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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919546/brain-morphometry-predicts-individual-creative-potential-and-the-ability-to-combine-remote-ideas
#1
David Bendetowicz, Marika Urbanski, Clarisse Aichelburg, Richard Levy, Emmanuelle Volle
For complex mental functions such as creative thinking, inter-individual variability is useful to better understand the underlying cognitive components and brain anatomy. Associative theories propose that creative individuals have flexible semantic associations, which allows remote elements to be formed into new combinations. However, the structural brain variability associated with the ability to combine remote associates has not been explored. To address this question, we performed a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study and explored the anatomical connectivity of significant regions...
November 15, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916985/the-obese-brain-as-a-heritable-phenotype-a-combined-morphometry-and-twin-study
#2
C M Weise, P Piaggi, M Reinhardt, K Chen, C R Savage, J Krakoff, B Pleger
BACKGROUND: Body weight and adiposity are heritable traits. To date it remains unknown whether obesity-associated brain structural alterations are under a similar level of genetic control. METHODS: For this study we utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from the Human Connectome Project. Voxel based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate associations between body mass index (BMI) and regional gray matter volume (GMV) in a sample of 875 young adults with a wide BMI range (386m/489f; age 28...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897230/scaling-effect-of-phosphorene-nanoribbon-uncovering-the-origin-of-asymmetric-current-transport
#3
Yawei Lv, Sheng Chang, Qijun Huang, Hao Wang, Jin He
In this paper, phosphorene nanoribbons (PNRs) are theoretically studied using a multiscale simulation flow from the ab initio level to the tight binding (TB) level. The scaling effects of both armchair PNRs (aPNRs) and zigzag PNRs (zPNRs) from material properties to device properties are explored. The much larger effective mass of holes compared to that of electrons in zPNR is responsible for its asymmetric transport. However, in aPNR, not only the effective mass difference but also the non-equal density of state (DOS) distributions near valence band maximum (VBM) and conduction band minimum (CBM) lead to the asymmetric transport...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888657/electroconvulsive-therapy-induced-brain-structural-and-functional-changes-in-major-depressive-disorders-a-longitudinal-study
#4
Haitang Qiu, Xirong Li, Wenjing Zhao, Lian Du, Peiyu Huang, Yixiao Fu, Tian Qiu, Peng Xie, Huaqing Meng, Qinghua Luo
BACKGROUND This study aimed to study the brain structural and functional changes after 8 courses of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). MATERIAL AND METHODS MRI scans were performed on 12 depressive patients before and after 8 courses of ECT and compared with those of 15 normal controls. Data were analyzed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) using SPM8 software. Functional MRI (fMRI) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) analyses were used to assess the functional changes after ECT...
November 26, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844498/adolescents-newly-diagnosed-with-eating-disorders-have-structural-differences-in-brain-regions-linked-with-eating-disorder-symptoms
#5
Linda Solstrand Dahlberg, Lyle Wiemerslage, Ingemar Swenne, Anna Larsen, Julia Stark, Mathias Rask-Andersen, Helena Salonen-Ros, Elna-Marie Larsson, Helgi B Schiöth, Samantha J Brooks
BACKGROUND: Adults with eating disorders (ED) show brain volume reductions in the frontal, insular, cingulate, and parietal cortices, as well as differences in subcortical regions associated with reward processing. However, little is known about the structural differences in adolescents with behavioural indications of early stage ED. AIM: This is the first study to investigate structural brain changes in adolescents newly diagnosed with ED compared to healthy controls (HC), and to study whether ED cognitions correlate with structural changes in adolescents with ED of short duration...
November 15, 2016: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833549/impaired-white-matter-connections-of-the-limbic-system-networks-associated-with-impaired-emotional-memory-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Xiaoshu Li, Haibao Wang, Yanghua Tian, Shanshan Zhou, Xiaohu Li, Kai Wang, Yongqiang Yu
Background: Discrepancies persist regarding retainment of emotional enhancement of memory (EEM) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.In addition, the neural mechanisms are still poorly understood, little is known about emotional memory related changes in white matter (WM). Objective: To observe whether EEM is absent in amnestic MCI (aMCI) and AD patients, and to investigate if emotional memory is associated with WM connections and gray matters (GM) of the limbic system networks...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830488/statistical-parametric-mapping-of-hr-pqct-images-a-tool-for-population-based-local-comparisons-of-micro-scale-bone-features
#7
Julio Carballido-Gamio, Serena Bonaretti, Galateia J Kazakia, Sundeep Khosla, Sharmila Majumdar, Thomas F Lang, Andrew J Burghardt
HR-pQCT enables in vivo multi-parametric assessments of bone microstructure in the distal radius and distal tibia. Conventional HR-pQCT image analysis approaches summarize bone parameters into global scalars, discarding relevant spatial information. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) techniques for HR-pQCT studies, which enable population-based local comparisons of bone properties. We present voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to assess trabecular and cortical bone voxel-based features, and a surface-based framework to assess cortical bone features both in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies...
November 9, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824357/high-field-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-structural-alterations-in-first-episode-drug-naive-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#8
Z Chen, W Peng, H Sun, W Kuang, W Li, Z Jia, Q Gong
Previous structural imaging studies have found evidence of brain morphometric changes in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), but these studies rarely excluded compounding effects of certain important factors, such as medications and long duration of illnesses. Furthermore, the neurobiological mechanism of the macroscopic findings of structural alterations in MDD patients remains unclear. In this study, we utilized magnetization transfer imaging, a quantitative measure of the macromolecular structural integrity of brain tissue, to identify biophysical alterations, which are represented by a magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), in MDD patients...
November 8, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818311/changes-in-bone-metabolism-after-bariatric-surgery-by-gastric-bypass-or-sleeve-gastrectomy
#9
Kaisa K Ivaska, Ville Huovinen, Minna Soinio, Jarna C Hannukainen, Virva Saunavaara, Paulina Salminen, Mika Helmiö, Riitta Parkkola, Pirjo Nuutila, Riku Kiviranta
Bariatric surgery results in rapid weight loss and beneficial metabolic effects, but may have negative effects on the skeleton. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate changes in bone metabolism in response to bariatric surgery with two surgical techniques. 46 morbidly obese subjects (mean 44.9years, BMI 42.1) with (n=19) or without (n=27) type 2 diabetes (T2DM) at baseline underwent either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB, n=21) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG, n=25). Bone turnover markers (CTX, PINP, TRAcP5b, TotalOC and ucOC) were measured before and six months after surgery...
November 3, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810354/human-sensory-cortex-structure-and-top-down-controlling-brain-network-determine-individual-differences-in-perceptual-alternations
#10
Na Sang, Lijie Zhang, Lei Hao, Yongchao Wang, Xiaogang Wang, Fan Zhang, Hui Huang, Xin Hou, Yu Mao, Taiyong Bi, Jiang Qiu
Bistable perception is a type of subjective perception that spontaneously alternates between two perceptual interpretations of an ambiguous sensory input. Past functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have examined the activation patterns underlying bistable perception, yet the variability between individuals in the alternations is not well understood. Therefore, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was introduced in this study to correlate the GM of the sensory cortex with the alternations of Rubin face-vase illusion in a large group of young adults...
October 31, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785843/comparison-of-a-non-stationary-voxelation-corrected-cluster-size-test-with-tfce-for-group-level-mri-inference
#11
Huanjie Li, Lisa D Nickerson, Thomas E Nichols, Jia-Hong Gao
Two powerful methods for statistical inference on MRI brain images have been proposed recently, a non-stationary voxelation-corrected cluster-size test (CST) based on random field theory and threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) based on calculating the level of local support for a cluster, then using permutation testing for inference. Unlike other statistical approaches, these two methods do not rest on the assumptions of a uniform and high degree of spatial smoothness of the statistic image. Thus, they are strongly recommended for group-level fMRI analysis compared to other statistical methods...
October 27, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783569/strain-and-electric-field-tunable-valley-states-in-2d-van-der-waals-mote2-wte2-heterostructures
#12
Zhida Zheng, Xiaocha Wang, Wenbo Mi
The strain and electric-field effects on the electronic structure of MoTe2/WTe2 van der Waals heterostructures are investigated by first-principles calculations. The MoTe2/WTe2 heterostructures are indirect band gap semiconductors under different strains except for 2%. At a strain from  -6% to 6% under a zero electric field, the band gap is 0.56, 0.62, 0.69, 0.62, 0.46, 0.37 and 0.29 eV, respectively. Meanwhile, spin splitting at the conduction band minimum (CBM) decreases monotonically from 76-1 meV, and that at the valance band maximum (VBM) is 232, 266, 292, 307, 319, 302 and 283 meV...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781971/impact-of-cerebellar-atrophy-on-cortical-gray-matter-and-cerebellar-peduncles-as-assessed-by-voxel-based-morphometry-and-high-angular-resolution-diffusion-imaging
#13
Michael Dayan, G Olivito, M Molinari, Mara Cercignani, Marco Bozzali, M Leggio
In recent years the cerebellum has been attributed amore important role in higher-level functions than previously believed. We examined a cohort of patients suffering from cerebellar atrophy resulting in ataxia, with two main objectives: first to investigate which regions of the cerebrum were affected by the cerebellar degeneration, and second to assess whether diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) metrics within the medial (MCP) and superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) - namely fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) - could be used as a biomarker in patients with this condition...
October 26, 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766586/brain-structure-and-function-in-patients-with-ovarian-cancer-treated-with-first-line-chemotherapy-a-pilot-study
#14
D D Correa, J C Root, M Kryza-Lacombe, M Mehta, S Karimi, M L Hensley, N Relkin
Women with ovarian cancer often undergo chemotherapy involving multiple agents. However, little is known about treatment-related central neurotoxicity in this population. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to assess brain structure and function and neurocognitive abilities in patients with ovarian cancer following first-line chemotherapy. Eighteen patients with ovarian, peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer and eighteen healthy controls matched for gender, age and education participated in the study...
October 20, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757078/functional-connectivity-abnormalities-of-brain-regions-with-structural-deficits-in-young-adult-male-smokers
#15
Limei Bu, Dahua Yu, Shaoping Su, Yao Ma, Karen M von Deneen, Lin Luo, Jinquan Zhai, Bo Liu, Jiadong Cheng, Yanyan Guan, Yangding Li, Yanzhi Bi, Ting Xue, Xiaoqi Lu, Kai Yuan
Smoking is one of the most prevalent dependence disorders. Previous studies have detected structural and functional deficits in smokers. However, few studies focused on the changes of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the brain regions with structural deficits in young adult smokers. Twenty-six young adult smokers and 26 well-matched healthy non-smokers participated in our study. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and RSFC were employed to investigate the structural and functional changes in young adult smokers...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749933/afferent-visual-pathway-affection-in-patients-with-pmp22-deletion-related-hereditary-neuropathy-with-liability-to-pressure-palsies
#16
Alexander U Brandt, Elena Meinert-Bohn, Jan Leo Rinnenthal, Hanna Zimmermann, Janine Mikolajczak, Timm Oberwahrenbrock, Sebastian Papazoglou, Caspar F Pfüller, Johann Schinzel, Björn Tackenberg, Friedemann Paul, Katrin Hahn, Judith Bellmann-Strobl
BACKGROUND: The PMP22 gene encodes a protein integral to peripheral myelin. Its deletion leads to hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). PMP22 is not expressed in the adult central nervous system, but previous studies suggest a role in CNS myelin development. The objective of this study was to identify potential structural and functional alterations in the afferent visual system in HNPP patients. METHODS: Twenty HNPP patients and 18 matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited in a cross-sectional study...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738528/senior-dance-experience-cognitive-performance-and-brain-volume-in-older-women
#17
Claudia Niemann, Ben Godde, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage
Physical activity is positively related to cognitive functioning and brain volume in older adults. Interestingly, different types of physical activity vary in their effects on cognition and on the brain. For example, dancing has become an interesting topic in aging research, as it is a popular leisure activity among older adults, involving cardiovascular and motor fitness dimensions that can be positively related to cognition. However, studies on brain structure are missing. In this study, we tested the association of long-term senior dance experience with cognitive performance and gray matter brain volume in older women aged 65 to 82 years...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734300/early-effects-of-a-high-caloric-diet-and-physical-exercise-on-brain-volumetry-and-behavior-a-combined-mri-and-histology-study-in-mice
#18
Markus Sack, Jenny N Lenz, Mira Jakovcevski, Sarah V Biedermann, Claudia Falfán-Melgoza, Jan Deussing, Maximilian Bielohuby, Martin Bidlingmaier, Frederik Pfister, Günter K Stalla, Alexander Sartorius, Peter Gass, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr, Johannes Fuss, Matthias K Auer
Excessive intake of high-caloric diets as well as subsequent development of obesity and diabetes mellitus may exert a wide range of unfavorable effects on the central nervous system (CNS) in the long-term. The potentially harmful effects of such diets were suggested to be mitigated by physical exercise. Here, we conducted a study investigating early effects of a cafeteria-diet on gray and white brain matter volume by means of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. Half of the mice performed voluntary wheel running to study if regular physical exercise prevents unfavorable effects of a cafeteria-diet...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730477/non-demented-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-apathy-show-decreased-grey-matter-volume-in-key-executive-and-reward-related-nodes
#19
Saul Martinez-Horta, Frederic Sampedro, Javier Pagonabarraga, Ramón Fernandez-Bobadilla, Juan Marin-Lahoz, Jordi Riba, Jaime Kulisevsky
Apathy is a common but poorly understood neuropsychiatric disturbance in Parkinson's disease (PD). In a recent study using event-related brain potentials we demonstrated impaired reward processing and compromised mesocortico-limbic pathways in PD patients with clinical symptoms of apathy. Here we aimed to further investigate the involvement of reward circuits in apathetic PD patients by assessing potential differences in brain structure. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) we quantified grey matter volume (GMV) in a sample of 18 non-demented and non-depressed PD patients with apathy, and 18 matched non-apathetic patients...
October 11, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729190/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-perceptual-aberrations-in-psychosis
#20
Erin A Brosey, Neil D Woodward
BACKGROUND: Aberrations in body perception are common in psychotic disorders. The insula and temporoparietal junction (TPJ) are involved in body ownership and spatial perception suggesting that abnormal structure of these regions might be related to the expression of perceptual aberrations in psychosis. METHODS: 58 individuals with a primary psychotic disorder and 40 healthy subjects completed the Chapman Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS) and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 8, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
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