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Tansy Edwards

Monique Wasunna, Simon Njenga, Manica Balasegaram, Neal Alexander, Raymond Omollo, Tansy Edwards, Thomas P C Dorlo, Brima Musa, Mohammed Hassan Sharaf Ali, Mohammed Yasein Elamin, George Kirigi, Rashid Juma, Anke E Kip, Gerard J Schoone, Asrat Hailu, Joseph Olobo, Sally Ellis, Robert Kimutai, Susan Wells, Eltahir Awad Gasim Khalil, Nathalie Strub Wourgaft, Fabiana Alves, Ahmed Musa
BACKGROUND: SSG&PM over 17 days is recommended as first line treatment for visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Africa, but is painful and requires hospitalization. Combination regimens including AmBisome and miltefosine are safe and effective in India, but there are no published data from trials of combination therapies including these drugs from Africa. METHODS: A phase II open-label, non-comparative randomized trial was conducted in Sudan and Kenya to evaluate the efficacy and safety of three treatment regimens: 10 mg/kg single dose AmBisome plus 10 days of SSG (20 mg/kg/day), 10 mg/kg single dose AmBisome plus 10 days of miltefosine (2...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sarah V Maifeld, Bodrey Ro, Hoyin Mok, Marla Chu, Li Yu, Ryan Yamagata, Tansy Leonardson, Vera Chio, Bandita Parhy, Samuel Park, Marcia Carlson, Shushil Machhi, Nancy Ulbrandt, Ann R Falsey, Edward E Walsh, C Kathy Wang, Mark T Esser, Fengrong Zuo
Sensitive and precise serology assays are needed to measure the humoral response to antigens of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) following natural infection or vaccination. We developed and evaluated a collection of electrochemiluminescent (ECL) serology assays using four RSV antigens (F, N, Ga and Gb). To assess the merits of ECL technology, the four ECL serology assays were evaluated using a well-characterized "gold standard" panel of acute and convalescent serum samples from fifty-nine RSV-positive and thirty RSV-negative elderly subjects (≥65 years old)...
2016: PloS One
Annabel Allison, Tansy Edwards, Raymond Omollo, Fabiana Alves, Dominic Magirr, Neal D E Alexander
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a parasitic disease transmitted by sandflies and is fatal if left untreated. Phase II trials of new treatment regimens for VL are primarily carried out to evaluate safety and efficacy, while pharmacokinetic data are also important to inform future combination treatment regimens. The efficacy of VL treatments is evaluated at two time points, initial cure, when treatment is completed and definitive cure, commonly 6 months post end of treatment, to allow for slow response to treatment and detection of relapses...
2015: Trials
Johan van Griensven, Anja De Weiggheleire, Alexandre Delamou, Peter G Smith, Tansy Edwards, Philippe Vandekerckhove, Elhadj Ibrahima Bah, Robert Colebunders, Isola Herve, Catherine Lazaygues, Nyankoye Haba, Lutgarde Lynen
The clinical evaluation of convalescent plasma (CP) for the treatment of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in the current outbreak, predominantly affecting Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia, was prioritized by the World Health Organization in September 2014. In each of these countries, nonrandomized comparative clinical trials were initiated. The Ebola-Tx trial in Conakry, Guinea, enrolled 102 patients by 7 July 2015; no severe adverse reactions were noted. The Ebola-CP trial in Sierra Leone and the EVD001 trial in Liberia have included few patients...
January 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Stella Kepha, Fred Nuwaha, Birgit Nikolay, Paul Gichuki, Charles S Mwandawiro, Pauline N Mwinzi, Maurice R Odiere, Tansy Edwards, Elizabeth Allen, Simon J Brooker
BACKGROUND: School children living in the tropics are often concurrently infected with plasmodium and helminth parasites. It has been hypothesized that immune responses evoked by helminths may modify malaria-specific immune responses and increase the risk of malaria. METHODS: We performed a randomized, open-label, equivalence trial among 2436 school children in western Kenya. Eligible children were randomized to receive either 4 repeated doses or a single dose of albendazole and were followed up during 13 months to assess the incidence of clinical malaria...
January 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Stella Kepha, Fred Nuwaha, Birgit Nikolay, Paul Gichuki, Tansy Edwards, Elizabeth Allen, Sammy M Njenga, Charles S Mwandawiro, Simon J Brooker
BACKGROUND: Many school children living in Africa are infected with plasmodia and helminth species and are consequently at risk of coinfection. However, the epidemiology of such coinfection and the implications of coinfection for children's health remain poorly understood. This study describes the epidemiology of Ascaris lumbricoides-Plasmodium and hookworm-Plasmodium coinfection among school children living in western Kenya and investigates the associated risk factors. METHODS: As part of a randomized trial, a baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted among school children aged 5-18 years in 23 schools in Bumula District...
2015: Parasites & Vectors
Emma Harding-Esch, Mireia Jofre-Bonet, Jaskiran K Dhanjal, Sarah Burr, Tansy Edwards, Martin Holland, Ansumana Sillah, Sheila West, Tom Lietman, Jeremy Keenan, David Mabey, Robin Bailey
BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA) treatment of active trachoma with antibiotic is recommended to be initiated in any district where the prevalence of trachoma inflammation, follicular (TF) is ≥ 10% in children aged 1-9 years, and then to continue for at least three annual rounds before resurvey. In The Gambia the PRET study found that discontinuing MDA based on testing a sample of children for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis(Ct) infection after one MDA round had similar effects to continuing MDA for three rounds...
April 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ambrose Agweyu, David Gathara, Jacquie Oliwa, Naomi Muinga, Tansy Edwards, Elizabeth Allen, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Mike English
BACKGROUND: There are concerns that the evidence from studies showing noninferiority of oral amoxicillin to benzyl penicillin for severe pneumonia may not be generalizable to high-mortality settings. METHODS: An open-label, multicenter, randomized controlled noninferiority trial was conducted at 6 Kenyan hospitals. Eligible children aged 2-59 months were randomized to receive amoxicillin or benzyl penicillin and followed up for the primary outcome of treatment failure at 48 hours...
April 15, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Sarah E Burr, John Hart, Tansy Edwards, Emma M Harding-Esch, Martin J Holland, David C W Mabey, Ansumana Sillah, Robin L Bailey
BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA) with azithromycin, carried out for the control of blinding trachoma, has been linked to reduced mortality in children. While the mechanism behind this reduction is unclear, it may be due, in part, to improved nutritional status via a potential reduction in the community burden of infectious disease. To determine whether MDA with azithromycin improves anthropometric indices at the community level, we measured the heights and weights of children aged 1 to 4 years in communities where one (single MDA arm) or three annual rounds (annual MDA arm) of azithromycin had been distributed...
2014: BMC Public Health
Raymond Omollo, Michael Ochieng, Brian Mutinda, Truphosa Omollo, Rhoda Owiti, Seth Okeyo, Monique Wasunna, Tansy Edwards
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2014: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Tansy Edwards, Elizabeth Allen, Emma M Harding-Esch, John Hart, Sarah E Burr, Martin J Holland, Ansumana Sillah, Sheila K West, David Mabey, Robin Bailey
BACKGROUND: There is concern that untreated individuals in mass drug administration (MDA) programs for neglected tropical diseases can reduce the impact of elimination efforts by maintaining a source of transmission and re-infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Treatment receipt was recorded against the community census during three MDAs with azithromycin for trachoma in The Gambia, a hypo-endemic setting. Predictors of non-participation were investigated in 1-9 year olds using random effects logistic regression of cross-sectional data for each MDA...
August 2014: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Antony Opwora, Evelyn Waweru, Mitsuru Toda, Abdisalan Noor, Tansy Edwards, Greg Fegan, Sassy Molyneux, Catherine Goodman
With user fees now seen as a major hindrance to universal health coverage, many countries have introduced fee reduction or elimination policies, but there is growing evidence that adherence to reduced fees is often highly imperfect. In 2004, Kenya adopted a reduced and uniform user fee policy providing fee exemptions to many groups. We present data on user fee implementation, revenue and expenditure from a nationally representative survey of Kenyan primary health facilities. Data were collected from 248 randomly selected public health centres and dispensaries in 2010, comprising an interview with the health worker in charge, exit interviews with curative outpatients, and a financial record review...
May 2015: Health Policy and Planning
Eltahir A G Khalil, Teklu Weldegebreal, Brima M Younis, Raymond Omollo, Ahmed M Musa, Workagegnehu Hailu, Abuzaid A Abuzaid, Thomas P C Dorlo, Zewdu Hurissa, Sisay Yifru, William Haleke, Peter G Smith, Sally Ellis, Manica Balasegaram, Ahmed M EL-Hassan, Gerard J Schoone, Monique Wasunna, Robert Kimutai, Tansy Edwards, Asrat Hailu
BACKGROUND: Anti-leishmanial drug regimens that include a single dose AmBisome could be suitable for eastern African patients with symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) but the appropriate single dose is unknown. METHODOLOGY: A multi-centre, open-label, non-inferiority, randomized controlled trial with an adaptive design, was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of a single dose and multiple doses of AmBisome for the treatment of VL in eastern Africa. The primary efficacy endpoint was definitive cure (DC) at 6 months...
2014: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
John D Hart, Tansy Edwards, Sarah E Burr, Emma M Harding-Esch, Kensuke Takaoka, Martin J Holland, Ansumana Sillah, David C W Mabey, Robin L Bailey
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of azithromycin mass drug administration regimens on spleen rates in children aged 0-5 years. METHODS: Clinical assessment of spleen size was carried out during a cluster-randomised trial of azithromycin mass treatment for trachoma elimination in The Gambia. Twenty-four communities received three annual mass treatments with azithromycin, and 24 communities received treatment at baseline only. RESULTS: At the 30-month follow-up, 3646 children aged 0-5 years had spleen examination and measurement...
February 2014: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Evelyn Waweru, Antony Opwora, Mitsuru Toda, Greg Fegan, Tansy Edwards, Catherine Goodman, Sassy Molyneux
BACKGROUND: Community participation in peripheral public health facilities has in many countries focused on including community representatives in Health Facility Management Committees (HFMCs). In Kenya, HFMC roles are being expanded with the phased implementation of the Health Sector Services Fund (HSSF). Under HSSF, HFMCs manage facility funds which are dispersed directly from central level into facility bank accounts. We assessed how prepared HFMCs were to undertake this new role in advance of HSSF roll out, and considered the implications for Kenya and other similar settings...
2013: BMC Health Services Research
Sheila K West, Robin Bailey, Beatriz Munoz, Tansy Edwards, Harran Mkocha, Charlotte Gaydos, Thomas Lietman, Travis Porco, David Mabey, Thomas C Quinn
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends at least 3 annual antibiotic mass drug administrations (MDA) where the prevalence of trachoma is > 10% in children ages 1-9 years, with coverage at least at 80%. However, the additional value of higher coverage targeted at children with multiple rounds is unknown. TRIAL DESIGN: 2 × 2 factorial community randomized, double blind, trial. TRIAL METHODS: 32 communities with prevalence of trachoma ≥ 20% were randomized to: annual MDA aiming for coverage of children between 80%-90% (usual target) versus aiming for coverag e> 90% (enhanced target); and to: MDA for three years versus a rule of cessation of MDA early if the estimated prevalence of ocular C...
2013: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sarah E Burr, John D Hart, Tansy Edwards, Ignatius Baldeh, Ebrima Bojang, Emma M Harding-Esch, Martin J Holland, Thomas M Lietman, Sheila K West, David C W Mabey, Ansumana Sillah, Robin L Bailey
BACKGROUND: Trachoma, caused by ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection, is the leading infectious cause of blindness, but its prevalence is now falling in many countries. As the prevalence falls, an increasing proportion of individuals with clinical signs of follicular trachoma (TF) is not infected with C. trachomatis. A recent study in Tanzania suggested that other bacteria may play a role in the persistence of these clinical signs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined associations between clinical signs of TF and ocular colonization with four pathogens commonly found in the nasopharnyx, three years after the initiation of mass azithromycin distribution...
2013: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Karthikeyan Paranthaman, Sophie Haroon, Samia Latif, Natalie Vinnyey, Valerie de Souza, William Welfare, Mamoona Tahir, Edward Cooke, Kirsten Stone, Chris Lane, Tansy Peters, Richard Puleston
In summer 2011, two outbreaks of a unique, multidrug-resistant strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage type 120 (DT120) occurred mainly in the Midlands, England. The first outbreak occurred among guests attending a wedding in July 2011 ('Wedding outbreak'), followed by a more geographically dispersed outbreak in August and September 2011 ('Midlands outbreak'). Fifty-one cases were confirmed. Detailed epidemiological and environmental health investigations suggested that pork was the most likely source of both outbreaks...
October 2013: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Emma M Harding-Esch, Ansumana Sillah, Tansy Edwards, Sarah E Burr, John D Hart, Hassan Joof, Mass Laye, Pateh Makalo, Ahmed Manjang, Sandra Molina, Isatou Sarr-Sissoho, Thomas C Quinn, Tom Lietman, Martin J Holland, David Mabey, Sheila K West, Robin Bailey
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has recommended three rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with antibiotics in districts where the prevalence of follicular trachoma (TF) is ≥10% in children aged 1-9 years, with treatment coverage of at least 80%. For districts at 5-10% TF prevalence it was recommended that TF be assessed in 1-9 year olds in each community within the district, with three rounds of MDA provided to any community where TF≥10%. Worldwide, over 40 million people live in districts whose TF prevalence is estimated to be between 5 and 10%...
June 2013: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Mitsuru Toda, Antony Opwora, Evelyn Waweru, Abdisalan Noor, Tansy Edwards, Greg Fegan, Catherine Molyneux, Catherine Goodman
INTRODUCTION: Equitable access to health care is a key health systems goal, and is a particular concern in low-income countries. In Kenya, public facilities are an important resource for the poor, but little is known on the equity of service provision. This paper assesses whether poorer areas have poorer health services by investigating associations between public facility characteristics and the poverty level of the area in which the facility is located. METHODS: Data on facility characteristics were collected from a nationally representative sample of public health centers and dispensaries across all 8 provinces in Kenya...
2012: International Journal for Equity in Health
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