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Keyan Hu, Dong Wang, Wei Zhao, Yuhao Gu, Kejun Bu, Jie Pan, Peng Qin, Xian Zhang, Fuqiang Huang
Intermediate band (IB) materials are of great significance due to their superior solar absorption properties. Here, two IBs peaking at 0.88 and 1.33 eV are reported to be present in the forbidden gap of semiconducting SnS2 ( Eg = 2.21 eV) by doping titanium up to 6 atom % into the Sn site via a solid-state reaction at 923 K. The solid solution of Sn1- x Tix S2 is able to be formed, which is attributed to the isostructural structure of SnS2 and TiS2 . These two IBs were detected in the UV-vis-NIR absorption spectra with the appearance of two additional absorption responses at the respective regions, which in good agreement with the conclusion of first-principles calculations...
March 21, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Sri Kasi Matta, Chunmei Zhang, Yalong Jiao, Anthony O'Mullane, Aijun Du
The development of two-dimensional (2D) photocatalysts with excellent visible light absorption and favorable band alignment is critical for highly-efficient water splitting. Here we systematically study the structural, electronic and optical properties of an experimentally unexplored 2D Silicon Diphosphide (SiP2) based on density functional theory (DFT). We found that the single-layer SiP2 is highly feasible to obtain experimentally by mechanical cleavage and it is dynamically stable by analyzing its vibrational normal mode...
March 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Zhen Li, Fei Huang, Xin Feng, Aihua Yan, Haiming Dong, Miao Hu, Qi Li
Two-phase-coexistence technique offers intriguing variables to manoeuvre novel and enhanced functionality in a sigle-component material. Most importantly, new band alignment and perfect interfaces between two phases can strongly affect the local photoelectronic properties. However, previous efforts for achieving the two-phase coexistence are mainly restricted to specific systems and methods. Here we demonstrate a phase-transition route to acquire two-phase-coexistence niobium oxyfluoride (Nb3O7F) nanocrystals for the first time...
March 14, 2018: Nanotechnology
Jieping Wu, Guohui Li, Zhiwen Luo, Ming Zhu, Xin Wu
Research on the distribution law of dust concentration is conducive to controlling dust pollution in industry workshops. The traditional experimental method has a common disadvantage in that it only can measure dust concentration of a few sampling points, resulting in limitation of further research about the distribution law of dust concentration in cement workshops. Aimed at revealing more visually and accurately the distribution law of dust concentration, a vision-based measurement (VBM) system for dust concentration based on the image transmission is constructed by utilizing an established dust simulation device in cement workshops...
March 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Deepthi P Varikuti, Sarah Genon, Aristeidis Sotiras, Holger Schwender, Felix Hoffstaedter, Kaustubh R Patil, Christiane Jockwitz, Svenja Caspers, Susanne Moebus, Katrin Amunts, Christos Davatzikos, Simon B Eickhoff
The relationship between grey matter volume (GMV) patterns and age can be captured by multivariate pattern analysis, allowing prediction of individuals' age based on structural imaging. Raw data, voxel-wise GMV and non-sparse factorization (with Principal Component Analysis, PCA) show good performance but do not promote relatively localized brain components for post-hoc examinations. Here we evaluated a non-negative matrix factorization (NNMF) approach to provide a reduced, but also interpretable representation of GMV data in age prediction frameworks in healthy and clinical populations...
March 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Alyssa Caplan, Gabe Marx, Jonathan Elofson, Claire Lis, Lea Grinberg, Bruce Miller, Howard Rosen
Neurodegenerative diseases are caused by aggregation of specific proteins that catalyze a cascade of changes that ultimately lead to neurodegeneration. This concept guides current diagnostic approaches, as well as clinical trials, that focus on detecting or removing amyloid or tau from the brain. The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), a clinical syndrome associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) pathology, is usually associated with the molecular pathology TDP-C, but there are cases with TDP-B and Pick's disease...
March 6, 2018: Neurocase
Florian Kraushofer, Zdenek Jakub, Magdalena Bichler, Jan Hulva, Peter Drmota, Michael Weinold, Michael Schmid, Martin Setvin, Ulrike Diebold, Peter Blaha, Gareth S Parkinson
The α-Fe2 O3 (11̅02) surface (also known as the hematite r-cut or (012) surface) was studied using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM), and ab initio density functional theory (DFT)+ U calculations. Two surface structures are stable under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions; a stoichiometric (1 × 1) surface can be prepared by annealing at 450 °C in ≈10-6 mbar O2 , and a reduced (2 × 1) reconstruction is formed by UHV annealing at 540 °C...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
Isabel Arend, Kenneth Yuen, Nitzan Sagi, Avishai Henik
In synaesthesia, a specific sensory dimension leads to an involuntary sensation in another sensory dimension not commonly associated with it; for example, synaesthetes may experience a specific colour when listening or thinking of numbers or letters. Large-scale behavioural studies provide a rich description of different synaesthesia phenotypes, and a great amount of research has been oriented to uncovering whether a single or multiple brain mechanisms underlie these various synaesthesia phenotypes. Interestingly, most of the synaesthetic inducers are conceptual stimuli such as numbers, letters, and months...
February 7, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Malin Björnsdotter, Monika Davidovic, Louise Karjalainen, Göran Starck, Håkan Olausson, Elisabet Wentz
BACKGROUND: Patients with anorexia nervosa exhibit higher levels of behaviours typically associated with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD), but the neural basis is unclear. We sought to determine whether elevated autistic traits in women with anorexia nervosa may be reflected in cortical morphology. METHODS: We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine regional grey matter volumes in high-resolution MRI structural brain scans in women with anorexia nervosa and matched healthy controls...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Paula Squarzoni, Fabio Luis Souza Duran, Geraldo F Busatto, Tania Correa Toledo de Ferraz Alves
BACKGROUND: Many cross-sectional voxel-based morphometry (VBM) investigations have shown significant inverse correlations between chronological age and gray matter (GM) volume in several brain regions in healthy humans. However, few VBM studies have documented GM decrements in the healthy elderly with repeated MRI measurements obtained in the same subjects. Also, the extent to which the APOE ɛ4 allele influences longitudinal findings of GM reduction in the healthy elderly is unclear...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Salvatore Aguilar-Ortiz, Pilar Salgado-Pineda, Josep Marco-Pallarés, Juan C Pascual, Daniel Vega, Joaquim Soler, Cristina Brunel, Ana Martin-Blanco, Angel Soto, Joan Ribas, Teresa Maristany, Salvador Sarró, Raymond Salvador, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells, Edith Pomarol-Clotet, Peter J McKenna
BACKGROUND: Structural imaging studies of borderline personality disorder (BPD) have found regions of reduced cortical volume, but these have varied considerably across studies. Reduced hippocampus and amygdala volume have also been a regular finding in studies using conventional volumetric measurement. How far comorbid major depression, which is common in BPD and can also affect in brain structure, influences the findings is not clear. METHODS: Seventy-six women with BPD and 76 matched controls were examined using whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM)...
2018: PloS One
Lisa Frank, Matthias Lüpke, Draginja Kostic, Wolfgang Löscher, Andrea Tipold
BACKGROUND: One of the most common chronic neurological disorders in dogs is idiopathic epilepsy (IE) diagnosed as epilepsy without structural changes in the brain. In the current study the hypothesis should be proven that subtle grey matter changes occur in epileptic dogs. Therefore, magnetic resonance (MR) images of one dog breed (Beagles) were used to obtain an approximately uniform brain shape. Local differences in grey matter volume (GMV) were compared between 5 healthy Beagles and 10 Beagles with spontaneously recurrent seizures (5 dogs with IE and 5 dogs with structural epilepsy (SE)), using voxel-based morphometry (VBM)...
February 20, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
B I Haynes, M Pitkanen, R Kulasegaram, S J Casey, M Schutte, K Towgood, B Peters, G J Barker, M D Kopelman
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the hypothesis of accelerated cognitive ageing in HIV-positive individuals using longitudinal assessment of cognitive performance and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: We assessed a broad cognitive battery and quantitative MRI metrics [voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)] in asymptomatic HIV-positive men who have sex with men (15 aged 20-40 years and 15 aged ≥ 50 years), and HIV-seronegative matched controls (nine aged 20-40 years and 16 aged ≥ 50 years)...
February 14, 2018: HIV Medicine
Jiang Qiu, Yunman Xia, Li He, Qunlin Chen, Na Sang, Wei Liu, Hong Li
How déjà vu works has long been a mystery, partially because of its characteristics of unpredictable occurrences and quick disappearances, which make it difficult to be explored. Previous studies have described the anatomical structures underlying déjà vu in healthy subjects; however, the functional mechanism of déjà vu remains unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the brain structural and functional components underlying déjà vu by combining voxel-based morphometry analysis (VBM) with resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC)...
February 6, 2018: Biological Psychology
Song Cao, Bangyong Qin, Yi Zhang, Jie Yuan, Bao Fu, Peng Xie, Ganjun Song, Ying Li, Tian Yu
OBJECTIVE: Herpes zoster (HZ) can develop into postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), which is a chronic neuropathic pain (NP). Whether the chronification from HZ to PHN induced brain functional or structural change is unknown and no study compared the changes of the same brains of patients who transited from HZ to PHN. We minimized individual differences and observed whether the chronification of HZ to PHN induces functional and pain duration dependent grey matter volume (GMV) change in HZ-PHN patients...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Foteini Christidi, Efstratios Karavasilis, Georgios Velonakis, Michail Rentzos, Thomas Zambelis, Vasiliki Zouvelou, Sophia Xirou, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Nikolaos Kelekis, Ioannis Evdokimidis, Nikolaos Karandreas
The association between gray matter (GM) density and neurophysiologic changes is still unclear in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We evaluated the relationship between GM density and motor system integrity combining voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in ALS. We included 17 ALS patients and 22 healthy controls (HC) who underwent 3D-T1-weighted imaging. Among the ALS group, we applied left motor cortex single-pulse TMS. We used whole-brain VBM comparing ALS and HC in GM density...
February 7, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Meng Li, Jianhao Yan, Shumei Li, Tianyue Wang, Hua Wen, Yi Yin, Shishun Fu, Luxian Zeng, Junzhang Tian, Guihua Jiang
Previous neuroimaging studies have reported brain morphological alterations and the occurrence of mental disorders in primary insomnia (PI) patients. However, studies of the effect of disrupted sleep on brain structure have showed inconsistent results. In this study, DARTEL-VBM was used to evaluate the changes in gray matter volume from 60 PI patients and 53 controls. Voxel-wise statistics was performed in two ways. One is a more liberal statistical analysis using an uncorrected P < 0. 001 with 25 voxels, and the other one is a more conservative approach using a threshold of P < 0...
February 6, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Christoph Vogelbacher, Thomas W D Möbius, Jens Sommer, Verena Schuster, Udo Dannlowski, Tilo Kircher, Astrid Dempfle, Andreas Jansen, Miriam H A Bopp
Large, longitudinal, multi-center MR neuroimaging studies require comprehensive quality assurance (QA) protocols for assessing the general quality of the compiled data, indicating potential malfunctions in the scanning equipment, and evaluating inter-site differences that need to be accounted for in subsequent analyses. We describe the implementation of a QA protocol for functional magnet resonance imaging (fMRI) data based on the regular measurement of an MRI phantom and an extensive variety of currently published QA statistics...
January 31, 2018: NeuroImage
Victor Galvez, Gabriel Ramírez-García, Carlos R Hernandez-Castillo, Leo Bayliss, Rosalinda Díaz, María Margarita Lopez-Titla, Aurelio Campos-Romo, Juan Fernandez-Ruiz
INTRODUCTION: Striatal degeneration has significant behavioral effects in patients with Huntington's disease (HD). However, there is scant evidence of the possible contribution of extrastriatal regions to the motor alterations assessed within the different domains of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS). OBJECTIVE: Analyze if extrastriatal grey matter decrease in patients with HD correlates with motor performance assessed with the UHDRS and its different domains...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Yuchun Tang, Lu Zhao, Yunxia Lou, Yonggang Shi, Rui Fang, Xiangtao Lin, Shuwei Liu, Arthur Toga
Numerous behavioral observations and brain function studies have demonstrated that neurological differences exist between East Asians and Westerners. However, the extent to which these factors relate to differences in brain structure is still not clear. As the basis of brain functions, the anatomical differences in brain structure play a primary and critical role in the origination of functional and behavior differences. To investigate the underlying differences in brain structure between the two cultural/ethnic groups, we conducted a comparative study on education-matched right-handed young male adults (age = 22-29 years) from two cohorts, Han Chinese (n = 45) and Caucasians (n = 45), using high-dimensional structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data...
February 5, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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