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Blood Physiology

Mindi Zhao, Jianqiang Wu, Youhe Gao
Urine, reflecting many changes in the body, is a better source than blood for biomarker discovery. However, even under physiological conditions, the urine proteome often varies. Understanding how various regulating factors affect urine proteome helps link changes to urine proteome with urinary biomarkers of physiological conditions as well as corresponding diseases. To evaluate the possible impact of α1-adrenergic receptor on urine proteome, this study investigated effects of the specific inhibitor prazosin on the urine proteome in a rat model by using tandem mass tagging and two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
2016: PloS One
Melissa A Wren-Dail, Robert T Dauchy, Tara G Ooms, Kate C Baker, David E Blask, Steven M Hill, Lynell M Dupepe, Rudolf P Bohm
Environmental enrichment (EE) gives laboratory animals opportunities to engage in species-specific behaviors. However, the effects of EE devices on normal physiology and scientific outcomes must be evaluated. We hypothesized that the spectral transmittance (color) of light to which rats are exposed when inside colored enrichment devices (CED) affects the circadian rhythms of various plasma markers. Pair-housed male Crl:SD rats were maintained in ventilated racks under a 12:12-h light:dark environment (265.0 lx; lights on, 0600); room lighting intensity and schedule remained constant throughout the study...
2016: Comparative Medicine
Robert T Dauchy, Melissa A Wren-Dail, Aaron E Hoffman, John P Hanifin, Benjamin Warfield, George C Brainard, Steven M Hill, Victoria P Belancio, Erin M Dauchy, David E Blask
Regular cycles of exposure to light and dark control pineal melatonin production and temporally coordinate circadian rhythms of metabolism and physiology in mammals. Previously we demonstrated that the peak circadian amplitude of nocturnal blood melatonin levels of rats were more than 6-fold higher after exposure to cool white fluorescent (CWF) light through blue-tinted (compared with clear) rodent cages. Here, we evaluated the effects of light-phase exposure of rats to white light-emitting diodes (LED), which emit light rich in the blue-appearing portion of the visible spectrum (465-485 nm), compared with standard broadspectrum CWF light, on melatonin levels during the subsequent dark phase and on plasma measures of metabolism and physiology...
2016: Comparative Medicine
Xu-Xu Chen, Tao Wang, Jian Li, Hui Kang
BACKGROUND: After total hip arthroplasty (THA), there is a noteworthy inflammatory response. The inflammatory response is associated with postoperative recovery and complications. However, there had been few reports on the relationship between inflammatory response and postoperative complication rate. The aim of the present study was to investigate early inflammatory response in the first 3 days after THA, and to identify the relationship between inflammatory response and estimated complication rate after surgery...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Mariam S Aboian, Jay F Yu, Ayushi Gautam, Chia-Hung Sze, Jeffrey K Yang, Jonathan Chan, Prasheel V Lillaney, Caroline D Jordan, Hee-Jeung Oh, David M Wilson, Anand S Patel, Mark W Wilson, Steven W Hetts
To report a novel method using immobilized DNA within mesh to sequester drugs that have intrinsic DNA binding characteristics directly from flowing blood. DNA binding experiments were carried out in vitro with doxorubicin in saline (PBS solution), porcine serum, and porcine blood. Genomic DNA was used to identify the concentration of DNA that shows optimum binding clearance of doxorubicin from solution. Doxorubicin binding kinetics by DNA enclosed within porous mesh bags was evaluated. Flow model simulating blood flow in the inferior vena cava was used to determine in vitro binding kinetics between doxorubicin and DNA...
December 2016: Biomedical Microdevices
Vassilios Atsaves, Maria G Detsika, Elpida Poulaki, Hara Gakiopoulou, Elias A Lianos
Although the protective role of HO-1 induction in various forms of kidney disease is well established, mechanisms other than heme catabolism to biliverdin, bilirubin and carbon monoxide have recently been identified. Unraveling these mechanisms requires the generation of appropriate animal models. The present study describes the generation of a HO-1 deficient Hmox1 (-/-) rat model and characterizes its renal and extrarenal phenotype. Hmox1 (-/-) rats had growth retardation and splenomegaly compared to their Hmox1 (+/+) littermates...
October 24, 2016: Transgenic Research
Robert D Black, Lesco L Rogers, Kristen K Ade, Heather A Nicoletto, Heather D Adkins, Daniel T Laskowitz
Caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS) to elicit the vestibulo-ocular reflex has long been used in clinical settings to aid in the diagnosis of balance disorders and to confirm the absence of brainstem function. While a number of studies have hinted at the potential therapeutic applications of CVS, the limitations of existing devices have frustrated that potential. Current CVS irrigators use water or air during short-duration applications; however, this approach is not tenable for longer duration therapeutic protocols or home use...
2016: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Mikus Abolins-Abols, Sydney F Hope, Ellen D Ketterson
The life-history trade-off between self-maintenance and reproduction posits that investment in one function decreases investment in the other. Manipulating the costs and benefits of functions involved in a trade-off may alter this interaction. Here we ask whether investment in self-maintenance during a stress response alters territorial behavior in wild Dark-eyed Juncos and whether rural and urban birds, which are known to differ in the magnitude of the stress response (greater in rural), also differ in the degree to which stress reduces territorial behavior...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Sarah L Richardson, Pawel Swietach
During capillary transit, red blood cells (RBCs) must exchange large quantities of CO2 and O2 in typically less than one second, but the degree to which this is rate-limited by diffusion through cytoplasm is not known. Gas diffusivity is intuitively assumed to be fast and this would imply that the intracellular path-length, defined by RBC shape, is not a factor that could meaningfully compromise physiology. Here, we evaluated CO2 diffusivity (DCO2) in RBCs and related our results to cell shape. DCO2 inside RBCs was determined by fluorescence imaging of [H(+)] dynamics in cells under superfusion...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Chip P Rowan, Michael C Riddell, Norman Gledhill, Veronica K Jamnik
PURPOSE: Prediabetes is linked to several modifiable risk factors, in particular, physical activity participation. The optimal prescription for physical activity remains uncertain. This pilot study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of continuous moderate intensity (CON) versus high intensity interval (HIIT) aerobic training in persons with prediabetes. Outcome measures included hemoglobin A1c (A1C), body composition, musculoskeletal and aerobic fitness. METHODS: Participants (n= 35) were recruited and screened using a questionnaire plus capillary blood point-of-care A1C analysis...
October 21, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Yi-Ju Hsu, Wen-Ching Huang, Chien-Chao Chiu, Yan-Lin Liu, Wan-Chun Chiu, Chun-Hui Chiu, Yen-Shuo Chiu, Chi-Chang Huang
Chili pepper is used as a food, seasoning and has been revered for its medicinal and health claims. It is very popular and is the most common spice worldwide. Capsaicin (CAP) is a major pungent and bioactive phytochemical in chili peppers. CAP has been shown to improve mitochondrial biogenesis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. However, there is limited evidence around the effects of CAP on physical fatigue and exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CAP on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge...
October 20, 2016: Nutrients
Antonis Sakellarios, Lorenz Raeber, Christos Bourantas, Themis Exarchos, Lambros Athanasiou, Gualtiero Pelosi, Oberdan Parodi, Konstantinos Koskinas, Katerina Naka, Lampros Michalis, Patrick Wjc Serruys, Hector Garcia-Garcia, Stephan Windecker, Dimitrios Fotiadis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore major mechanisms of atherosclerotic plaque growth, presenting a proof-of-concept numerical model. METHODS: To this aim, a human reconstructed left circumflex coronary artery is utilized for a multi-level modeling approach. More specifically, the first level consists of the modeling of blood flow and endothelial shear stress (ESS) computation. The second level includes the modeling of low and high density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL) and monocytes transport through the endothelial membrane to vessel wall...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
J Klimentova, M Cebova, A Barta, Z Matuskova, S Vrankova, R Rehakova, M Kovacsova, O Pechanova
Melatonin, a multitasking indolamine, seems to be involved in a variety of physiological and metabolic processes via both receptor-mediated and receptor-independent mechanisms. The aim of our study was to find out whether melatonin can affect blood pressure (BP), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, eNOS and nNOS protein expressions in rats with metabolic syndrome (SHR/cp). Rats were divided into four groups: 6-week-old male WKY andSHR/cp and age-matched WKY and SHR/cp treated with melatonin (10 mg/kg/day) for 3 weeks...
October 24, 2016: Physiological Research
S Cacanyiova, A Berenyiova, F Kristek
Cardiovascular studies have confirmed that hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is involved in various signaling pathways in both physiological and pathological conditions, including hypertension. In contrast to nitric oxide (NO), which has a clear vasorelaxant action, H(2)S has both vasorelaxing and vasoconstricting effects on the cardiovascular system. H(2)S is an important antihypertensive agent, and the reduced production of H(2)S and the alterations in its functions are involved in the initiation of spontaneous hypertension...
October 24, 2016: Physiological Research
Danilo T Perez-Rivera, Veronica L Torres-Torres, Abraham E Torres-Colon, Maytee Cruz-Aponte
Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by a range of metabolic complications involving an individual's blood glucose levels, and its main regulator, insulin. These complications can vary largely from person to person depending on their current biophysical state. Biomedical research day-by-day makes strides to impact the lives of patients of a variety of diseases, including diabetes. One large stride that is being made is the generation of techniques to assist physicians to ``personalize medicine''. From available physiological data, biological understanding of the system, and dimensional analysis, a differential equation-based mathematical model was built in a sequential matter, to be able to elucidate clearly how each parameter correlates to the patient's current physiological state...
October 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Morné A Strydom, Janette Bester, Sthembile Mbotwe, Etheresia Pretorius
A significant burden of illness is caused globally by snakebites particularly by the puff adder, Bitis arietans. Presently there is no reliable and rapid method to confirm envenomation on blood chemistry; although coagulation parameters like prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio and also serum electrolytes are tested. Here, we found that direct in vitro exposure of physiological relevant whole venom levels to human healthy blood (N = 32), caused significant physiological changes to platelet activity using a hematology analyzer, and measuring occlusion time, as well as lyses time, with the global thrombosis test (GTT)...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Masahiko Terakado, Hidehiro Suzuki, Kazuya Hashimura, Motoyuki Tanaka, Hideyuki Ueda, Hiroshi Kohno, Taku Fujimoto, Hiroshi Saga, Shinji Nakade, Hiromu Habashita, Yoshikazu Takaoka, Takuya Seko
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) evokes various physiological responses through a series of G protein-coupled receptors known as LPA1-6. A high throughput screen against LPA1 gave compound 7a as a hit. The subsequent optimization of 7a led to ONO-7300243 (17a) as a novel, potent LPA1 antagonist, which showed good efficacy in vivo. The oral dosing of 17a at 30 mg/kg led to reduced intraurethral pressure in rats. Notably, this compound was equal in potency to the α1 adrenoceptor antagonist tamsulosin, which is used in clinical practice to treat dysuria with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)...
October 13, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Tijana R Djukic, Swapna Karthik, Igor Saveljic, Valentin Djonov, Nenad Filipovic
Due to the important biological role of red blood cells (RBCs) in vertebrates, the analysis of reshaping and dynamics of RBCs motion is a critical issue in physiology and biomechanics. In this paper the behavior of RBCs within the immature capillary plexus during embryonic development of zebrafish has been analyzed. Relying on the fact that zebrafish embryos are small and optically transparent, it is possible to image the blood flow. In this way the anatomy of blood vessels is monitored along with the circulation throughout their development...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Oksana N Khokhlova, Elena A Tukhovskaya, Irina N Kravchenko, Elena S Sadovnikova, Irina A Pakhomova, Elena A Kalabina, Alexander V Lobanov, Elvira R Shaykhutdinova, Alina M Ismailova, Arkady N Murashev
INTRODUCTION: It is important that the method of anesthesia of mice does not considerably alter the animal's physiological and metabolic status before terminal blood sampling taken in order to analyze clinical pathology parameters. METHODS: Hematology, hemostasis, and clinical chemistry parameters were compared in male and female BALB/c mice exposed to either tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine (TZX) anesthesia or euthanasia in carbon dioxide (CO2) chamber to reveal an alternative method of anesthesia vs...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Hadiseh Dadras, Mohammad Reza Hayatbakhsh, William L Shelton, Amin Golpour
The aim of this study was to investigate effects of two dietary medicinal herbs, Rose hip (Rosa canina) and Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) supplementation on growth performance, haematological, biochemical parameters and innate immune response of in juvenile beluga, Huso huso. Fish (26.3 ± 0.4 g) were allocated into 15 tanks (20 fish per tank) and triplicate groups were fed a control diet or diets containing 1% and 2% of medicinal herbs, respectively. Feed conversion ratio (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR) and condition factor (CF) did not show significant differences (P > 0...
October 20, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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