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Blood Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340463/hypoxia-and-hydrogen-sulfide-differentially-affect-normal-and-tumor-derived-vascular-endothelium
#1
Serena Bianco, Daniele Mancardi, Annalisa Merlino, Benedetta Bussolati, Luca Munaron
BACKGROUND: endothelial cells play a key role in vessels formation both under physiological and pathological conditions. Their behavior is influenced by blood components including gasotransmitters (H2S, NO and CO). Tumor cells are subjected to a cyclic shift between pro-oxidative and hypoxic state and, in this scenario, H2S can be both cytoprotective and detrimental depending on its concentration. H2S effects on tumors onset and development is scarcely studied, particularly concerning tumor angiogenesis...
March 18, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339937/uterine-artery-leptin-receptors-during-the-ovarian-cycle-and-pregnancy-regulate-angiogenesis-in-ovine-uterine-artery-endothelial-cells
#2
Vladimir E Vargas, Rosalina Villalon Landeros, Gladys E Lopez, Jing Zheng, Ronald R Magness
Leptin regulates body weight, reproductive functions, blood pressure, endothelial function, and fetoplacental angiogenesis. Compared to the luteal phase, the follicular phase and pregnancy are physiological states of elevated estrogen, angiogenesis, and uterine blood flow (UBF). Little is known concerning leptin and its receptors (OB-R) for regulating uterine artery (UA) angiogenesis. We : 1) Ex vivo expression of OB-R in UA endothelium (UAendo) and UA vascular smooth muscle (UAvsm) is elevated in pregnant vs...
March 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339908/obesity-associated-cardiac-pathogenesis-in-broiler-breeder-hens-pathological-adaption-of-cardiac-hypertrophy1-2
#3
C Y Chen, H Y Lin, Y W Chen, Y J Ko, Y J Liu, Y H Chen, R L Walzem, S E Chen
Broiler hens consuming feed to appetite (ad libitum; AL) show increased mortality. Feed restriction (R) typically improves reproductive performance and livability of hens. Rapidly growing broilers can exhibit increased mortality due to cardiac insufficiency but it is unknown whether the increased mortality of non-R broiler hens is also due to cardiac compromise. To assess cardiac growth and physiology in fully mature birds, 45-week-old hens were either continued on R rations or assigned to AL feeding for 7 or 21 days...
March 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339778/effects-of-an-induced-molt-using-cassava-meal-on-body-weight-loss-blood-physiology-ovarian-regression-and-postmolt-egg-production-in-late-phase-laying-hens
#4
N Gongruttananun, P Kochagate, K Poonpan, N Yu-Nun, J Aungsakul, N Sopa
This study was conducted to determine the effect of an induced molt using cassava meal on body weight, blood physiology, ovary, and postmolt performance in late-phase (74 wk old) H&N Brown laying hens. Hens were randomly assigned to 3 treatments of 90 birds each: 1) Controls withno induced molt (CONT); 2) molted by full feeding with cassava meal for 3 wk (FP3); and 3) molted by full feeding with cassava meal for 4 wk (FP4). Groups 2 and 3 were fed a pullet developer diet for 3 wk following treatment. During the molt period, the birds were exposed to an 8L:16D photoperiod and had access to drinking water at all times...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339733/a-two-phase-mixture-model-of-platelet-aggregation
#5
Jian Du, Aaron L Fogelson
We present a two-phase model of platelet aggregation in coronary-artery-sized blood vessels. The model tracks the number densities of three platelet populations as well as the concentration of a platelet activating chemical. Through the formation of elastic bonds, activated platelets can cohere with one another to form a platelet thrombus. Bound platelets in a thrombus move in a velocity field different from that of the bulk fluid. Stresses produced by the elastic bonds act on the bound platelet material. Movement of the bound platelet material and that of the background fluid are coupled through an interphase drag and an incompressibility constraint...
February 20, 2017: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339478/morphological-and-morphometric-specializations-of-the-lung-of-the-andean-goose-chloephaga-melanoptera-a-lifelong-high-altitude-resident
#6
John N Maina, Kevin G McCracken, Beverly Chua, Julia M York, William K Milsom
High altitude flight in rarefied, extremely cold and hypoxic air is a very challenging activity. Only a few species of birds can achieve it. Hitherto, the structure of the lungs of such birds has not been studied. This is because of the rarity of such species and the challenges of preparing well-fixed lung tissue. Here, it was posited that in addition to the now proven physiological adaptations, high altitude flying birds will also have acquired pulmonary structural adaptations that enable them to obtain the large amounts of oxygen (O2) needed for flight at high elevation, an environment where O2 levels are very low...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339438/the-role-of-autonomic-function-in-exercise-induced-endogenous-analgesia-a-case-control-study-in-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-and-healthy-people
#7
Jessica Van Oosterwijck, Uros Marusic, Inge De Wandele, Lorna Paul, Mira Meeus, Greta Moorkens, Luc Lambrecht, Lieven Danneels, Jo Nijs
BACKGROUND: Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) are unable to activate brain-orchestrated endogenous analgesia (or descending inhibition) in response to exercise. This physiological impairment is currently regarded as one factor explaining post-exertional malaise in these patients. Autonomic dysfunction is also a feature of ME/CFS. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine the role of the autonomic nervous system in exercise-induced analgesia in healthy people and those with ME/CFS, by studying the recovery of autonomic parameters following aerobic exercise and the relation to changes in self-reported pain intensity...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339044/suppression-of-nuclear-factor-erythroid%C3%A2-2%C3%A2-related-factor-2%C3%A2-mediated-antioxidative-defense-in-the-lung-injury-induced-by-chronic-exposure-to-methamphetamine-in-rats
#8
Yang Bai, Yun Wang, Ming Liu, Yu-Han Gu, Bin Jiang, Xu Wu, Huai-Liang Wang
The imbalance between oxidative stress and antioxidant defense is important in the pathogenesis of lung diseases. Nuclear factor erythroid‑2‑related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcriptional factor that regulates the antioxidant response. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether Nrf2‑mediated antioxidative defense is involved in methamphetamine (MA)‑induced lung injury in rats. Following establishment of chronic MA toxicity in rats, Doppler ultrasonic detection was used to measure the changes of physiological indexes, followed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, ELISA and western blot analysis...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338590/small-changes-big-effects-the-hemodynamics-of-partial-and-complete-aortic-occlusion-to-inform-next-generation-resuscitation-techniques-and-technologies
#9
M Austin Johnson, Anders J Davidson, Rachel M Russo, Sarah-Ashley E Ferencz, Oren Gotlib, Todd E Rasmussen, Lucas P Neff, Timothy K Williams
BACKGROUND: The transition from complete aortic occlusion during Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) can be associated with hemodynamic instability. Technique refinements and new technologies have been proposed to minimize this effect. In order to inform new techniques and technology, we examined the relationship between blood pressure and aortic flow during the restoration of systemic circulation following aortic occlusion at progressive levels of hemorrhage...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338362/the-effects-of-caffeine-taurine-or-caffeine-taurine-co-ingestion-on-repeat-sprint-cycling-performance-and-physiological-responses
#10
Rory Warnock, Owen Jeffries, Stephen Patterson, Mark Waldron
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of caffeine (C), taurine (T), caffeine and taurine co-ingestion (C+T) or placebo (P) on repeated Wingate cycling performance and associated physiological responses. METHODS: Seven male team sports players participated in a randomised, single-blind, cross-over study, where they completed three Wingate tests, each separated by 2-min, an hour after ingesting: C (5 mg/kg BM), T (50 mg/kg BM), C+T (5 mg/kg BM + 50 mg/kg BM) or P (5 mg/kg BM) in a gelatine capsule...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338135/detection-of-chemical-warfare-agent-simulants-and-hydrolysis-products-in-biological-samples-by-paper-spray-mass-spectrometry
#11
Josiah McKenna, Elizabeth S Dhummakupt, Theresa Connell, Paul S Demond, Dennis B Miller, J Michael Nilles, Nicholas E Manicke, Trevor Glaros
Paper spray ionization coupled to a high resolution tandem mass spectrometer (a quadrupole orbitrap) was used to identify and quantitate chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants and their hydrolysis products in blood and urine. Three CWA simulants, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), trimethyl phosphate (TMP), and diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), and their isotopically labeled standards were analyzed in human whole blood and urine. Calibration curves were generated and tested with continuing calibration verification standards...
March 24, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338083/microvasculature-on-a-chip-study-of-the-endothelial-surface-layer-and-the-flow-structure-of-red-blood-cells
#12
Daria Tsvirkun, Alexei Grichine, Alain Duperray, Chaouqi Misbah, Lionel Bureau
Microvasculatures-on-a-chip, i.e. in vitro models that mimic important features of microvessel networks, have gained increasing interest in recent years. Such devices have allowed investigating pathophysiological situations involving abnormal biophysical interactions between blood cells and vessel walls. Still, a central question remains regarding the presence, in such biomimetic systems, of the endothelial glycocalyx. The latter is a glycosaminoglycans-rich surface layer exposed to blood flow, which plays a crucial role in regulating the interactions between circulating cells and the endothelium...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337665/effect-of-efflux-transporter-inhibition-on-the-distribution-of-fluconazole-in-the-rat-brain
#13
Wei Wang, Na Zheng, Jiatang Zhang, Xusheng Huang, Shengyuan Yu
Multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) and organic anion transporters (OATs) are expressed on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), preventing the entry of or the pumping out of numerous molecules. Fluconazole is widely used to treat fungal meningoencephalitis. The effect of these transporters on the distribution of fluconazole in the brain is unclear. We used microdialysis to compare the distribution of fluconazole in the rat brain with and without co-administration of probenecid, a MRP and OAT inhibitor...
March 24, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337659/a20-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-parkinson-s-disease-clue-to-a-common-dysregulation-of-anti-inflammatory-pathways
#14
Simona Perga, Serena Martire, Francesca Montarolo, Nicole D Navone, Andrea Calvo, Giuseppe Fuda, Alberto Marchet, Daniela Leotta, Adriano Chiò, Antonio Bertolotto
Chronic inflammation significantly contributes to the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders. In physiological conditions, a chronic inflammatory state is prevented through the termination of the acute inflammatory response once the triggering insult is eliminated. Several mechanisms regulate the resolution of inflammation. Among these, a potent inhibitor of the pro-inflammatory NF-kB signaling known as A20 has emerged as a key player. Recent studies have shown reduced blood levels of A20 in the patients of diverse chronic inflammatory diseases...
March 23, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337151/a-reduction-in-maximal-incremental-exercise-test-duration-48-h-post-downhill-run-is-associated-with-muscle-damage-derived-exercise-induced-pain
#15
Bryna C R Chrismas, Lee Taylor, Jason C Siegler, Adrian W Midgley
Purpose: To examine whether exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) and muscle soreness reduce treadmill maximal incremental exercise (MIE) test duration, and true maximal physiological performance as a consequence of exercise induced pain (EIP) and perceived effort. Methods: Fifty (14 female), apparently healthy participants randomly allocated into a control group (CON, n = 10), or experimental group (EXP, n = 40) visited the laboratory a total of six times: visit 1 (familiarization), visit 2 (pre 1), visit 3 (pre 2), visit 4 (intervention), visit 5 (24 h post) and visit 6 (48 h post)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336545/changes-in-intestinal-microbiota-composition-and-metabolism-coincide-with-increased-intestinal-permeability-in-young-adults-under-prolonged-physiologic-stress
#16
J Philip Karl, Lee M Margolis, Elisabeth H Madslien, Nancy E Murphy, John W Castellani, Yngvar Gundersen, Allison V Hoke, Michael W Levangie, Raina Kumar, Nabarun Chakraborty, Aarti Gautam, Rasha Hammamieh, Svein Martini, Scott J Montain, Stefan M Pasiakos
The magnitude, temporal dynamics, and physiologic effects of intestinal microbiome responses to physiologic stress are poorly characterized. This study used a systems biology approach and multiple-stressor military training environment to determine the effects of physiologic stress on intestinal microbiota composition and metabolic activity, and intestinal permeability (IP). 73 Soldiers were provided three rations/d with or without protein- or carbohydrate-based supplements during a four day cross-country ski march (STRESS)...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336108/vitamin-d-increases-ppar%C3%AE-expression-and-promotes-beneficial-effects-of-physical-activity-in-metabolic-syndrome
#17
Rastegar Hoseini, Arsalan Damirchi, Parvin Babaei
OBJECTIVES: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and vitamin D signaling pathways regulate a multitude of genes involved in different physiological functions. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of vitamin D supplementation and aerobic training on metabolic syndrome and PPARγ expression. METHODS: Forty female ovariectomized rats were divided into five groups of aerobic training with high (OVX + Exe + HD), moderate (OVX + Exe + MD), and low dose of vitamin D (OVX + Exe + LD), aerobic training receving vehicle (sesame oil; OVX + Exe + oil), and sham-operated control (sham) groups...
April 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335793/thrombus-leukocytes-exhibit-more-endothelial-cell-specific-angiogenic-markers-than-peripheral-blood-leukocytes-do-in-acute-coronary-syndrome-patients-suggesting-a-possibility-of-trans-differentiation-a-comprehensive-database-mining-study
#18
Hangfei Fu, Nish Vadalia, Eric R Xue, Candice Johnson, Luqiao Wang, William Y Yang, Claudette Sanchez, Jun Nelson, Qian Chen, Eric T Choi, Jian-Xing Ma, Jun Yu, Hong Wang, Xiaofeng Yang
BACKGROUND: Current angiogenic therapies for cancers and cardiovascular diseases have not yet achieved expected benefits, which reflects the need for improved understanding of angiogenesis. In this study, we focused on solving the problem of whether tissues have different angiogenic potentials (APs) in physiological conditions and how angiogenesis is regulated in various disease conditions. METHODS: In healthy and diseased human and mouse tissues, we profiled the expression of 163 angiogenic genes, including transcription regulators (TRs), growth factors and receptors (GF/Rs), cytokines and chemokines (C/Cs), and proteases and inhibitors (P/Is)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335744/a-systematic-review-of-prognostic-factors-at-the-end-of-life-for-people-with-a-hematological-malignancy
#19
Elise Button, Raymond Javan Chan, Shirley Chambers, Jason Butler, Patsy Yates
BACKGROUND: Accurate prognosticating is needed when patients are nearing the end of life to ensure appropriate treatment decisions, and facilitate palliative care provision and transitioning to terminal care. People with a hematological malignancy characteristically experience a fluctuating illness trajectory leading to difficulties with prognosticating. The aim of this review was to identify current knowledge regarding 'bedside' prognostic factors in the final 3 months of life for people with a hematological malignancy associated with increased risk of mortality...
March 23, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335694/construction-of-three-dimensional-dermo-epidermal-skin-equivalents-using-cell-coating-technology-and-their-utilization-as-alternative-skin-for-permeation-studies-and-skin-irritation-tests
#20
Takami Akagi, Mayuka Nagura, Ayami Hiura, Hajime Kojima, Mitsuru Akashi
In vitro generated human skin equivalents are generating interest as promising tools in basic research, as alternatives to animal testing and for clinical applications in regenerative medicine. For prediction of skin irritation and corrosion, three-dimensional (3D) human skin equivalents consisting of differentiated human keratinocytes have been developed and some models have been internationally accepted. However, more delicate assessments using full-thickness skin models, such as skin sensitization tests cannot be performed because of the lack of a dermis containing fibroblasts or appendages...
March 23, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
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