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D D Correa, J C Root, M Kryza-Lacombe, M Mehta, S Karimi, M L Hensley, N Relkin
Women with ovarian cancer often undergo chemotherapy involving multiple agents. However, little is known about treatment-related central neurotoxicity in this population. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to assess brain structure and function and neurocognitive abilities in patients with ovarian cancer following first-line chemotherapy. Eighteen patients with ovarian, peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer and eighteen healthy controls matched for gender, age and education participated in the study...
October 20, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Limei Bu, Dahua Yu, Shaoping Su, Yao Ma, Karen M von Deneen, Lin Luo, Jinquan Zhai, Bo Liu, Jiadong Cheng, Yanyan Guan, Yangding Li, Yanzhi Bi, Ting Xue, Xiaoqi Lu, Kai Yuan
Smoking is one of the most prevalent dependence disorders. Previous studies have detected structural and functional deficits in smokers. However, few studies focused on the changes of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the brain regions with structural deficits in young adult smokers. Twenty-six young adult smokers and 26 well-matched healthy non-smokers participated in our study. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and RSFC were employed to investigate the structural and functional changes in young adult smokers...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Alexander U Brandt, Elena Meinert-Bohn, Jan Leo Rinnenthal, Hanna Zimmermann, Janine Mikolajczak, Timm Oberwahrenbrock, Sebastian Papazoglou, Caspar F Pfüller, Johann Schinzel, Björn Tackenberg, Friedemann Paul, Katrin Hahn, Judith Bellmann-Strobl
BACKGROUND: The PMP22 gene encodes a protein integral to peripheral myelin. Its deletion leads to hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). PMP22 is not expressed in the adult central nervous system, but previous studies suggest a role in CNS myelin development. The objective of this study was to identify potential structural and functional alterations in the afferent visual system in HNPP patients. METHODS: Twenty HNPP patients and 18 matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited in a cross-sectional study...
2016: PloS One
Claudia Niemann, Ben Godde, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage
Physical activity is positively related to cognitive functioning and brain volume in older adults. Interestingly, different types of physical activity vary in their effects on cognition and on the brain. For example, dancing has become an interesting topic in aging research, as it is a popular leisure activity among older adults, involving cardiovascular and motor fitness dimensions that can be positively related to cognition. However, studies on brain structure are missing. In this study, we tested the association of long-term senior dance experience with cognitive performance and gray matter brain volume in older women aged 65 to 82 years...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Markus Sack, Jenny N Lenz, Mira Jakovcevski, Sarah V Biedermann, Claudia Falfán-Melgoza, Jan Deussing, Maximilian Bielohuby, Martin Bidlingmaier, Frederik Pfister, Günter K Stalla, Alexander Sartorius, Peter Gass, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr, Johannes Fuss, Matthias K Auer
Excessive intake of high-caloric diets as well as subsequent development of obesity and diabetes mellitus may exert a wide range of unfavorable effects on the central nervous system (CNS) in the long-term. The potentially harmful effects of such diets were suggested to be mitigated by physical exercise. Here, we conducted a study investigating early effects of a cafeteria-diet on gray and white brain matter volume by means of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. Half of the mice performed voluntary wheel running to study if regular physical exercise prevents unfavorable effects of a cafeteria-diet...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Saul Martinez-Horta, Frederic Sampedro, Javier Pagonabarraga, Ramón Fernandez-Bobadilla, Juan Marin-Lahoz, Jordi Riba, Jaime Kulisevsky
Apathy is a common but poorly understood neuropsychiatric disturbance in Parkinson's disease (PD). In a recent study using event-related brain potentials we demonstrated impaired reward processing and compromised mesocortico-limbic pathways in PD patients with clinical symptoms of apathy. Here we aimed to further investigate the involvement of reward circuits in apathetic PD patients by assessing potential differences in brain structure. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) we quantified grey matter volume (GMV) in a sample of 18 non-demented and non-depressed PD patients with apathy, and 18 matched non-apathetic patients...
October 11, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Erin A Brosey, Neil D Woodward
BACKGROUND: Aberrations in body perception are common in psychotic disorders. The insula and temporoparietal junction (TPJ) are involved in body ownership and spatial perception suggesting that abnormal structure of these regions might be related to the expression of perceptual aberrations in psychosis. METHODS: 58 individuals with a primary psychotic disorder and 40 healthy subjects completed the Chapman Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS) and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 8, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Meilin Lv, Gang Liu, Xiaoxiang Xu
Strong visible light absorption and high charge mobility are desirable properties for an efficient photocatalyst, yet they are hard to be realized simultaneously in a single semiconductor compound. In this work, we demonstrate that these properties coexist in homologous compounds ZnnIn2O3+n (n = 4, 5 and 7) with a peculiar layered structure that combines optical active segment and electrical conductive segment together. Their enhanced visible light absorption originates from tetrahedrally or trigonal-bipyramidally coordinated In atoms in Zn(In)O4(5) layers which enable p-d hybridization between In 4d and O 2p orbitals so that valence band minimum (VBM) is uplifted with a reduced band gap...
October 10, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Gennady V Roshchupkin, Hieab H Adams, Sven J van der Lee, Meike W Vernooij, Cornelia M van Duijn, Andre G Uitterlinden, Aad van der Lugt, Albert Hofman, Wiro J Niessen, Mohammad A Ikram
The neural substrate of genetic risk variants for Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unknown. We studied their effect on healthy brain morphology to provide insight into disease etiology in the preclinical phase. We included 4071 nondemented, elderly participants of the population-based Rotterdam Study who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and genotyping. We performed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on all gray-matter voxels for 19 previously identified, common AD risk variants. Whole-brain expression data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas was used to examine spatial overlap between VBM association results and expression of genes in AD risk loci regions...
September 4, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Jennifer Ashley Ciarochi, Vince D Calhoun, Spencer Lourens, Jeffrey D Long, Hans J Johnson, H Jeremy Bockholt, Jingyu Liu, Sergey M Plis, Jane S Paulsen, Jessica A Turner
Huntington disease (HD) is caused by an abnormally expanded cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeat in the HTT gene. Age and CAG-expansion number are related to age at diagnosis and can be used to index disease progression. However, observed onset-age variability suggests that other factors also modulate progression. Indexing prodromal (pre-diagnosis) progression may highlight therapeutic targets by isolating the earliest-affected factors. We present the largest prodromal HD application of the univariate method voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and the first application of the multivariate method source-based morphometry (SBM) to, respectively, compare gray matter concentration (GMC) and capture co-occurring GMC patterns in control and prodromal participants...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Serena Bianchi, Laura D Reyes, William D Hopkins, Jared P Taglialatela, Chet C Sherwood
Vocal learning is a key property of spoken language, which might also be present in nonhuman primate species, such as chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), to a limited degree. While understanding the origins of vocal learning in the primate brain may help shed light on the evolution of speech and language, little is still known regarding the neurobiological correlates of vocal flexibility in nonhuman primates. The current study used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to assess whether the cerebral cortex of captive chimpanzees that learned to voluntarily produce sounds to attract the attention of a human experimenter (attention-getting sounds) differs in grey matter distribution compared to chimpanzees that do not exhibit this behavior...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Marion Ortner, Lorenzo Pasquini, Martina Barat, Panagiotis Alexopoulos, Timo Grimmer, Stefan Förster, Janine Diehl-Schmid, Alexander Kurz, Hans Förstl, Claus Zimmer, Afra Wohlschläger, Christian Sorg, Henning Peters
Very early Alzheimer's disease (AD) - i.e., AD at stages of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia - is characterized by progressive structural and neuropathologic changes, such as atrophy or tangle deposition in medial temporal lobes, including hippocampus and entorhinal cortex and also adjacent amygdala. While progressively disrupted intrinsic connectivity of hippocampus with other brain areas has been demonstrated by many studies, amygdala connectivity was rarely investigated in AD, notwithstanding its known relevance for emotion processing and mood disturbances, which are both important in early AD...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Miao Wei, Anand A Joshi, Mingxia Zhang, Leilei Mei, Franklin R Manis, Qinghua He, Rachel L Beattie, Gui Xue, David W Shattuck, Richard M Leahy, Feng Xue, Suzanne M Houston, Chuansheng Chen, Qi Dong, Zhong-Lin Lu
In the present study, we explored how Age of Acquisition (AoA) of L2 affected brain structures in bilingual individuals. Thirty-six native English speakers who were bilingual were scanned with high resolution MRI. After MRI signal intensity inhomogeneity correction, we applied both voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and surface-based morphometry (SBM) approaches to the data. VBM analysis was performed using FSL's standard VBM processing pipeline. For the SBM analysis, we utilized a semi-automated sulci delineation procedure, registered the brains to an atlas, and extracted measures of twenty four pre-selected regions of interest...
November 2015: Journal of Neurolinguistics
Mark Drakesmith, Anirban Dutt, Leon Fonville, Stanley Zammit, Abraham Reichenberg, C John Evans, Philip McGuire, Glyn Lewis, Derek K Jones, Anthony S David
BACKGROUND: Grey matter (GM) abnormalities are robust features of schizophrenia and of people at ultra high-risk for psychosis. However the extent to which neuroanatomical alterations are evident in non-clinical subjects with isolated psychotic experiences is less clear. METHODS: Individuals (mean age 20 years) with (n = 123) or without (n = 125) psychotic experiences (PEs) were identified from a population-based cohort. All underwent T1-weighted structural, diffusion and quantitative T1 relaxometry MRI, to characterise GM macrostructure, microstructure and myelination respectively...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Sebastian Ocklenburg, Patrick Friedrich, Onur Güntürkün, Erhan Genç
Handedness is thought to originate in the brain, but identifying its structural correlates in the cortex has yielded surprisingly incoherent results. One idea proclaimed by several authors is that structural grey matter asymmetries might underlie handedness. While some authors have found significant associations with handedness in different brain areas (e.g. in the central sulcus and precentral sulcus), others have failed to identify such associations. One method used by many researchers to determine structural grey matter asymmetries is voxel based morphometry (VBM)...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Nikos Konstantinou, Fofi Constantinidou, Ryota Kanai
Working memory is responsible for keeping information in mind when it is no longer in view, linking perception with higher cognitive functions. Despite such crucial role, short-term maintenance of visual information is severely limited. Research suggests that capacity limits in visual short-term memory (VSTM) are correlated with sustained activity in distinct brain areas. Here, we investigated whether variability in the structure of the brain is reflected in individual differences of behavioral capacity estimates for spatial and object VSTM...
September 29, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Martin Meyer, Patrick Neff, Franziskus Liem, Tobias Kleinjung, Steffi Weidt, Berthold Langguth, Martin Schecklmann
Structural neuroimaging techniques have been used to identify cortical and subcortical regions constituting the neuroarchitecture of tinnitus. One recent investigation used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to analyze a sample of tinnitus patients (TI, n=257) [1]. A negative relationship between individual distress and cortical volume (CV) in bilateral auditory regions was observed. However, CV has meanwhile been identified as a neuroanatomical measurement that confounds genetically distinct neuroanatomical traits, namely cortical thickness (CT) and cortical surface area (CSA)...
September 23, 2016: Hearing Research
Zonglin Shen, Yuqi Cheng, Shuran Yang, Nan Dai, Jing Ye, Xiaoyan Liu, Jin Lu, Na Li, Fang Liu, Yi Lu, Xuejin Sun, Xiufeng Xu
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the pathological mechanism of early adult onset depression (EOD) and later adult onset depression (LOD). We seek to determine whether grey matter volume (GMV) change in EOD and LOD are different, which could also delineate EOD and LOD. METHODS: In present study, 147 first-episode, drug-naive patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), age between 18 and 45, were divided into two groups on the basis of age of MDD onset: the early adult onset group (age 18-29) and the later adult onset group (age 30-44), and a total of 130 gender-, and age-, matched healthy controls (HC) were also divided into two groups which fit for each patient group...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
James T Kennedy, Paul F Collins, Monica Luciana
Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%), in 137 adolescents (age range: 9-20 years, BMI% range: 5...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Hikaru Takeuchi, Yasuyuki Taki, Rui Nouchi, Ryoichi Yokoyama, Yuka Kotozaki, Seishu Nakagawa, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Kunio Iizuka, Yuki Yamamoto, Sugiko Hanawa, Tsuyoshi Araki, Carlos Makoto Miyauchi, Takamitsu Shinada, Kohei Sakaki, Yuko Sassa, Takayuki Nozawa, Shigeyuki Ikeda, Susumu Yokota, Magistro Daniele, Ryuta Kawashima
The importance of brain connectivity for creativity has been theoretically suggested and empirically demonstrated. Studies have shown sex differences in creativity measured by divergent thinking (CMDT) as well as sex differences in the structural correlates of CMDT. However, the relationships between regional white matter volume (rWMV) and CMDT and associated sex differences have never been directly investigated. In addition, structural studies have shown poor replicability and inaccuracy of multiple comparisons over the whole brain...
September 20, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
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