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Blood Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749426/a-novel-perspective-on-the-apom-s1p-axis-highlighting-the-metabolism-of-apom-and-its-role-in-liver-fibrosis-and-neuroinflammation
#1
REVIEW
Stefan Hajny, Christina Christoffersen
Hepatocytes, renal proximal tubule cells as well as the highly specialized endothelium of the blood brain barrier (BBB) express and secrete apolipoprotein M (apoM). ApoM is a typical lipocalin containing a hydrophobic binding pocket predominantly carrying Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P). The small signaling molecule S1P is associated with several physiological as well as pathological pathways whereas the role of apoM is less explored. Hepatic apoM acts as a chaperone to transport S1P through the circulation and kidney derived apoM seems to play a role in S1P recovery to prevent urinal loss...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748384/the-more-vivid-the-imagination-the-better-the-role-of-the-vividness-of-imagination-in-vasoconstriction-training-and-vasodilatation-training
#2
Julia E Graef, Winfried Rief, Yvonne Nestoriuc, Cornelia Weise
Blood volume pulse biofeedback represents an effective non-pharmacological treatment for migraine. However, the underlying mechanisms of blood volume pulse biofeedback are still unclear. This study investigated the influence of vividness of imagination, private body consciousness, perfectionism, and general self-efficacy on physiological (blood volume pulse amplitude) and psychological (session performance rated by participants and by trainers) success. Changes in skin conductance and skin temperature indicating habituation to training context were examined...
July 26, 2017: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748115/physiological-functions-and-pathogenic-potential-of-uric-acid-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Rashika El Ridi, Hatem Tallima
Uric acid is synthesized mainly in the liver, intestines and the vascular endothelium as the end product of an exogenous pool of purines, and endogenously from damaged, dying and dead cells, whereby nucleic acids, adenine and guanine, are degraded into uric acid. Mentioning uric acid generates dread because it is the established etiological agent of the severe, acute and chronic inflammatory arthritis, gout and is implicated in the initiation and progress of the metabolic syndrome. Yet, uric acid is the predominant anti-oxidant molecule in plasma and is necessary and sufficient for induction of type 2 immune responses...
September 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747888/the-hsp72-and-hsp90%C3%AE-mrna-responses-to-hot-downhill-running-are-reduced-following-a-prior-bout-of-hot-downhill-running-and-occur-concurrently-within-leukocytes-and-the-vastus-lateralis
#4
James A Tuttle, Bryna C R Chrismas, Oliver R Gibson, James H Barrington, David C Hughes, Paul C Castle, Alan J Metcalfe, Adrian W Midgley, Oliver Pearce, Chindu Kabir, Faizal Rayanmarakar, Sami Al-Ali, Mark P Lewis, Lee Taylor
The leukocyte heat shock response (HSR) is used to determine individual's thermotolerance. The HSR and thermotolerance are enhanced following interventions such as preconditioning and/or acclimation/acclimatization. However, it is unclear whether the leukocyte HSR is an appropriate surrogate for the HSR in other tissues implicated within the pathophysiology of exertional heat illnesses (e.g., skeletal muscle), and whether an acute preconditioning strategy (e.g., downhill running) can improve subsequent thermotolerance...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747813/stress-among-parents-of-children-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-comparison-involving-physiological-indicators-and-parent-self-reports
#5
Ciara Padden, Jack E James
Parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have been reported as experiencing higher levels of stress and poorer physical health than parents of typically developing children. However, most of the relevant literature has been based on parental self-reports of stress and health. While research on physiological outcomes has grown in recent years, gaps still exist in our understanding of the physiological effects, if any, of stress related to parenting a child with ASD. The present study compared parent-reported stress, anxiety, and depression, as well as selected physiological measures of stress (i...
2017: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747484/a-simple-plasma-retinol-isotope-ratio-method-for-estimating-%C3%AE-carotene-relative-bioefficacy-in-humans-validation-with-the-use-of-model-based-compartmental-analysis
#6
Jennifer Lynn Ford, Joanne Balmer Green, Georg Lietz, Anthony Oxley, Michael H Green
Background: Provitamin A carotenoids are an important source of dietary vitamin A for many populations. Thus, accurate and simple methods for estimating carotenoid bioefficacy are needed to evaluate the vitamin A value of test solutions and plant sources. β-Carotene bioefficacy is often estimated from the ratio of the areas under plasma isotope response curves after subjects ingest labeled β-carotene and a labeled retinyl acetate reference dose [isotope reference method (IRM)], but to our knowledge, the method has not yet been evaluated for accuracy...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747482/pale-and-dark-morphs-of-tawny-owls-show-different-patterns-of-telomere-dynamics-in-relation-to-disease-status
#7
Patrik Karell, Staffan Bensch, Kari Ahola, Muhammad Asghar
Parasites are expected to exert long-term costs on host fecundity and longevity. Understanding the consequences of heritable polymorphic variation in disease defence in wild populations is essential in order to predict evolutionary responses to changes in disease risk. Telomeres have been found to shorten faster in malaria-diseased individuals compared with healthy ones with negative effects on longevity and thereby fitness. Here, we study the impact of haemosporidian blood parasites on telomere dynamics in tawny owls, which display a highly heritable plumage colour polymorphism...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747336/an-innovative-intermittent-hypoxia-model-in-cell-cultures-allowing-fast-po2-oscillations-with-minimal-gas-consumption
#8
Mélanie Minoves, Jessica Morand, Frédéric Perriot, Morgane Chatard, Brigitte Gonthier, Emeline Lemarié, Jean-Baptiste Menut, Jan Polak, Jean-Louis Pepin, Diane Godin-Ribuot, Anne Briancon-Marjollet
Performing hypoxia-reoxygenation cycles in cell culture with a cycle duration accurately reflecting what occurs in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients is a difficult but crucial technical challenge. Our goal was to develop a novel device to expose multiple cell culture dishes to intermittent hypoxia (IH) cycles relevant to OSA with limited gas consumption. With gas flows as low as 200 mL/min, our combination of plate holders with gas-permeable cultureware generates rapid normoxia-hypoxia cycles. Cycles alternating 1 minute at 20% O2 followed by 1 minute at 2% O2 result in pO2 values ranging from 124 to 44mmHg...
July 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746319/systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-following-gastrointestinal-surgery
#9
U Koirala, P B Thapa, M R Joshi, D R Singh, S K Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome symptoms immediately after surgery have lately been regarded as potential warnings of impending post-operative complications and multiple organ failure. This study was conducted to find out the clinical significance of systemic inflammatory response syndrome in postoperative patients and to investigate the relationship between the duration of post-operative systemic inflammatory response syndrome and the post-operative morbidity and mortality...
April 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745122/cell-membrane-derived-nanoparticles-emerging-clinical-opportunities-for-targeted-drug-delivery
#10
Svetlana T Yurkin, Zhenjia Wang
Biofunctionalization of nanoparticles (NPs) is an essential component in targeted drug delivery. However, current nanotechnology remains inadequate to imitate complex intercellular interactions existing in physiological conditions in human bodies. Emerging concepts have been explored to utilize human cells to generate cell membrane-formed NPs because cells retain inherent abilities to interact with human tissues compared with synthetic nanomaterials. Neutrophils, red blood cells (RBCs), platelets and monocytes have been employed to form therapeutic NPs to treat vascular disease and cancer, and these novel drug delivery platforms show the translation potential to improve patient quality of life...
July 26, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744122/penetration-of-blood-brain-barrier-and-antitumor-activity-and-nerve-repair-in-glioma-by-doxorubicin-loaded-monosialoganglioside-micelles-system
#11
Dan Zou, Wei Wang, Daoxi Lei, Ying Yin, Peng Ren, Jinju Chen, Tieying Yin, Bochu Wang, Guixue Wang, Yazhou Wang
For the treatment of glioma and other central nervous system diseases, one of the biggest challenges is that most therapeutic drugs cannot be delivered to the brain tumor tissue due to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The goal of this study was to construct a nanodelivery vehicle system with capabilities to overcome the BBB for central nervous system administration. Doxorubicin as a model drug encapsulated in ganglioside GM1 micelles was able to achieve up to 9.33% loading efficiency and 97.05% encapsulation efficiency by orthogonal experimental design...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743938/lactate-provides-a-strong-ph-independent-ventilatory-signal-in-the-facultative-air-breathing-teleost-pangasianodon-hypophthalmus
#12
Mikkel T Thomsen, Tobias Wang, William K Milsom, Mark Bayley
Fish regulate ventilation primarily by sensing O2-levels in the water and arterial blood. It is well established that this sensory process involves several steps, but the underlying mechanisms remain frustratingly elusive. Here we examine the effect of increasing lactate ions at constant pH on ventilation in a teleost; specifically the facultative air-breathing catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. At lactate levels within the physiological range obtained by Na-Lactate injections (3.5 ± 0.8 to 10.9 ± 0...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743915/platelet-behaviour-on-von-willebrand-factor-changes-in-pregnancy-consequences-of-haemodilution-and-intrinsic-changes-in-platelet-function
#13
Jonathan Cowman, Sieglinde Müllers, Eimear Dunne, Adam Ralph, Antonio J Ricco, Fergal D Malone, Dermot Kenny
Platelet function in pregnancy is poorly understood. Previous studies of platelet function in pregnancy have used non-physiological assays of platelet function with conflicting results. This study using a physiological assay of platelet function investigated platelet interactions with von Willebrand Factor (VWF) in blood from healthy pregnant women and healthy non-pregnant controls. Blood samples (200 µl) from third-trimester pregnancies (n = 21) and non-pregnant controls (n = 21) were perfused through custom-made parallel-plate flow chambers coated with VWF under arterial shear (1,500 s(-1))...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743624/russian-sturgeon-cultured-in-a-subtropical-climate-shows-weaken-innate-defences-and-a-chronic-stress-response
#14
Mauricio Castellano, Valeria Silva-Álvarez, Elena Fernández-López, Verónica Mauris, Daniel Conijeski, Andrea Villarino, Ana M Ferreira
Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) has been successfully farmed in Uruguay for the past ten years. However, during the Uruguayan summer fish endure high water temperatures and increased bacterial infections that threaten aquaculture. Our understanding of sturgeon's immune system and its interplay with environmental factors like temperature is almost unknown. This study analysed the way in which seasonal variations affect enzymatic blood components of Russian sturgeon's innate defences, including the serum alternative complement pathway (ACP), ceruloplasmin (Cp) and lysozyme activities...
July 22, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743566/mortality-prediction-in-patients-with-acute-kidney-injury-requiring-renal-replacement-therapy-after-cardiac-surgery
#15
Inga Skarupskienė, Dalia Adukauskienė, Jurgita Kuzminskienė, Laima Rimkutė, Vilma Balčiuvienė, Edita Žiginskienė, Vytautas Kuzminskis, Agnė Adukauskaitė, Daiva Pentiokinienė, Inga Arūnė Bumblytė
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and potentially serious postoperative complication after cardiac surgery, and it remains a cause of major morbidity and mortality. The aim of our study was to assess the prognostic illness severity score and to estimate the significant risk factors for poor outcome of patients with AKI requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) after cardiac surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data of adult (>18 years) patients (n=111) who underwent open heart surgery and had developed AKI with need for RRT...
July 14, 2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743403/obesity-hypoventilation-syndrome-and-associated-factors
#16
Ana Espínola Rodríguez, Luis Lores Obradors, Neus Parellada Esquius, Felisa Rubio Muñoz, Neus Espinosa Gonzalez, Elisabet Arellano Marcuello
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity causes important alterations in the respiratory physiology like sleep obstructive apnoea (SOA) and obesity-hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), both associated with high morbidity and mortality. Also, these entities are clearly infradiagnosed and in the case of OHS the prevalence is unknown in the general obese population. To determine the prevalence of OHS in the population of patients with morbid obesity and to know the comorbidity related with OHS, the associated respiratory symptoms and the pulse oximetry alterations...
July 22, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743338/-clinical-characteristics-and-prognosis-in-patients-with-high-plasma-level-of-procalcitonin-an-analysis-in-188-patients
#17
Chuli Pan, Wei Cui, Feifei Zhou, Junwei Tu, Xiuhui Lin, Libin Li, Gensheng Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with high level of plasma procalcitonin (PCT > 100 μg/L), and to improve the clinician's understanding, diagnosis and treatment of this kind of patients. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted. The clinical data of patients with plasma PCT over 100 μg/L within 48 hours of admission admitted to Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine from February 2013 to December 2016 were collected, and the clinical characteristics were analyzed...
July 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743336/-analysis-of-factors-affecting-the-prognosis-of-icu-patients-by-multiple-logistic-regression-model-a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-1-299-patients-in-12-consecutive-years
#18
Jianfeng Liang, Zhiyong Li, Yan Zhang, Wei Zhang, Haishan Dong, Yun Zhang, Chang Xu, Maolong Gao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the prognostic factors of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. The clinical data of patients admitted to ICU of Beijing Geriatric Hospital from January 2005 to December 2016 were collected. According to the prognosis, the patients were divided into death group and survival group, and the mortality trend with time and age was observed. Survival and death were treated as dependent variables, while the gender, age, reason of ICU admission, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score, whether undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation (MV), invasive MV reason, duration of invasive MV, whether successful weaning, whether ICU nosocomial infection, hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), acute kidney injury (AKI) occurred, whether undergoing continuous blood purification (CBP), whether septic shock occurred, whether undergoing invasive hemodynamic monitoring or blood transfusion and length of ICU stay were used as the independent variables...
July 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743332/-clinical-significance-of-early-immunological-paralysis-in-patients-with-severe-h1n1-influenza-a
#19
Yongbing Qian, Hui Xie, Rui Tian, Jian Lu, Wei Jin, Ruilan Wang
OBJECTIVE: To analysis the immunological characteristics of patients with severe H1N1 influenza A, and to provide theoretical basis for predicting the prognosis of the disease. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted. The clinical data of 15 patients diagnosed with severe H1N1 influenza A and admitted to Shanghai General Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from October 2015 to December 2016 were collected. All the patients were divided into survival and death groups according to 28-day survival...
July 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742954/carbon-dioxide-elimination-by-cardiomyocytes-a-tale-of-high-carbonic-anhydrase-activity-and-membrane-permeability
#20
EDITORIAL
Erik R Swenson
Life as a multicellular organism requires a heart with a coordinated contractile activity that must never cease, and in this regard, it is very much like the brain with a high mass-specific 'resting' metabolic rate. To maintain this constant activity requires a high rate of oxygen consumption and resultant carbon dioxide generation and, pari passu, the rapid exchange of large amounts of these gases with capillary blood. While oxygen has been far more the focus of the two gases in cardiac physiology, the work of Arias-Hidalgo et al (1) in this issue of the journal offers new insights and better understanding of how CO2 uniquely traverses its path from production in the mitochondria to the capillary blood, and does so with much smaller driving gradients than necessary for oxygen...
July 25, 2017: Acta Physiologica
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