxyhydrides ATiO2H (A = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) are investigated by the density functional calculations. These oxyhydrides are stable in the sense of the formation energies for some possible synthesis reactions. They are crystallized into quite similar crystal structures with the long c-axis, and the corner-sharing TiO4H2 octahedra of the ideal perovskite-type structure are deformed into the 5-fold coordinated titanium atoms with the OH plane and the apical oxygen atoms...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734292/single-file-mobility-of-water-like-fluid-in-a-generalized-frenkel-kontorova-model
#9
Patricia Ternes, Alejandro Mendoza-Coto, Evy Salcedo
In this work, we used a generalized Frenkel-Kontorova model to study the mobility of water molecules inside carbon nanotubes with small radius at low temperatures. Our simulations show that the mobility of confined water decreases monotonically increasing the amplitude of the substrate potential at fixed commensurations. On the other hand, the mobility of the water molecules shows a non-monotonic behavior when varying the commensuration. This result indicates that the mobility of the confined fluid presents different behavior regimes depending on the amplitude of the water-nanotube interaction...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734269/crime-scene-reconstruction-sex-prediction-from-blood-stained-foot-sole-impressions
#10
Nabanita Basu, Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay
It is often difficult to predict the sex of an individual based on bloody incomplete footprints. However, such prints/impressions are particularly common in a crime scene. Again variability in the texture, color of the target surface has an impact on the bloodstained impression formed. The study of bare foot, footprint, footwear (i.e. shoe, canvas etc.) within the legal context is referred to as forensic podiatry. Based on the fact that it is possible to predict the sex of an individual from footprint impressions, an automated model has been proposed in this paper for analyzing the sex of an individual from his/her broken/incomplete footprint impressions based on morphological features alone...
June 26, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733098/obesity-and-failure-of-nonsurgical-management-of-pediatric-both-bone-forearm-fractures
#11
Ugochi C Okoroafor, Lisa K Cannada, Jasmin L McGinty
PURPOSE: In pediatric extremity fractures treated nonsurgically, maintaining reduction can be difficult in obese children owing to the larger soft tissue envelope. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between obesity and failure of nonsurgical management of pediatric both-bone forearm fractures. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 129 skeletally immature patients older than 2 years who received nonsurgical treatment for closed radius and ulna shaft fractures at a level I pediatric trauma center between 2011 and 2014...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733016/interaction-between-cavitation-microbubble-and-cell-a-simulation-of-sonoporation-using-boundary-element-method-bem
#12
Xiasheng Guo, Chenliang Cai, Guangyao Xu, Yanye Yang, Juan Tu, PinTong Huang, Dong Zhang
Sonoporation has been widely accepted as a significant tool for gene delivery as well as some bio-effects like hemolysis, bringing in high demands of looking into its underlying mechanism. A two-dimensional (2D) boundary element method (BEM) model was developed to investigate microbubble-cell interaction, especially the morphological and mechanical characteristics around the close-to-bubble point (CP) on cell membrane. Based on time evolution analysis of sonoporation, detailed information was extracted from the model for analysis, including volume expansion ratio of the bubble, areal expansion ratio of the cell, jet velocity and CP displacement...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732697/cytological-study-of-dna-content-and-nuclear-morphometric-analysis-for-aid-in-the-diagnosis-of-high-grade-dysplasia-within-oral-leukoplakia
#13
Xi Yang, Xuan Xiao, Wenyan Wu, Xuemin Shen, Zengtong Zhou, Wei Liu, Linjun Shi
OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively examine the DNA content and nuclear morphometric status of oral leukoplakia (OL) and investigate its association with the degree of dysplasia in a cytologic study. STUDY DESIGN: Oral cytobrush biopsy was carried out to obtain exfoliative epithelial cells from lesions before scalpel biopsy at the same location in a blinded series of 70 patients with OL. Analysis of nuclear morphometry and DNA content status using image cytometry was performed with oral smears stained with the Feulgen-thionin method...
July 18, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732042/numerical-study-on-the-lubrication-performance-of-compression-ring-cylinder-liner-system-with-spherical-dimples
#14
Cheng Liu, Yan-Jun Lu, Yong-Fang Zhang, Sha Li, Norbert Müller
The effects of surface texture on the lubrication performance of a compression ring-cylinder liner system are studied in this paper. By considering the surface roughness of the compression ring and cylinder liner, a mixed lubrication model is presented to investigate the tribological behaviors of a barrel-shaped compression ring-cylinder liner system with spherical dimples on the liner. In order to determine the rupture and reformulation positions of fluid film accurately, the Jacoboson-Floberg-Olsson (JFO) cavitation boundary condition is applied to the mixed lubrication model for ensuring the mass-conservative law...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731575/the-automation-of-regression-modeling-in-osteometric-sorting-an-ordination-approach
#15
Jeffrey James Lynch
This study compares the original osteometric sorting association method with an ordination approach across all combinations of the humerus, ulna, radius, femur, tibia, and fibula. This includes both the original prediction interval and t-statistic approaches. Standard measurements are utilized in the models with full measurements combined and without length measurements. The sample is the osteometric sorting reference from the Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency. A full set of performance statistics is provided...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731571/model-based-investigation-on-the-mass-transfer-and-adsorption-mechanisms-of-mono-pegylated-lysozyme-in-ion-exchange-chromatography
#16
Josefine Morgenstern, Gang Wang, Pascal Baumann, Jürgen Hubbuch
Recent studies highlighted the potential of PEGylated proteins to improve stabilities and pharmacokinetics of protein drugs. Ion-exchange chromatography (IEX) is among the most frequently used purification methods for PEGylated proteins. However, the underlying physical mechanisms allowing for a separation of different PEGamers (proteins with a varying number of attached PEG molecules) are not yet fully understood. In this work, mechanistic chromatography modeling was applied to gain a deeper understanding of the mass transfer and adsorption/desorption mechanisms of mono-PEGylated proteins in IEX...
July 21, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731295/biogeochemistry-of-lead-its-release-to-the-environment-and-chemical-speciation
#17
Jay T Cullen, Jason McAlister
Lead (Pb) is a metal that is not essential for life processes and proves acutely toxic to most organisms. Compared to other metals Pb is rather immobile in the environment but still its biogeochemical cycling is greatly perturbed by human activities. In this review we present a summary of information describing the physical and chemical properties of Pb, its distribution in crustal materials, and the processes, both natural and anthropogenic, that contribute to the metal's mobilization in the biosphere. The relatively high volatility of Pb metal, low melting point, its large ionic radius, and its chemical speciation in aquatic systems contributes to its redistribution by anthropogenic and natural processes...
April 10, 2017: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730109/human-eye-ocular-component-analysis-for-refractive-state-and-refractive-surgery
#18
Chao-Kai Chang, Jui-Teng Lin, Yong Zhang
AIM: To analyze the clinical factors influencing the human vision corrections via the changing of ocular components of human eye in various applications; and to analyze refractive state via a new effective axial length. METHODS: An effective eye model was introduced by the ocular components of human eye including refractive indexes, surface radius (r1, r2, R1, R2) and thickness (t, T) of the cornea and lens, the anterior chamber depth (S1) and the vitreous length (S2)...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729674/ab-initio-calculation-of-energy-levels-for-phosphorus-donors-in-silicon
#19
J S Smith, A Budi, M C Per, N Vogt, D W Drumm, L C L Hollenberg, J H Cole, S P Russo
The s manifold energy levels for phosphorus donors in silicon are important input parameters for the design and modeling of electronic devices on the nanoscale. In this paper we calculate these energy levels from first principles using density functional theory. The wavefunction of the donor electron's ground state is found to have a form that is similar to an atomic s orbital, with an effective Bohr radius of 1.8 nm. The corresponding binding energy of this state is found to be 41 meV, which is in good agreement with the currently accepted value of 45...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729396/acute-volume-loading-exacerbates-direct-ventricular-interaction-in-a-model-of-copd
#20
William Spencer Cheyne, Alexandra Mackenzie Williams, Megan I Harper, Neil Derek Eves
Volume loading increases left ventricular (LV) stroke volume (LVSV) through series interaction but may paradoxically reduce LVSV in the presence of large increases in right ventricular (RV) afterload due to direct ventricular interaction (DVI). RV afterload is often increased in COPD as a result of pathological changes to respiratory mechanics, namely increased negative intrathoracic pressure (nITP), dynamic lung hyperinflation (DH) and increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). These hallmarks of COPD negatively impact LV hemodynamics in normovolemia...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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