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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923741/nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-contributes-to-long-term-behavioral-alterations-in-mice-injected-with-lipopolysaccharide
#1
Wei Zhu, Feng-Sheng Cao, Jun Feng, Hua-Weng Chen, Jie-Ru Wan, Qing Lu, Jian Wang
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) might affect the central nervous system by causing neuroinflammation, which subsequently leads to brain damage and dysfunction. In this study, we evaluated the role of Nod-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in long-term behavioral alterations of 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice injected intraperitoneally with LPS (5 mg/kg). At different time points after injection, we assessed locomotor function with a 24-point neurologic deficit scoring system and the rotarod test; assessed recognition memory with the novel object recognition test; and assessed emotional abnormality (anhedonia and behavioral despair) with the tail suspension test, forced swim test, and sucrose preference test...
December 3, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920821/protective-effect-of-vitamin-c-vitamin-b12-and-omega-3-on-lead-induced-memory-impairment-in-rat
#2
Saeedeh Alsadat Moosavirad, Mohammad Rabbani, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Ali Hosseini-Sharifabad
Lead belongs to the heavy metal group and is considered as an environmental contaminant. Acute or chronic contact to lead can change the physiological function of human organs. One of the most important disorders following the lead exposure is neurotoxicity. Lead neurotoxicity consists of the neurobehavioral disturbances like cognitive impairment. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the possible protective effect of vitamin C (Vit C), vitamin B12 (Vit B12), omega 3 (ω-3), or their combination on the lead-induced memory disorder...
October 2016: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920670/two-visual-pathways-in-primates-based-on-sampling-of-space-exploitation-and-exploration-of-visual-information
#3
Bhavin R Sheth, Ryan Young
Evidence is strong that the visual pathway is segregated into two distinct streams-ventral and dorsal. Two proposals theorize that the pathways are segregated in function: The ventral stream processes information about object identity, whereas the dorsal stream, according to one model, processes information about either object location, and according to another, is responsible in executing movements under visual control. The models are influential; however recent experimental evidence challenges them, e.g., the ventral stream is not solely responsible for object recognition; conversely, its function is not strictly limited to object vision; the dorsal stream is not responsible by itself for spatial vision or visuomotor control; conversely, its function extends beyond vision or visuomotor control...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918835/the-ubiquitous-self-what-the-properties-of-self-bias-tell-us-about-the-self
#4
Jie Sui, Glyn W Humphreys
People show systematic biases in perception, memory, and attention to favor information related to themselves over information related to other people. Researchers have examined these biases in order to throw light on the nature of the self. We review this evidence in memory, face recognition, and simple perceptual matching tasks through objective measures of self-biases. We argue that the self serves as a stable anchor across different forms of judgment and that referring a stimulus to ourselves enhances the binding of stimulus features at different stages of processing (e...
December 5, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916948/a-robust-and-device-free-system-for-the-recognition-and-classification-of-elderly-activities
#5
Fangmin Li, Mohammed Abdulaziz Aide Al-Qaness, Yong Zhang, Bihai Zhao, Xidao Luan
Human activity recognition, tracking and classification is an essential trend in assisted living systems that can help support elderly people with their daily activities. Traditional activity recognition approaches depend on vision-based or sensor-based techniques. Nowadays, a novel promising technique has obtained more attention, namely device-free human activity recognition that neither requires the target object to wear or carry a device nor install cameras in a perceived area. The device-free technique for activity recognition uses only the signals of common wireless local area network (WLAN) devices available everywhere...
December 1, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916922/a-context-recognition-aided-pdr-localization-method-based-on-the-hidden-markov-model
#6
Yi Lu, Dongyan Wei, Qifeng Lai, Wen Li, Hong Yuan
Indoor positioning has recently become an important field of interest because global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are usually unavailable in indoor environments. Pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) is a promising localization technique for indoor environments since it can be implemented on widely used smartphones equipped with low cost inertial sensors. However, the PDR localization severely suffers from the accumulation of positioning errors, and other external calibration sources should be used. In this paper, a context-recognition-aided PDR localization model is proposed to calibrate PDR...
November 30, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916522/view-tolerant-face-recognition-and-hebbian-learning-imply-mirror-symmetric-neural-tuning-to-head-orientation
#7
Joel Z Leibo, Qianli Liao, Fabio Anselmi, Winrich A Freiwald, Tomaso Poggio
The primate brain contains a hierarchy of visual areas, dubbed the ventral stream, which rapidly computes object representations that are both specific for object identity and robust against identity-preserving transformations, like depth rotations [1, 2]. Current computational models of object recognition, including recent deep-learning networks, generate these properties through a hierarchy of alternating selectivity-increasing filtering and tolerance-increasing pooling operations, similar to simple-complex cells operations [3-6]...
November 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916196/adaptive-activation-of-a-stress-response-pathway-improves-learning-and-memory-through-gs-and-%C3%AE-arrestin-1-regulated-lactate-metabolism
#8
Jun-Hong Dong, Yi-Jing Wang, Min Cui, Xiao-Jing Wang, Wen-Shuai Zheng, Ming-Liang Ma, Fan Yang, Dong-Fang He, Qiao-Xia Hu, Dao-Lai Zhang, Shang-Lei Ning, Chun-Hua Liu, Chuan Wang, Yue Wang, Xiang-Yao Li, Fan Yi, Amy Lin, Alem W Kahsai, Thomas Joseph Cahill, Zhe-Yu Chen, Xiao Yu, Jin-Peng Sun
BACKGROUND: Stress is a conserved physiological response in mammals. Whereas moderate stress strengthens memory to improve reactions to previously experienced difficult situations, too much stress is harmful. METHODS: We used specific β-adrenergic agonists, as well as β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and arrestin knockout models, to study the effects of adaptive β2AR activation on cognitive function using Morris water maze and object recognition experiments. We used molecular and cell biological approaches to elucidate the signaling subnetworks...
October 13, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915041/garlic-active-constituent-s-allyl-cysteine-protects-against-lipopolysaccharide-induced-cognitive-deficits-in-the-rat-possible-involved-mechanisms
#9
Mahboubeh Zarezadeh, Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Zahra Kiasalari, Siamak Afshin-Majd, Mehrdad Roghani
Neuroinflammation is known as a risk factor for cognitive deficit and dementia and its incidence increases with aging. S-allyl cysteine (SAC) is the active and main component of aged garlic extract with anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and nootropic potential. In this study, the protective effect of SAC against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive deficit in the rat was investigated. For induction of learning and memory impairment and neuroinflammation, LPS was intraperitoneally injected at a dose of 167μg/kg for 7 days and SAC was administered p...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914486/are-organisational-factors-affecting-the-emotional-withdrawal-of-community-nurses
#10
Leila Karimi, Sandra G Leggat, Cindy Cheng, Lisa Donohue, Timothy Bartram, Jodi Oakman
Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of work organisation on the emotional labour withdrawal behaviour of Australian community nurses.Methods Using a paper-based survey, a sample of 312 Australian community nurses reported on their emotional dissonance, withdrawal behaviours (i.e. job neglect, job dissatisfaction, stress-related presenteeism) and work organisation. A model to determine the partial mediation effect of work organisation was developed based on a literature review...
December 5, 2016: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914434/long-term-musical-experience-and-auditory-and-visual-perceptual-abilities-under-adverse-conditions
#11
Esperanza M Anaya, David B Pisoni, William G Kronenberger
Musicians have been shown to have enhanced speech perception in noise skills. It is unclear whether these improvements are limited to the auditory modality, as no research has examined musicians' visual perceptual abilities under degraded conditions. The current study examined associations between long-term musical experience and visual perception under noisy or degraded conditions. The performance of 11 musicians and 11 age-matched nonmusicians was compared on several auditory and visual perceptions in noise measures...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914406/energetic-and-informational-masking-of-complex-sounds-by-a-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus
#12
Brian K Branstetter, Kimberly Bakhtiari, Amy Black, Jennifer S Trickey, James J Finneran, Hitomi Aihara
With few exceptions, laboratory studies of auditory masking in marine mammals have been limited to examining detection thresholds for simple tonal signals embedded in broadband noise. However, detection of a sound has little adaptive advantage without the knowledge of what produced the sound (recognition) and where the sound originated (localization). In the current study, a bottlenose dolphin's masked detection thresholds (energetic masking) and masked recognition thresholds (informational masking) were estimated for a variety of complex signals including dolphin vocalizations, frequency modulated signals, and a 10 kHz pure tone...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913964/intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin-as-a-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-neurochemical-and-behavioral-characterization-in-mice
#13
Katherine Garcia Ravelli, Barbara Dos Anjos Rosário, Rosana Camarini, Marina Sorrentino Hernandes, Luiz Roberto Britto
Streptozotocin has been widely used to mimic some aspects of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, especially in mice, several characteristics involved in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced AD pathology are not well known. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate temporally the expression of AD-related proteins, such as amyloid-β (Aβ), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), synapsin, axonal neurofilaments, and phosphorylated Tau in the hippocampus following intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of STZ in adult mice...
December 2, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913588/action-categories-in-lateral-occipitotemporal-cortex-are-organized-along-sociality-and-transitivity
#14
Moritz F Wurm, Alfonso Caramazza, Angelika Lingnau
: How neural specificity for distinct conceptual knowledge categories arises is central for understanding the organization of semantic memory in the human brain. While there is a large body of research on the neural processing of distinct object categories, the organization of action categories remains largely unknown. In particular, it is unknown if different action categories follow a specific topographical organization on the cortical surface, analogously to the category-specific organization of object knowledge...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913430/cortical-circuit-for-binding-object-identity-and-location-during-multiple-object-tracking
#15
Lauri Nummenmaa, Lauri Oksama, Erico Glerean, Jukka Hyönä
Sustained multifocal attention for moving targets requires binding object identities with their locations. The brain mechanisms of identity-location binding during attentive tracking have remained unresolved. In 2 functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments, we measured participants' hemodynamic activity during attentive tracking of multiple objects with equivalent (multiple-object tracking) versus distinct (multiple identity tracking, MIT) identities. Task load was manipulated parametrically. Both tasks activated large frontoparietal circuits...
December 1, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909939/a-novel-fuzzy-approach-for-automatic-brunnstrom-stage-classification-using-surface-electromyography
#16
Luca Liparulo, Zhe Zhang, Massimo Panella, Xudong Gu, Qiang Fang
Clinical assessment plays a major role in post-stroke rehabilitation programs for evaluating impairment level and tracking recovery progress. Conventionally, this process is manually performed by clinicians using chart-based ordinal scales which can be both subjective and inefficient. In this paper, a novel approach based on fuzzy logic is proposed which automatically evaluates stroke patients' impairment level using single-channel surface electromyography (sEMG) signals and generates objective classification results based on the widely used Brunnstrom stages of recovery...
December 1, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908784/cisplatin-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-is-associated-with-impaired-cognitive-function-in-rats
#17
Naomi Lomeli, Kaijun Di, Jennifer Czerniawski, John F Guzowski, Daniela A Bota
PURPOSE: Chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is commonly reported following the administration of chemotherapeutic agents and comprises a wide variety of neurological problems. No effective treatments for CRCI are currently available. Here we examined the mechanisms involving cisplatin-induced hippocampal damage following cisplatin administration in a rat model and in cultured rat hippocampal neurons and neural stem/progenitor cells (NSC). We also assessed the protective effects of the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine in mitigating these damages...
November 28, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908562/ontogeny-of-sensorimotor-gating-and-short-term-memory-processing-throughout-the-adolescent-period-in-rats
#18
Anja A Goepfrich, Chris M Friemel, Sabina Pauen, Miriam Schneider
Adolescence and puberty are highly susceptible developmental periods during which the neuronal organization and maturation of the brain is completed. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system, which is well known to modulate cognitive processing, undergoes profound and transient developmental changes during adolescence. With the present study we were aiming to examine the ontogeny of cognitive skills throughout adolescence in male rats and clarify the potential modulatory role of CB1 receptor signalling. Cognitive skills were assessed repeatedly every 10th day in rats throughout adolescence...
November 19, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907075/erp-correlates-of-encoding-success-and-encoding-selectivity-in-attention-switching
#19
Franziska R Richter, Nick Yeung
Long-term memory encoding depends critically on effective processing of incoming information. The degree to which participants engage in effective encoding can be indexed in electroencephalographic (EEG) data by studying event-related potential (ERP) subsequent memory effects. The current study investigated ERP correlates of memory success operationalised with two different measures-memory selectivity and global memory-to assess whether previously observed ERP subsequent memory effects reflect focused encoding of task-relevant information (memory selectivity), general encoding success (global memory), or both...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906979/a-phosphorylcholine-containing-glycolipid-like-antigen-present-on-the-surface-of-infective-stage-larvae-of-ascaris-spp-is-a-major-antibody-target-in-infected-pigs-and-humans
#20
Johnny Vlaminck, Dries Masure, Tao Wang, Peter Nejsum, Cornelis H Hokke, Peter Geldhof
BACKGROUND: The pig parasite Ascaris suum plays and important role in veterinary medicine and represents a suitable model for A. lumbricoides, which infects over 800 million people. In pigs, continued exposure to Ascaris induces immunity at the level of the gut, protecting the host against migrating larvae. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize parasite antigens targeted by this local immune response that may be crucial for parasite invasion and establishment and to evaluate their protective and diagnostic potential...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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