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object recognition

Eliécer E Gutiérrez, Guilherme S T Garbino
A recently proposed taxonomic classification of extant ungulates sparked a series of publications that criticize the Phylogenetic Species Concept (PSC) claiming it to be a particularly poor species concept. These opinions reiteratively stated that (1) the two fundamental elements of the "PSC", i.e., monophyly and diagnosability, do not offer objective criteria as to where the line between species should be drawn; and (2) that extirpation of populations can lead to artificial diagnosability and spurious recognitions of species...
March 8, 2018: Zoological Research
Vladimir Djurdjevic, Alessio Ansuini, Daniele Bertolini, Jakob H Macke, Davide Zoccolan
Despite their growing popularity as models of visual functions, it remains unclear whether rodents are capable of deploying advanced shape-processing strategies when engaged in visual object recognition. In rats, for instance, pattern vision has been reported to range from mere detection of overall object luminance to view-invariant processing of discriminative shape features. Here we sought to clarify how refined object vision is in rodents, and how variable the complexity of their visual processing strategy is across individuals...
March 7, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Lucia Tortorella, Carrie L Langstraat, Amy L Weaver, Michaela E McGree, Jamie N Bakkum-Gamez, Sean C Dowdy, William A Cliby, Gary L Keeney, Mark E Sherman, Saravut J Weroha, Andrea Mariani, Karl C Podratz
OBJECTIVE: Two randomized trials failed to demonstrate efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy (PbCT) for uterine serous carcinoma (USC). Our objective was to reassess the value of PbCT for patients with microscopic residuum (R0). METHODS: Progression-free survival (PFS) after surgery was analyzed for 409 patients and correlated with adjuvant therapies: vaginal brachytherapy (VBRT), external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), PbCT, or combinations. RESULTS: The estimated 5-year PFS for stage I (n=209) USC was 65...
March 14, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Shaffi Manchanda, Harpal Singh, Taranjeet Kaur, Gurcharan Kaur
Chronic sleep loss/fragmentation prevalent in the current 24/7 society is associated with irreversible consequences on health and overall wellbeing. Various studies have well documented the ill effects of acute sleep loss on cognitive functions of individuals; however, the underlying mechanism behind the chronic sleep loss is yet to be explored. The present study was aimed to investigate whether chronic sleep deprivation (CSD) triggers anxiety-like behaviour and memory decline in male Wistar rats. Rats were sleep deprived by placing them over slowly rotating drum (2 rpm) for 18 h (between 4 pm and 10 am) followed by 6 h of recovery sleep for 21 consecutive days...
March 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Gary J Lewis, Nicolas G Shakeshaft, Robert Plomin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autism-like traits are associated with deficits in face memory ability, although it is not yet clear whether this deficit reflects a specific aspect of the ASD/autism-like phenotype. We addressed this issue using a neurotypical sample of adolescent twins (Ncomplete pairs  = 782) drawn from the Twins Early Development Study who were assessed on face and object memory performance alongside two core aspects of autism-like traits: (i) difficulties with social behavior/interactions, and (ii) attention to detail...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Max Ward, Joseph Doran, Boris Paskhover, Antonios Mammis
OBJECTIVES: Bibliometric analysis is a commonly used analytic tool for objective determination of the most influential and peer-recognized articles within a given field. This study is the first bibliometric analysis of the literature in the field of invasive neuromodulation, excluding deep brain stimulation. The objectives of this study are to identify the 50 most cited articles in invasive neuromodulation, provide an overview of the literature to assist in clinical education, and evaluate the effect of impact factor on manuscript recognition...
March 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Benneth Ben-Azu, Adegbuyi Oladele Aderibigbe, Abayomi Mayowa Ajayi, Aya-Ebi Okubo Eneni, Solomon Umukoro, Ezekiel O Iwalewa
GABAergic (Gamma-aminobutyric acid) and neurotrophic derangements have important implication in schizophrenia, a neuropsychiatric disease. Previous studies have shown that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH-oxidase) alters GABAergic and neurotrophic activities via inflammatory and oxidative pathways. Thus, it has been proposed that agents with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties might be beneficial for the treatment of the disease. Morin is neuroactive bioflavonoid compound, which has been reported to demonstrate antipsychotic and anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory activities...
March 13, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
W Almaguer-Melian, D Mercerón-Martinez, S Delgado-Ocaña, E Alberti-Amador, R Gonzalez-Gómez, Jorge A Bergado
An increasing number of reports sustain a possible role of erythropoietin (EPO) as neuroprotective agent. In two previous articles we have evaluated EPO as plasticity promoting agent, and to contribute the restoration of brain function affected by acquired damage. We have shown that EPO is able to induce an increased synaptic efficacy in vivo along with a plasticity promoting effect. In the Morris water maze EPO administration to fimbria-fornix lesioned male rats induces a significant improvement of their spatial memory, affected by the lesion...
March 13, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Marcella Kelly, Maura Dowling, Michelle Millar
BACKGROUND: Kuhn's ( 1962 ) acknowledgement of a paradigm as a way that scientists make sense of their world and its reality gave recognition to the idea of 'paradigm shift'. This shift exposes the transience of paradigm development shaped by societal and scientific evolution. This ongoing evolutionary development provides the researcher with many paradigms to consider regarding how research is undertaken and the search for understanding achieved. AIM: An understanding of paradigm development is necessary when planning a study and can shape the search for understanding...
March 16, 2018: Nurse Researcher
Harmanpreet Singh, Chateshwar Kumar, Narpinder Singh, Surinder Paul, Subheet Kumar Jain
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a vital structural component of neuronal tissue, which is critically required during pre- and post-natal brain development. Its liquid nature, fishy odor, poor bioavailability and oxidative stability are the major challenges in the development of a pharmaceutically elegant and stable formulation. In the present study, nanocapsules of DHA from microalgae oil were prepared using different combinations of wall materials (carbohydrates, polymers, gum and proteins). The encapsulation using spray drying was done to prepare a pharmaceutically stable DHA formulation...
March 16, 2018: Food & Function
Dezső Ribli, Anna Horváth, Zsuzsa Unger, Péter Pollner, István Csabai
In the last two decades, Computer Aided Detection (CAD) systems were developed to help radiologists analyse screening mammograms, however benefits of current CAD technologies appear to be contradictory, therefore they should be improved to be ultimately considered useful. Since 2012, deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) have been a tremendous success in image recognition, reaching human performance. These methods have greatly surpassed the traditional approaches, which are similar to currently used CAD solutions...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gilda Fazzari, Merylin Zizza, Anna Di Vito, Raffaella Alò, Maria Mele, Rosalinda Bruno, Barni Tullio, Rosa Maria Facciolo, Canonaco Marcello
Recent indications are suggesting that high fat and sugar-enriched foods do not only evoke harmful physiological conditions, but they also endure evident structural alterations in cerebral regions controlling cognitive and feeding behaviors. Food consumption plus neuronal energy regulatory mechanisms seem to constitute a complex system assuring that food calories do not exceed body requirements. At the same time obesogenic-related properties of limbic feeding stations like the hypothalamus (HTH), hippocampus (HIP) and amygdala (AMY) tend to control eating habits through the interaction of distinct neuropeptides...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Yijun Pan, Jennifer L Short, Stephanie A Newman, Kwok H C Choy, Durgesh Tiwari, Christopher Yap, Danielle Senyschyn, William A Banks, Joseph A Nicolazzo
Epidemiological evidence suggests that people with bipolar disorder prescribed lithium exhibit a lower risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) relative to those prescribed other mood-stabilizing medicines. Lithium chloride (LiCl) reduces brain β-amyloid (Aβ) levels, and the brain clearance of Aβ is reduced in AD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether the cognitive benefits of LiCl are associated with enhanced brain clearance of exogenously-administered Aβ. The brain clearance of intracerebroventricularly (icv) administered125 I-Aβ42 was assessed in male Swiss outbred mice administered daily oral NaCl or LiCl (300 mg/kg for 21 days)...
March 12, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Εvgenia Dandi, Aikaterini Kalamari, Olga Touloumi, Rosa Lagoudaki, Evangelia Nousiopoulou, Constantina Simeonidou, Evangelia Spandou, Despina Α Tata
Exposure to environmental enrichment can beneficially influence the behavior and enhance synaptic plasticity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mediated effects of environmental enrichment on postnatal stress-associated impact with regard to behavior, stress reactivity as well as synaptic plasticity changes in the dorsal hippocampus. Wistar rat pups were submitted to a 3 h maternal separation (MS) protocol during postnatal days 1-21, while another group was left undisturbed. On postnatal day 23, a subgroup from each rearing condition (maternal separation, no-maternal separation) was housed in enriched environmental conditions until postnatal day 65 (6 weeks duration)...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Kamilla Blecharz-Klin, Adriana Wawer, Katarzyna Jawna-Zboińska, Justyna Pyrzanowska, Agnieszka Piechal, Dagmara Mirowska-Guzel, Ewa Widy-Tyszkiewicz
The biochemical and behavioral responses to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to paracetamol in rats are not well understood. The effect of daily maternal and early life administration of 5 mg/kg (group P5) or 15 mg/kg paracetamol (group P15) was evaluated in two-month old male rats, relative to control animals receiving tap water (Con). Social behavior and episodic memory were investigated with Social Interaction and Novel Object Recognition (NOR) tests. Quantification of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was determined in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
March 12, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Cong Lu, Yan Wang, Jingwei Lv, Ning Jiang, Bei Fan, Lina Qu, Yinghui Li, Shanguang Chen, Fengzhong Wang, Xinmin Liu
Sleep deprivation (SD) negatively caused cognitive deficit, which was associated with oxidative stress induced damage. Ginsenoside Rh2 had the ability to protect against damage caused by reactive oxygen species in vitro, showing antioxidant property. Therefore, it was hypothesized that Ginsenoside Rh2 could prevent SD-induced cognitive deficit via its antioxidant properties. In this study, the effect of Ginsenoside Rh2 on memory impairment induced by sleep deprivation was investigated. The mice were sleep deprived continuously for 14 days using our self-made Sleep Interruption Apparatus (SIA)...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Erin L Beatty, Alexandra Muller-Gass, Dorothy Wojtarowicz, Marie-Eve Jobidon, Ingrid Smith, Quan Lam, Oshin Vartanian
Humans rely on topographical memory to encode information about spatial aspects of environments. However, even though people adopt different strategies when learning new maps, little is known about the impact of those strategies on topographical memory, and their neural correlates. To examine that issue, we presented participants with 40 unfamiliar maps, each of which displayed one major route and three landmarks. Half were instructed to memorize the maps by focusing on the route, whereas the other half memorized the maps by focusing on the landmarks...
March 14, 2018: Neuroreport
Tamara Barghouthi, Cheryl Bushnell
Stroke risk is 3 times higher in pregnancy than in the general young adult population and carries high morbidity and mortality risks. The recognition of signs and symptoms of stroke and other serious cerebrovascular disorders in pregnant and postpartum patients is important for the obstetrician to be able to initiate urgent evaluation and management. The objective of this review is to provide an evidence-based summary of stroke incidence, risk factors, prevention, and treatment of stroke in pregnancy. The impact of postpartum contraceptive use can on stroke risk is summarized...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Katie N Dainty, M Bianca Seaton, Ian R Drennan, Laurie J Morrison
OBJECTIVE: Community paramedicine (CP) is a model of community-based health care being used around the world. Our objective was to study the patient perspective and valuation of this type of program to understand its potential value for primary care innovation in the future. STUDY SETTING: The EPIC community paramedicine program is a partnership between primary care physicians and specially trained community paramedics, designed to provide in-home support for complex chronic disease patients in Ontario, Canada...
March 15, 2018: Health Services Research
Yuanyuan Wang, Qinwen Wang, Xiaoming Bao, Yanfei Ding, Jieyi Shentu, Wei Cui, Xiaowei Chen, Xiaofei Wei, Shujun Xu
Taxifolin is a potent flavonoid with anti-inflammatory activity. Taxifolin has been reported to decrease the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ), and reduce Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. However, the detail molecular mechanism of taxifolin against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity is largely unknown. In this study, we revealed the protective effects and the underlying mechanisms of taxifolin on the impairments of cognitive function and synapse formation induced by soluble Aβ oligomers. Our results showed that taxifolin prevented neuronal cell death in a concentration-dependent manner...
March 14, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
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