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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645750/the-effect-of-future-time-perspective-on-delay-discounting-is-mediated-by-the-gray-matter-volume-of-vmpfc
#1
Yiqun Guo, Zhiyi Chen, Tingyong Feng
Although several previous studies have shown that individuals' attitude towards time could affect their intertemporal preference, little is known about the neural basis of the relation between time perspective (TP) and delay discounting. In the present study, we quantified the gray matter (GM) cortical volume using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methods to investigate the effect of TP on delay discounting (DD) across two independent samples. For group 1 (102 healthy college students; 46 male; 20.40±1.87 years), behavioral results showed that only Future TP was a significant predictor of DD, and higher scores on Future TP were related to lower discounting rates...
June 20, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612183/impairments-in-walking-ability-dexterity-and-cognitive-function-in-multiple-sclerosis-are-associated-with-different-regional-cerebellar-gray-matter-loss
#2
Matthias Grothe, Martin Lotze, Sönke Langner, Alexander Dressel
Both histological and neuroimaging studies highlight the role of the cerebellum in multiple sclerosis (MS). There is at least some evidence for associations of cerebellar gray matter (GM) loss with motor and cognitive ability. We therefore correlated motor and cognitive ability scores (the multiple sclerosis functional composite MSFC) with regional cerebellar GM volumes. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to assess the regional GM volume loss in a cohort of 45 MS patients. For the regression analysis, we used the clinical subscores of the multiple sclerosis functional composite (25-ft walk test (T25FW), nine-hole peg test (9HPT), paced auditory serial addition task (PASAT))...
June 13, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608601/brain-structural-properties-predict-psychologically-mediated-hypoalgesia-in-an-8-week-sham-acupuncture-treatment-for-migraine
#3
Jixin Liu, Junya Mu, Qianqian Liu, Wanghuan Dun, Ming Zhang, Jie Tian
Neuroimaging studies described brain structural changes that comprise the mechanisms underlying individual differences in migraine development and maintenance. However, whether such interindividual variability in migraine was observed in a pretreatment scan is a predisposition for subsequent hypoalgesia to placebo treatment that remains largely unclear. Using T1-weighted imaging, we investigated this issue in 50 healthy controls (HC) and 196 patients with migraine without aura (MO). An 8-week double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled acupuncture was used, and we only focused on the data from the sham acupuncture group...
June 13, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608049/unsatisfied-relatedness-not-competence-or-autonomy-increases-trait-anger-through-the-right-amygdala
#4
Yinan Wang, Feng Kong, Xiangzhen Kong, Yuanfang Zhao, Danhua Lin, Jia Liu
Anger is a common negative emotion in social life. Behavioral research suggests that unsatisfied relatedness, autonomy, and competence are related to anger. However, it remains unclear whether these unsatisfied needs all contribute to anger or just a particular unsatisfied need is the main source of anger. In addition, little is known about the neural substrate between unsatisfied needs and anger. To address these two questions, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to explore the neural substrate underlying the relation between unsatisfied needs and trait anger...
June 12, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606629/neural-substrates-underlying-balanced-time-perspective-a-combined-voxel-based-morphometry-and-resting-state-functional-connectivity-study
#5
Yiqun Guo, Zhiyi Chen, Tingyong Feng
Balanced time perspective (BTP), which is defined as a mental ability to switch flexibly among different time perspectives Zimbardo and Boyd (1999), has been suggested to be a central component of positive psychology Boniwell and Zimbardo (2004). BTP reflects individual's cognitive flexibility towards different time frames, which leads to many positive outcomes, including positive mood, subjective wellbeing, emotional intelligence, fluid intelligence, and executive control. However, the neural basis of BTP is still unclear...
June 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591814/abnormal-gray-matter-shape-thickness-and-volume-in-the-motor-cortico-subcortical-loop-in-idiopathic-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder-association-with-clinical-and-motor-features
#6
Shady Rahayel, Ronald B Postuma, Jacques Montplaisir, Christophe Bedetti, Simona Brambati, Julie Carrier, Oury Monchi, Pierre-Alexandre Bourgouin, Malo Gaubert, Jean-François Gagnon
Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is a major risk factor for Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Anatomical gray matter abnormalities in the motor cortico-subcortical loop areas remain under studied in iRBD patients. We acquired T1-weighted images and administrated quantitative motor tasks in 41 patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD and 41 healthy subjects. Cortical thickness and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses were performed to investigate local cortical thickness and gray matter volume changes, vertex-based shape analysis to investigate shape of subcortical structures, and structure-based volumetric analyses to investigate volumes of subcortical and brainstem structures...
June 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588480/reduced-gray-matter-volume-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Jia Liu, Taiyuan Liu, Wenhui Wang, Lun Ma, Xiaoyue Ma, Shaojie Shi, Qiyong Gong, Meiyun Wang
Background and Purpose: Previous studies of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) have found that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) exhibit gray matter alterations, but these findings are inconsistent and have not been quantitatively reviewed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a quantitative meta-analysis of VBM studies of patients with T2DM. Materials and Methods: The seed-based d mapping method was applied to quantitatively estimate the regional gray matter abnormalities in T2DM patients...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549317/frontal-and-subcortical-grey-matter-reductions-in-ptsd
#8
Daniel C M O'Doherty, Ashleigh Tickell, Will Ryder, Charles Chan, Daniel F Hermens, Maxwell R Bennett, Jim Lagopoulos
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterised by a range of debilitating psychological, physical and cognitive symptoms. PTSD has been associated with grey matter atrophy in limbic and frontal cortical brain regions. However, previous studies have reported heterogeneous findings, with grey matter changes observed beyond limbic/frontal areas. Seventy-five adults were recruited from the community, 25 diagnosed with PTSD along with 25 healthy and 25 trauma exposed age and gender matched controls. Participants underwent clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging...
May 19, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543178/volumetric-mri-analysis-in-patients-with-short-term-remission-of-cushing-s-disease
#9
Hong Jiang, Jie Ren, Na-Ying He, Chang Liu, Yu-Hao Sun, Fang-Fang Jian, Liu-Guan Bian, Jian-Kang Shen, Fu-Hua Yan, Si-Jan Pan, Qing-Fang Sun
OBJECTIVE: The data on patients with short-term remission of Cushing's disease (CD) might provide information that is not available from previous long-term remission studies. We aimed to investigate structural changes in the brain in these patients and to examine whether these changes were associated with clinical characteristics. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was performed. METHODS: Thirty-four CD patients (14 with CD in short-term remission and 20 with active CD) and 34 controls matched for age, sex, and education underwent clinical evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging brain scans...
May 20, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536515/subjectivity-of-the-anomalous-sense-of-self-is-represented-in-gray-matter-volume-in-the-brain
#10
Noriaki Kanayama, Tomohisa Asai, Takashi Nakao, Kai Makita, Ryutaro Kozuma, Takuto Uyama, Toshiyuki Yamane, Hiroshi Kadota, Shigeto Yamawaki
The self includes complicated and heterogeneous functions. Researchers have divided the self into three distinct functions called "agency," "ownership," and "narrative self". These correspond to psychiatric symptoms, behavioral characteristics and neural responses, but their relationship with brain structure is unclear. This study examined the relationship between the subjectivity of self-related malfunctions and brain structure in terms of gray matter (GM) volume in 96 healthy people. They completed a recently developed self-reported questionnaire called the Embodied Sense of Self Scale (ESSS) that measures self-related malfunctions...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529875/advanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-neuropsychological-assessment-for-detecting-brain-injury-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-university-amateur-boxers
#11
M G Hart, C R Housden, J Suckling, R Tait, A Young, U Müller, V F J Newcombe, I Jalloh, B Pearson, J Cross, R A Trivedi, J D Pickard, B J Sahakian, P J Hutchinson
BACKGROUND/AIM: The safety of amateur and professional boxing is a contentious issue. We hypothesised that advanced magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological testing could provide evidence of acute and early brain injury in amateur boxers. METHODS: We recruited 30 participants from a university amateur boxing club in a prospective cohort study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing was performed at three time points: prior to starting training; within 48 h following a first major competition to detect acute brain injury; and one year follow-up...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520743/whole-brain-volume-changes-and-its-correlation-with-clinical-symptom-severity-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-dartel-based-vbm-study
#12
Gwang-Won Kim, Yun-Hyeon Kim, Gwang-Woo Jeong
The purpose of this study was to evaluate gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations in whole-brain structures in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and further to assess the correlation between GM and WM volume variations and symptom severity in schizophrenia. A total of 22 patients with schizophrenia and 22 age-matched healthy controls participated. Magnetic resonance image data were processed using SPM8 software with diffeomorphic anatomical registration via an exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520647/altered-brain-structure-and-function-associated-with-sensory-and-affective-components-of-classic-trigeminal-neuralgia
#13
Yuan Wang, Dong-Yuan Cao, Bethany Remeniuk, Samuel Krimmel, David A Seminowicz, Ming Zhang
Classic trigeminal neuralgia (CTN) is a chronic neuropathic pain state characterized by intense, piercing spasms of the orofacial region, and may be attributable to abnormal pain processing in the central nervous system. Our study investigated neuronal alterations using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), diffuse tensor imaging (DTI), and resting-state functional connectivity in 38 patients with CTN and 38 matched healthy controls. For voxel-based morphometry analyses, patients with CTN displayed gray matter volume (GMV) reductions in the anterior-cingulate cortex (ACC) and mid-cingulate cortex, insula, secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), primary motor cortex (M1), premotor area, and several regions in the temporal lobe...
May 16, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503142/brain-gray-matter-atrophy-after-spinal-cord-injury-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#14
Qian Chen, Weimin Zheng, Xin Chen, Lu Wan, Wen Qin, Zhigang Qi, Nan Chen, Kuncheng Li
The aim of this study was to explore possible changes in whole brain gray matter volume (GMV) after spinal cord injury (SCI) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and to study their associations with the injury duration, severity, and clinical variables. In total, 21 patients with SCI (10 with complete and 11 with incomplete SCI) and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. The 3D high-resolution T1-weighted structural images of all subjects were obtained using a 3.0 Tesla MRI system. Disease duration and American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Scale scores were also obtained from each patient...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502846/domains-of-physical-activity-and-brain-volumes-a-population-based-study
#15
Carmen Jochem, Sebastian E Baumeister, Katharina Wittfeld, Michael F Leitzmann, Martin Bahls, Ulf Schminke, Marcello R P Markus, Stephan B Felix, Henry Völzke, Katrin Hegenscheid, Marcus Dörr, Hans Jörgen Grabe
Observational studies and intervention trials suggest that physical activity (PA) is beneficial for human brain morphology, especially in older individuals. Few population-based studies examined whether domain-specific PA is associated with brain volumes. Accordingly, we studied putative associations of PA during leisure time, sports and work with volumes of the hippocampus, the prefrontal cortex, the temporal lobe, gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and total brain (TBV) after 5.9 years by applying volumetric analysis and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with SPM 8/VBM 8 to brain magnetic resonance imaging data of 834 participants (447 women) aged 25 to 83 years from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania...
May 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498515/brain-structure-linking-delay-discounting-and-academic-performance
#16
Song Wang, Feng Kong, Ming Zhou, Taolin Chen, Xun Yang, Guangxiang Chen, Qiyong Gong
As a component of self-discipline, delay discounting refers to the ability to wait longer for preferred rewards and plays a pivotal role in shaping students' academic performance. However, the neural basis of the association between delay discounting and academic performance remains largely unknown. Here, we examined the neuroanatomical substrates underlying delay discounting and academic performance in 214 adolescents via voxel-based morphometry (VBM) by performing structural magnetic resonance imaging (S-MRI)...
May 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479532/-voxel-based-morphometry-and-cognitive-function
#17
Hikaru Takeuchi, Ryuta Kawashima
Voxel-based morphometry has been used to investigate the associations between regional gray and white matter volume and cognitive function. The manuscript introduces these studies' methods, cautions, results, and problems related to the reports of the results. In many studies of ours that investigating these associations using the huge sample size and robust statistics, the associations were weak and wide spread in the brain. These patterns of results suggest the difficulty in finding the specific neural bases that underlie individual cognitive functions through VBM...
May 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479531/-structural-brain-development-in-healthy-children-and-adolescents
#18
Izumi Matsudaira, Ryuta Kawashima, Yasuyuki Taki
Brain maturation progresses throughout childhood into adolescence. Investigating the mechanism of brain development during these periods in healthy people is necessary for some clinical purposes. For example, these mechanisms are needed to investigate the mechanism of impaired brain maturation in neurodevelopmental disorders-such as autism spectrum disorders or attention-deficit hyper disorder-and improve early prevention of psychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases like depression or Alzheimer's disease. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is an effective way to analyze brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) of children and adolescents, as the brain structures of children and adolescents vary widely depending on their age, sex, and several other factors...
May 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479529/-neural-mechanism-of-major-depressive-disorder-and-bipolar-disorder-in-voxel-based-morphometric-studies
#19
Koji Matsuo
Major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder both possess the characteristic of abnormal mood regulation. Evidence of voxel-based morphometric (VBM) studies has been accumulated, and patients with both disorders show small gray matter volumes in the anterior cingulate, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, insula, and regions related to emotion regulation. These small gray matter volumes were also shown to be associated with the family history and severity of the disease. Overall, the neural network relevant to mood regulation is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of both major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder...
May 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479528/-voxel-based-morphometry-for-schizophrenia-a-review
#20
Kiyotaka Nemoto
Various imaging studies have employed voxel based morphometry (VBM) to detect local volume reductions in schizophrenia. Indeed, the first study of VBM was applied to patients with schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia show reduced volume in frontal, temporal (especially superior temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and amygdala), and limbic regions (including insula and anterior cingulate cortex). Patients also show an increased volume in striatal regions. Even patients with first-episode show volume reduction and the reduced regions extend in accordance with the pathological process, which supports both the neurodevelopmental hypothesis and the neurodegenerative hypothesis...
May 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
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