keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Blood Physiology

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150648/shedding-light-on-the-neonatal-brain-probing-cerebral-hemodynamics-by-diffuse-optical-spectroscopic-methods
#1
Parisa Farzam, Erin M Buckley, Pei-Yi Lin, Katherine Hagan, P Ellen Grant, Terrie Eleanor Inder, Stefan A Carp, Maria Angela Franceschini
Investigating the cerebral physiology of healthy term newborns' brains is important for better understanding perinatal brain injuries, of which the most common etiologies are hypoxia and ischemia. Hence, cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygenation are important biomarkers of brain health. In this study, we employed a hybrid diffuse optical system consisting of diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) and frequency-domain near infrared spectroscopy (FDNIRS) to measure hemoglobin concentration, oxygen saturation, and indices of cerebral blood flow and metabolism...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150452/a-metabolic-hypothesis-for-the-evolution-of-temperature-effects-on-the-arterial-pco2-and-ph-of-vertebrate-ectotherms
#2
Stanley S Hillman, Michael S Hedrick
Body temperature increases in ectothermic vertebrates characteristically lead to both increases in arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) and declines in resting arterial pH (pHa) of about 0.017 pH units/°C increase in temperature. This 'alphastat' pH pattern has previously been interpreted as being evolutionarily-driven by the maintenance of a constant protonation state on the imidazole moiety of histidine protein residues, hence stabilizing protein structure-function. Analysis of the existing data for interclass responses of ectothermic vertebrates show different degrees of PaCO2 increases and pH declines with temperature between the classes with reptiles>amphibians>fish...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149720/a-robust-strategy-for-preparation-of-sequential-stimuli-responsive-block-copolymer-prodrugs-via-thiolactone-chemistry-to-overcome-multiple-anticancer-drug-delivery-barriers
#3
Wendong Ke, Wei Yin, Zengshi Zha, Jean Felix Mukerabigwi, Weijian Chen, Yuheng Wang, Chuanxin He, Zhishen Ge
Block copolymer prodrugs (BCPs) have attracted considerable attentions in clinical translation of nanomedicine owing to their self-assembly into well-defined core-shell nanoparticles for improved pharmacokinetics, stability in blood circulation without drug leakage, and optimized biodistribution. However, a cascade of physiological barriers against specific delivery of drugs into tumor cells limit the final therapeutic efficacy. Herein, we report a robust and facile strategy based on thiolactone chemistry to fabricate well-defined BCPs with sequential tumor pH-promoted cellular internalization and intracellular stimuli-responsive drug release...
November 9, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149261/glut10-maintains-the-integrity-of-major-arteries-through-regulation-of-redox-homeostasis-and-mitochondrial-function
#4
Yu-Wei Syu, Hao-Wen Lai, Chung-Lin Jiang, Hong-Yuan Tsai, Chung-Chih Lin, Yi-Ching Lee
Glucose transporter 10 (GLUT10) is a member of the GLUT family of membrane transporters, and mutations in this gene cause arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS). However, the physiological role and regulation of GLUT10 in arteries remains unclear. To further understand its physiological roles in major arteries, we examined the regulatory mechanisms of GLUT10 in ASMCs and aortic tissues. Interestingly, we find that targeting of GLUT10 to mitochondria is increased in ASMCs under both stress and aging conditions, which enhances dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) uptake and maintains intracellular ascorbic acid (AA) levels...
November 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149222/personalized-medicine-and-hispanic-health-improving-health-outcomes-and-reducing-health-disparities-a-national-heart-lung-and-blood-institute-workshop-report
#5
M Larissa Avilés-Santa, John Heintzman, Nangel M Lindberg, Rafael Guerrero-Preston, Kenneth Ramos, Ana L Abraído-Lanza, Jonca Bull, Adolph Falcón, Mary Ann McBurnie, Ernest Moy, George Papanicolaou, Ileana L Piña, Jennifer Popovic, Shakira F Suglia, Miguel A Vázquez
Persons of Hispanic/Latino descent may represent different ancestries, ethnic and cultural groups and countries of birth. In the U.S., the Hispanic/Latino population is projected to constitute 29% of the population by 2060. A personalized approach focusing on individual variability in genetics, environment, lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants of health may advance the understanding of some of the major factors contributing to the health disparities experienced by Hispanics/Latinos and other groups in the U...
2017: BMC Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148702/influence-of-particle-geometry-on-gastrointestinal-transit-and-absorption-following-oral-administration
#6
Dong Li, Jie Zhuang, Haisheng He, Sifan Jiang, Amrita Banerjee, Yi Lu, Wei Wu, Samir Mitragotri, Li Gan, Jianping Qi
Geometry has been considered as one of the important parameters in nanoparticle design since it affects cellular uptake, transport across the physiological barriers and in vivo distribution. However, only a few studies have been conducted to elucidate the influence of nanoparticle geometry in their in vivo fate after oral administration. This paper discloses the effect of nanoparticle shape on transport and absorption in gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Nanorods and nanospheres were prepared, and labeled using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) molecules to track the in vivo fate of intact nanoparticles accurately...
November 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148259/vasovagal-reactions-in-blood-donors-risks-prevention-and-management
#7
REVIEW
A Thijsen, B Masser
This narrative review examines current research on risk factors, prevention methods and management strategies for vasovagal reactions (VVRs) that occur during or as a result of blood donation. VVRs are important to blood collection agencies (BCAs) as they negatively impact the number of completed collections, perceptions of the safety of blood donation and rates of donor return. There has been significant progress in understanding and preventing VVRs in blood donation in recent years, with a multitude of risk factors identified...
November 16, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148090/assessment-of-cumulative-health-risk-in-the-world-trade-center-general-responder-cohort
#8
Ghalib A Bello, Susan L Teitelbaum, Roberto G Lucchini, Christopher R Dasaro, Moshe Shapiro, Julia R Kaplan, Michael A Crane, Denise J Harrison, Benjamin J Luft, Jacqueline M Moline, Iris G Udasin, Andrew C Todd
BACKGROUND: Multiple comorbidities have been reported among rescue/recovery workers responding to the 9/11/2001 WTC disaster. In this study, we developed an index that quantifies the cumulative physiological burden of comorbidities and predicts life expectancy in this cohort. METHODS: A machine learning approach (gradient boosting) was used to model the relationship between mortality and several clinical parameters (laboratory test results, blood pressure, pulmonary function measures)...
November 17, 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148061/endocannabinoids-modulate-gq-11-protein-coupled-receptor-agonist-induced-vasoconstriction-via-a-negative-feedback-mechanism
#9
REVIEW
Olga Karpińska, Marta Baranowska-Kuczko, Monika Kloza, Hanna Kozłowska
OBJECTIVES: The endocannabinoid (eCB) system centrally and peripherally regulates cardiovascular parameters, including blood pressure, in health and disease. The relationship between Gq/11 protein-coupled receptor activation, regulation of eCBs release (mainly 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and subsequent CB1 receptor activation was initially observed in the central nervous system. Here, we review the latest findings from systemic physiological studies which include for the first time data from pulmonary arteries...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147723/desorption-kinetics-of-organic-chemicals-from-albumin
#10
Sophia Krause, Nadin Ulrich, Kai-Uwe Goss
When present in blood, most chemicals tend to bind to the plasma protein albumin. For distribution into surrounding tissues, desorption from albumin is necessary, because only the unbound form of a chemical is assumed to be able to cross cell membranes. For metabolism of chemicals, the liver is a particularly important organ. One potentially limiting step for hepatic uptake of the chemicals is desorption from albumin, because blood passes the human liver within seconds. Desorption kinetics from albumin can thus be an important parameter for our pharmacokinetic and toxicokinetic understanding of chemicals...
November 16, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146940/development-and-physiological-effects-of-an-artificial-diet-for-wolbachia-infected-aedes-aegypti
#11
Heverton Leandro Carneiro Dutra, Silvia Lomeu Rodrigues, Simone Brutman Mansur, Sofia Pimenta de Oliveira, Eric Pearce Caragata, Luciano Andrade Moreira
The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia spreads rapidly through populations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, and strongly inhibits infection with key human pathogens including the dengue and Zika viruses. Mosquito control programs aimed at limiting transmission of these viruses are ongoing in multiple countries, yet there is a dearth of mass rearing infrastructure specific to Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes. One example is the lack of a blood meal substitute, which accounts for the Wolbachia-specific physiological changes in infected mosquitoes, that allows the bacterium to spread, and block viral infections...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146475/electrical-activity-of-sensory-pathways-in-female-and-male-geriatric-rhesus-monkeys-macaca-mulatta-and-its-relation-to-oxidative-stress
#12
A Ibáñez-Contreras, U Hernández-Arciga, A Poblano, M Arteaga-Silva, B Hernández-Godínez, G I Mendoza-Cuevas, R Toledo-Pérez, A Alarcón-Aguilar, V Y González-Puertos, M Konigsberg
Synapses loss during aging has been related to decreased neuronal excitability and reduced electrophysiological activity in the nervous system, as well as to increased brain damage. Those physiological and biochemical alterations have been related to the oxidative stress increase associated with old age. The main substrate of lipid peroxidation (LPX) in the central and peripheral nervous systems are the myelin sheaths, and their damage generates a delayed nerve conduction velocity. However, studies in which the neural conduction velocity is related to changes in the redox state are still lacking...
November 13, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146204/mercury-exposure-and-short-term-consequences-on-physiology-and-reproduction-in-antarctic-petrels
#13
Alice Carravieri, Jérôme Fort, Arnaud Tarroux, Yves Cherel, Oliver P Love, Solène Prieur, Maud Brault-Favrou, Paco Bustamante, Sébastien Descamps
Mercury (Hg) is a pervasive contaminant reaching Antarctic environments through atmospheric transport and deposition. Seabirds as meso to top predators can accumulate high quantities of Hg through diet. Reproduction is one of the most sensitive endpoints of Hg toxicity in marine birds. Yet, few studies have explored Hg exposure and effects in Antarctic seabirds, where increasing environmental perturbations challenge animal populations. This study focuses on the Antarctic petrel Thalassoica antarctica from Svarthamaren, Antarctica, where the world's largest breeding population is thought to be in decline...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146117/implications-of-disturbances-in-circadian-rhythms-for-cardiovascular-health-a-new-frontier-in-free-radical-biology
#14
REVIEW
Neelam Khaper, Craig D C Bailey, Nilesh R Ghugre, Cristine Reitz, Zikra Awosanmi, Ryan Waines, Tami A Martino
Cell autonomous circadian "clock" mechanisms are present in virtually every organ, and generate daily rhythms that are important for normal physiology. This is especially relevant to the cardiovascular system, for example the circadian mechanism orchestrates rhythms in heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac contractility, metabolism, gene and protein abundance over the 24-hour day and night cycles. Conversely, disturbing circadian rhythms (e.g. via shift work, sleep disorders) increases cardiovascular disease risk, and exacerbates cardiac remodelling and worsens outcome...
November 13, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145764/plasma-corticosterone-epinephrine-and-norepinephrine-levels-increase-during-administration-of-nitrous-oxide-in-rats
#15
Salwa Al-Noori, Andreas Cimpan, Zoe Maltzer, Karl J Kaiyala, Douglas S Ramsay
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a gaseous drug with abuse potential. Despite its common clinical use, little is known about whether N2O administration activates the HPA axis and/or the sympathetic adrenomedullary system. The goal of this study was to determine whether 60% N2O alters plasma concentrations of corticosterone (CORT), epinephrine (EPI), and norepinephrine (NE) in male Long-Evans rats. A gas-tight swivel assembly in the lid of a gas administration chamber allowed the remote collection of blood samples from an indwelling jugular vein catheter at four time-points: baseline and at 30, 60, and 120 min during a two-hour administration of 60% N2O...
November 16, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145710/testosterone-replacement-in-transgenic-sickle-cell-mice-controls-priapic-activity-and-upregulates-pde5-expression-and-enos-activity-in-the-penis
#16
B Musicki, S Karakus, W Akakpo, F H Silva, J Liu, H Chen, B R Zirkin, A L Burnett
Sickle cell disease (SCD)-associated priapism is characterized by decreased nitric oxide (NO) signaling and downregulated phosphodiesterase (PDE)5 protein expression and activity in the penis. Priapism is also associated with testosterone deficiency, but molecular mechanisms underlying testosterone effects in the penis in SCD are not known. Given the critical role of androgens in erection physiology and NO synthase (NOS)/PDE5 expression, we hypothesized that testosterone replacement to eugonadal testosterone levels reduces priapism by reversing impaired endothelial (e)NOS activity and molecular abnormalities involving PDE5...
November 16, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144825/salt-hypertension-and-immunity
#17
A Justin Rucker, Nathan P Rudemiller, Steven D Crowley
The link between inappropriate salt retention in the kidney and hypertension is well recognized. However, growing evidence suggests that the immune system can play surprising roles in sodium homeostasis, such that the study of inflammatory cells and their secreted effectors has provided important insights into salt sensitivity. As part of the innate immune system, myeloid cells have diverse roles in blood pressure regulation, ranging from prohypertensive actions in the kidney, vasculature, and brain, to effects in the skin that attenuate blood pressure elevation...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144026/heart-rate-variability-and-implication-for-sport-concussion
#18
REVIEW
Scott A Bishop, Ryan T Dech, Przemyslaw Guzik, J Patrick Neary
Finding sensitive and specific markers for sports-related concussion is both challenging and clinically important. Such biomarkers might be helpful in the management of patients with concussion (i.e. diagnosis, monitoring and risk prediction). Among many parameters, blood flow-pressure metrics and heart rate variability (HRV) have been used to gauge concussion outcomes. Reports on the relation between HRV and both acute and prolonged concussion recovery are conflicting. While some authors report on differences in the low-frequency (LF) component of HRV during postural manipulations and postexercise conditions, others observe no significant differences in various HRV measures...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143777/margination-of-fluorescent-polylactic-acid-polyaspartamide-based-nanoparticles-in-microcapillaries-in-vitro-the-effect-of-hematocrit-and-pressure
#19
Emanuela Fabiola Craparo, Rosa D'Apolito, Gaetano Giammona, Gennara Cavallaro, Giovanna Tomaiuolo
The last decade has seen the emergence of vascular-targeted drug delivery systems as a promising approach for the treatment of many diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In this field, one of the major challenges is carrier margination propensity (i.e., particle migration from blood flow to vessel walls); indeed, binding of these particles to targeted cells and tissues is only possible if there is direct carrier-wall interaction. Here, a microfluidic system mimicking the hydrodynamic conditions of human microcirculation in vitro is used to investigate the effect of red blood cells (RBCs) on a carrier margination in relation to RBC concentration (hematocrit) and pressure drop...
October 28, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143568/the-inter-rater-reliability-and-prognostic-value-of-coma-scales-in-nepali-children-with-acute-encephalitis-syndrome
#20
Stephen Ray, Ajit Rayamajhi, Laura J Bonnett, Tom Solomon, Rachel Kneen, Michael J Griffiths
Background Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a common cause of coma in Nepali children. The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) is used to assess the level of coma in these patients and predict outcome. Alternative coma scales may have better inter-rater reliability and prognostic value in encephalitis in Nepali children, but this has not been studied. The Adelaide coma scale (ACS), Blantyre coma scale (BCS) and the Alert, Verbal, Pain, Unresponsive scale (AVPU) are alternatives to the GCS which can be used. Methods Children aged 1-14 years who presented to Kanti Children's Hospital, Kathmandu with AES between September 2010 and November 2011 were recruited...
November 16, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
keyword
keyword
83598
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"