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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315308/target-specific-alterations-in-the-vip-inhibitory-drive-to-hippocampal-gabaergic-cells-after-status-epilepticus
#1
Linda Suzanne David, Lisa Topolnik
Status epilepticus (SE) is associated with complex reorganization of hippocampal circuits involving a significant loss of specific subtypes of GABAergic interneurons. While adaptive circuit plasticity may increase the chances for recruitment of surviving interneurons, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. We studied the alterations in the inhibitory tone received by the hippocampal CA1 oriens/alveus (O/A) interneurons from the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)- and calretinin (CR)-expressing interneurons using the pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) model of epilepsy...
March 15, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284054/nanostructured-lipid-carriers-of-olmesartan-medoxomil-with-enhanced-oral-bioavailability
#2
Vikram Kaithwas, Chander Parkash Dora, Varun Kushwah, Sanyog Jain
The current study explores the potential of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for oral bioavailability enhancement of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM) by systemic design approach. OLM-NLC was successfully prepared with optimized process parameters (i.e. amount of liquid lipid, total amount of lipid, drug content and surfactant concentration) using the Box-Behnken design of experiments for different response parameters (i.e. particle size, Polydispersity index and entrapment efficiency). Further, optimized formulation was validated which depicted nano size, homogenous distribution with optimum entrapment efficiency...
March 6, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133514/anti-melanogenic-effect-of-oenothera-laciniata-methanol-extract-in-melan-a-cells
#3
Su Eun Kim, Chae Myoung Lee, Young Chul Kim
We evaluated the antioxidant activity and anti-melanogenic effects of Oenothera laciniata methanol extract (OLME) in vitro by using melan-a cells. The total polyphenol and flavonoid content of OLME was 66.3 and 19.0 mg/g, respectively. The electron-donating ability, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of OLME (500 μg/mL) were 94.5%, 95.6%, and 63.6%, respectively. OLME and arbutin treatment at 50 μg/mL significantly decreased melanin content by 35...
January 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073918/identical-bacterial-populations-colonize-premature-infant-gut-skin-and-oral-microbiomes-and-exhibit-different-in-situ-growth-rates
#4
Matthew R Olm, Christopher T Brown, Brandon Brooks, Brian Firek, Robyn Baker, David Burstein, Karina Soenjoyo, Brian C Thomas, Michael Morowitz, Jillian F Banfield
The initial microbiome impacts the health and future development of premature infants. Methodological limitations have led to gaps in our understanding of the habitat range and subpopulation complexity of founding strains, as well as how different body sites support microbial growth. Here, we used metagenomics to reconstruct genomes of strains that colonized the skin, mouth, and gut of two hospitalized premature infants during the first month of life. Seven bacterial populations, considered to be identical given whole-genome average nucleotide identity of >99...
April 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660076/impaired-function-of-%C3%AE-2-containing-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-on-oriens-lacunosum-moleculare-cells-causes-hippocampus-dependent-memory-impairments
#5
Elise Kleeman, Sakura Nakauchi, Hailing Su, Richard Dang, Marcelo A Wood, Katumi Sumikawa
Children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy are at significantly greater risk for cognitive impairments including memory deficits, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain to be understood. In rodent models of smoking during pregnancy, early postnatal nicotine exposure results in impaired long-term hippocampus-dependent memory, functional loss of α2-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α2(∗) nAChRs) in oriens-lacunosum moleculare (OLM) cells, increased CA1 network excitation, and unexpected facilitation of long-term potentiation (LTP) at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566170/the-protective-role-of-pac1-receptor-agonist-maxadilan-in-bccao-induced-retinal-degeneration
#6
A Vaczy, D Reglodi, T Somoskeoy, K Kovacs, E Lokos, E Szabo, A Tamas, T Atlasz
A number of studies have proven that pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is protective in neurodegenerative diseases. Permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) causes severe degeneration in the rat retina. In our previous studies, protective effects were observed with PACAP1-38, PACAP1-27, and VIP but not with their related peptides, glucagon, or secretin in BCCAO. All three PACAP receptors (PAC1, VPAC1, VPAC2) appear in the retina. Molecular and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the retinoprotective effects are most probably mainly mediated by the PAC1 receptor...
October 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487480/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-effects-of-morin-on-the-intestinal-absorption-and-pharmacokinetics-of-olmesartan-medoxomil-solid-dispersions
#7
Gurunath Surampalli, Madhuchander Satla, Basavaraj K Nanjwade, Paragouda A Patil
PURPOSE: In-situ evaluation to corroborate morin effects on the intestinal absorption and pharmacokinetic behavior of freeze-dried OLM-loaded solid dispersions with Caco-2 and in-vivo studies Methods: Intestinal transport and absorption studies were examined by Caco-2 permeability, in-situ single pass perfusion and closed-loop models along with in-vivo pharmacokinetic studies to evaluate and confirm the effect of P-gp-mediated activity of morin. We evaluated the intestinal membrane damage in the presence of morin by measuring the release of protein and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) followed by using qualitative and quantitative morphometric analysis to describe the surface characteristics of intestinal epithelium...
August 28, 2016: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379517/arterial-spin-labeling-perfusion-predicts-longitudinal-decline-in-semantic-variant-primary-progressive-aphasia
#8
Christopher A Olm, Benjamin M Kandel, Brian B Avants, John A Detre, James C Gee, Murray Grossman, Corey T McMillan
The objective of the study was to evaluate the prognostic value of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured by arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI in patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA). We acquired pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) MRI and whole-brain T1-weighted structural MRI in svPPA patients (N = 13) with cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers consistent with frontotemporal lobar degeneration pathology. Follow-up T1-weighted MRI was available in a subset of patients (N = 8)...
October 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26858609/spatiotemporal-pattern-of-doublecortin-expression-in-the-retina-of-the-sea-lamprey
#9
Blanca Fernández-López, Daniel Romaus-Sanjurjo, Pablo Senra-Martínez, Ramón Anadón, Antón Barreiro-Iglesias, María Celina Rodicio
Despite the importance of doublecortin (DCX) for the development of the nervous system, its expression in the retina of most vertebrates is still unknown. The key phylogenetic position of lampreys, together with their complex life cycle, with a long blind larval stage and an active predator adult stage, makes them an interesting model to study retinal development. Here, we studied the spatiotemporal pattern of expression of DCX in the retina of the sea lamprey. In order to characterize the DCX expressing structures, the expression of acetylated α-tubulin (a neuronal marker) and cytokeratins (glial marker) was also analyzed...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26787558/specc1l-deficiency-results-in-increased-adherens-junction-stability-and-reduced-cranial-neural-crest-cell-delamination
#10
Nathan R Wilson, Adam J Olm-Shipman, Diana S Acevedo, Kanagaraj Palaniyandi, Everett G Hall, Edina Kosa, Kelly M Stumpff, Guerin J Smith, Lenore Pitstick, Eric C Liao, Bryan C Bjork, Andras Czirok, Irfan Saadi
Cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs) delaminate from embryonic neural folds and migrate to pharyngeal arches, which give rise to most mid-facial structures. CNCC dysfunction plays a prominent role in the etiology of orofacial clefts, a frequent birth malformation. Heterozygous mutations in SPECC1L have been identified in patients with atypical and syndromic clefts. Here, we report that in SPECC1L-knockdown cultured cells, staining of canonical adherens junction (AJ) components, β-catenin and E-cadherin, was increased, and electron micrographs revealed an apico-basal diffusion of AJs...
January 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26664249/the-retinal-phenotype-of-grk1-is-compromised-by-a-crb1-rd8-mutation
#11
Joseph S Pak, Eun-Jin Lee, Cheryl Mae Craft
PURPOSE: Well-established laboratory mouse lines are important in creating genetically engineered knockout mouse models; however, these routinely used inbred strains are prone to spontaneous and deleterious mutations. One of these strains, the commonly used C57BL/6N (B6N), was discovered to carry a point mutation in the Crumbs homolog 1 (Crb1(rd8) ) gene, which codes for a developmental protein involved in tight junction formation at the outer limiting membrane (OLM). This mutation disrupts photoreceptor polarity and leads to retinal degeneration...
2015: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26549290/addition-of-a-nitric-oxide-donor-to-an-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blocker-may-cancel-its-blood-pressure-lowering-effects
#12
Eiji Yahiro, Shin-Ichiro Miura, Yasunori Suematsu, Yoshino Matsuo, Tadaaki Arimura, Takashi Kuwano, Satoshi Imaizumi, Atsushi Iwata, Yoshinari Uehara, Keijiro Saku
While physiological levels of nitric oxide (NO) protect the endothelium and have vasodilatory effects, excessive NO has adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. Recently, new NO-releasing pharmacodynamic hybrids of angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers (ARBs) have been developed.We analyzed whether olmesartan with NO-donor side chains (Olm-NO) was superior to olmesartan (Olm) for the control of blood pressure (BP). Although there was no significant difference in binding affinity to AT1 wild-type (WT) receptor between Olm and Olm-NO in a cell-based binding assay, the suppressive effect of Olm-NO on Ang II-induced inositol phosphate (IP) production was significantly weaker than that of Olm in AT1 WT receptor-expressing cells...
2015: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26386153/early-postnatal-nicotine-exposure-disrupts-the-%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-mediated-control-of-oriens-lacunosum-moleculare-cells-during-adolescence-in-rats
#13
Kang Chen, Sakura Nakauchi, Hailing Su, Saki Tanimoto, Katumi Sumikawa
Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and maternal nicotine exposure in animal models are associated with cognitive impairments in offspring. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Oriens-lacunosum moleculare (OLM) cells expressing α2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are an important component of hippocampal circuitry, gating information flow and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region. Here we investigated whether early postnatal nicotine exposure alters the normal role of α2*-nAChR-expressing OLM cells during adolescence in rats...
February 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26300744/network-models-provide-insights-into-how-oriens-lacunosum-moleculare-and-bistratified-cell-interactions-influence-the-power-of-local-hippocampal-ca1-theta-oscillations
#14
Katie A Ferguson, Carey Y L Huh, Bénédicte Amilhon, Frédéric Manseau, Sylvain Williams, Frances K Skinner
Hippocampal theta is a 4-12 Hz rhythm associated with episodic memory, and although it has been studied extensively, the cellular mechanisms underlying its generation are unclear. The complex interactions between different interneuron types, such as those between oriens-lacunosum-moleculare (OLM) interneurons and bistratified cells (BiCs), make their contribution to network rhythms difficult to determine experimentally. We created network models that are tied to experimental work at both cellular and network levels to explore how these interneuron interactions affect the power of local oscillations...
2015: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25793273/m%C3%A3-ller-glia-activation-in-response-to-inherited-retinal-degeneration-is-highly-varied-and-disease-specific
#15
Claire Hippert, Anna B Graca, Amanda C Barber, Emma L West, Alexander J Smith, Robin R Ali, Rachael A Pearson
Despite different aetiologies, most inherited retinal disorders culminate in photoreceptor loss, which induces concomitant changes in the neural retina, one of the most striking being reactive gliosis by Müller cells. It is typically assumed that photoreceptor loss leads to an upregulation of glial fibrilliary acidic protein (Gfap) and other intermediate filament proteins, together with other gliosis-related changes, including loss of integrity of the outer limiting membrane (OLM) and deposition of proteoglycans...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25721691/a-computational-study-on-how-theta-modulated-inhibition-can-account-for-the-long-temporal-windows-in-the-entorhinal-hippocampal-loop
#16
Vassilis Cutsuridis, Panayiota Poirazi
A recent experimental study (Mizuseki, Sirota, Pastalkova, & Buzsaki, 2009) has shown that the temporal delays between population activities in successive entorhinal and hippocampal anatomical stages are longer (about 70-80ms) than expected from axon conduction velocities and passive synaptic integration of feed-forward excitatory inputs. We investigate via computer simulations the mechanisms that give rise to such long temporal delays in the hippocampus structures. A model of the dentate gyrus (DG), CA3 and CA1 microcircuits is presented that uses biophysical representations of the major cell types including granule cells, CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs) and six types of interneurons: basket cells (BCs), axo-axonic cells (AACs), bistratified cells (BSCs), oriens lacunosum-moleculare cells (OLMs), mossy cells (MCs) and hilar perforant path associated cells (HC)...
April 2015: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25524827/different-protective-and-reparative-effects-of-olmesartan-in-stroke-according-to-time-of-administration-and-withdrawal
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
María Gutiérrez-Fernández, Blanca Fuentes, Berta Rodríguez-Frutos, Jaime Ramos-Cejudo, Laura Otero-Ortega, Exuperio Díez-Tejedor
Angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) have induced improved functional recovery and reduced infarct volume in experimental animal models of stroke. Clinical data have indicated a positive correlation between prestroke treatment with ARBs and reduced stroke severity and better outcomes; however, the mechanisms of these beneficial effects are not yet well understood. This study compares the protective and possible reparative effects of continuous oral treatment with olmesartan (OLM) with OLM pretreatment and withdrawal after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in rats...
May 2015: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25409299/action-potential-modulation-in-ca1-pyramidal-neuron-axons-facilitates-olm-interneuron-activation-in-recurrent-inhibitory-microcircuits-of-rat-hippocampus
#18
Sooyun Kim
Oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM) interneurons in the CA1 region of the hippocampus play a key role in feedback inhibition and in the control of network activity. However, how these cells are efficiently activated in the network remains unclear. To address this question, I performed recordings from CA1 pyramidal neuron axons, the presynaptic fibers that provide feedback innervation of these interneurons. Two forms of axonal action potential (AP) modulation were identified. First, repetitive stimulation resulted in activity-dependent AP broadening...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24990401/metabolic-parameters-using-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-f-fdg-pet-ct-correlate-with-occult-lymph-node-metastasis-in-squamous-cell-lung-carcinoma
#19
Do-Hoon Kim, Bong-Il Song, Chae Moon Hong, Shin Young Jeong, Sang-Woo Lee, Jaetae Lee, Byeong-Cheol Ahn
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate predictability of occult lymph node metastasis (OLM) using metabolic parameters on pretreatment (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in squamous cell non-small cell lung carcinoma (SC-NSCLC) patients who were clinically node negative (cN0) before surgery. METHODS: A total of 63 cN0 SC-NSCLC patients (M/F = 61/2, mean age 64.1 ± 8.0) who underwent curative surgery with lymph node dissection were enrolled in this study...
November 2014: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24978936/intrinsic-mechanisms-stabilize-encoding-and-retrieval-circuits-differentially-in-a-hippocampal-network-model
#20
Ali Hummos, Charles C Franklin, Satish S Nair
Acetylcholine regulates memory encoding and retrieval by inducing the hippocampus to switch between pattern separation and pattern completion modes. However, both processes can introduce significant variations in the level of network activity and potentially cause a seizure-like spread of excitation. Thus, mechanisms that keep network excitation within certain bounds are necessary to prevent such instability. We developed a biologically realistic computational model of the hippocampus to investigate potential intrinsic mechanisms that might stabilize the network dynamics during encoding and retrieval...
December 2014: Hippocampus
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