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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447245/neuroanatomical-variations-as-a-function-of-experience-in-a-complex-daily-task-a-vbm-and-dti-study-on-driving-experience
#1
Alberto Megías, D Petrova, J F Navas, A Cándido, A Maldonado, A Catena
Complex tasks require the learning and integration of multiple cognitive, sensory, and psychomotor skills for correct execution. Driving-related skills are developed step by step through the increase of mileage driven and the accumulation of practice in different traffic situations. The acquisition of these skills should be reflected in the brain structure. However, no previous studies have explored brain structural variations associated with driving experience. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether driving frequency, defined as average annual driving mileage, is related to neuroanatomical variations in gray matter (GM) volume and white matter (WM) integrity using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and DTI-based fractional anisotropy (FA), respectively...
April 26, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444949/voxel-based-morphometry-meta-analysis-of-gray-and-white-matter-finds-significant-areas-of-differences-in-bipolar-patients-from-healthy-controls
#2
REVIEW
Rossana Ganzola, Simon Duchesne
OBJECTIVE: We present a retrospective meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of gray (GM) and white matter (WM) differences between patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and behaviorally healthy controls. METHODS: We used the activation likelihood estimation and Sleuth software for our meta-analysis, considering P-value maps at the cluster level inference of .05 with uncorrected P<.001. Results were visualized with the software MANGO. RESULTS: We included twenty-five articles in the analysis, and separated the comparisons where BD patients had lower GM or WM concentrations than controls (573 subjects, 21 experiments, and 117 locations/180 subjects, five experiments, and 15 locations, respectively) and the comparisons where BD patients had greater GM concentrations than controls (217 subjects, nine experiments, and 49 locations)...
April 26, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436341/insular-pathology-in-young-people-with-high-functioning-autism-and-first-episode-psychosis
#3
M Parellada, L Pina-Camacho, C Moreno, Y Aleman, M-O Krebs, M Desco, J Merchán-Naranjo, A Del Rey-Mejías, L Boada, C Llorente, D Moreno, C Arango, J Janssen
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and psychosis share deficits in social cognition. The insular region has been associated with awareness of self and reality, which may be basic for proper social interactions. METHODS: Total and regional insular volume and thickness measurements were obtained from a sample of 30 children and adolescents with ASD, 29 with early onset first-episode psychosis (FEP), and 26 healthy controls (HC). Total, regional, and voxel-level volume and thickness measurements were compared between groups (with correction for multiple comparisons), and the relationship between these measurements and symptom severity was explored...
April 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432988/comprehension-of-concrete-and-abstract-words-in-semantic-variant-primary-progressive-aphasia-and-alzheimer-s-disease-a-behavioral-and-neuroimaging-study
#4
Sven Joubert, Guillaume T Vallet, Maxime Montembeault, Mariem Boukadi, Maximiliano A Wilson, Robert Jr Laforce, Isabelle Rouleau, Simona M Brambati
The aim of this study was to investigate the comprehension of concrete, abstract and abstract emotional words in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and healthy elderly adults (HE) Three groups of participants (9 svPPA, 12 AD, 11 HE) underwent a general neuropsychological assessment, a similarity judgment task, and structural brain MRI. The three types of words were processed similarly in the group of AD participants. In contrast, patients in the svPPA group were significantly more impaired at processing concrete words than abstract words, while comprehension of abstract emotional words was in between...
April 19, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426817/evaluation-of-machine-learning-algorithms-and-structural-features-for-optimal-mri-based-diagnostic-prediction-in-psychosis
#5
Raymond Salvador, Joaquim Radua, Erick J Canales-Rodríguez, Aleix Solanes, Salvador Sarró, José M Goikolea, Alicia Valiente, Gemma C Monté, María Del Carmen Natividad, Amalia Guerrero-Pedraza, Noemí Moro, Paloma Fernández-Corcuera, Benedikt L Amann, Teresa Maristany, Eduard Vieta, Peter J McKenna, Edith Pomarol-Clotet
A relatively large number of studies have investigated the power of structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data to discriminate patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls. However, very few of them have also included patients with bipolar disorder, allowing the clinically relevant discrimination between both psychotic diagnostics. To assess the efficacy of sMRI data for diagnostic prediction in psychosis we objectively evaluated the discriminative power of a wide range of commonly used machine learning algorithms (ridge, lasso, elastic net and L0 norm regularized logistic regressions, a support vector classifier, regularized discriminant analysis, random forests and a Gaussian process classifier) on main sMRI features including grey and white matter voxel-based morphometry (VBM), vertex-based cortical thickness and volume, region of interest volumetric measures and wavelet-based morphometry (WBM) maps...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424650/the-role-of-the-left-anterior-temporal-lobe-for-unpredictable-and-complex-mappings-in-word-reading
#6
Marilyne Joyal, Simona M Brambati, Robert J Laforce, Maxime Montembeault, Mariem Boukadi, Isabelle Rouleau, Joël Macoir, Sven Joubert, Shirley Fecteau, Maximiliano A Wilson
The anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) have been consistently associated with semantic processing which, in turn, has a key role in reading aloud single words. This study aimed to investigate (1) the reading abilities in patients with the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), and (2) the relationship between gray matter (GM) volume of the left ATL and word reading performance using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Three groups of participants (svPPA, Alzheimer's Disease, AD and healthy elderly adults) performed a reading task with exception words, regular words and pseudowords, along with a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424392/-the-role-of-brodmann-area-12-taste-social-cognition-and-mental-time
#7
Mitsuru Kawamura
Broadman area 12, together with area 11, is located in the orbitofrontal area. A voxel-based morphometric (VBM) study revealed the association between bilateral brodmann areas 12/47 and taste disturbance in individuals with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). In our VBM study in patients with Parkinson's disease, decision-making impairments were associated with atrophy of the bilateral Brodmann area 12, indicating that this area may play an important role in social cognitive function. Our recent study also demonstrated that this area may serve as time order judgement or mental time travel...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420876/examining-gray-matter-structure-associated-with-academic-performance-in-a-large-sample-of-chinese-high-school-students
#8
Song Wang, Ming Zhou, Taolin Chen, Xun Yang, Guangxiang Chen, Meiyun Wang, Qiyong Gong
Achievement in school is crucial for students to be able to pursue successful careers and lead happy lives in the future. Although many psychological attributes have been found to be associated with academic performance, the neural substrates of academic performance remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the relationship between brain structure and academic performance in a large sample of high school students via structural magnetic resonance imaging (S-MRI) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407298/spatial-differences-in-the-distribution-of-bone-between-femoral-neck-and-trochanteric-fractures
#9
Aihong Yu, Julio Carballido-Gamio, Ling Wang, Thomas F Lang, Yongbin Su, Xinbao Wu, Manyi Wang, Jie Wei, Chen Yi, Xiaoguang Cheng
There is little knowledge about the spatial distribution differences in volumetric bone mineral density and cortical bone structure at the proximal femur between femoral neck fractures and trochanteric fractures. In this case-control study, a total of 93 women with fragility hip fractures, 72 with femoral neck fractures (mean ± SD age: 70.6 ± 12.7 years) and 21 with trochanteric fractures (75.6 ± 9.3 years), and 50 control subjects (63.7 ± 7.0 years) were included for the comparisons. Differences in the spatial distributions of volumetric bone mineral density, cortical bone thickness, cortical volumetric bone mineral density and volumetric bone mineral density in a layer adjacent to the endosteal surface were investigated using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and surface-based statistical parametric mapping (SPM)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399433/embodied-emotion-impairment-in-huntington-s-disease
#10
Iris Trinkler, Sévérine Devignevielle, Amal Achaibou, Romain V Ligneul, Pierre Brugières, Laurent Cleret de Langavant, Beatrice De Gelder, Rachael Scahill, Sophie Schwartz, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Lévi
Theories of embodied cognition suggest that perceiving an emotion involves somatovisceral and motoric re-experiencing. Here we suggest taking such an embodied stance when looking at emotion processing deficits in patients with Huntington's Disease (HD), a neurodegenerative motor disorder. The literature on these patients' emotion recognition deficit has recently been enriched by some reports of impaired emotion expression. The goal of the study was to find out if expression deficits might be linked to a more motoric level of impairment...
March 18, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396646/regional-gray-matter-volume-is-associated-with-restrained-eating-in-healthy-chinese-young-adults-evidence-from-voxel-based-morphometry
#11
Yanhua Su, Todd Jackson, Dongtao Wei, Jiang Qiu, Hong Chen
Highlight Participants were non-clinical young adults with different restrained eating levels.We assessed relations of restrained eating (RE) with regional gray matter volume (rGMV).High RE scores were related to larger GMV in specific areas related to reward.High RE scores were also linked to less GMV in regions related to response inhibition. Objective: Dieting is a popular method of weight control. However, few dieters are able to maintain initial weight losses over an extended period of time. Why do most restrained dieters fail to lose weight? Alterations in brain structures associated with restrained eating (RE) represent one potentially important mechanism that contributes to difficulties in maintaining weight loss within this group...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391034/the-structural-and-functional-correlates-of-the-efficiency-in-fearful-face-detection
#12
Yongchao Wang, Nana Guo, Li Zhao, Hui Huang, Xiaonan Yao, Na Sang, Xin Hou, Yu Mao, Taiyong Bi, Jiang Qiu
Human visual system is found to be much efficient in searching for a fearful face. Some individuals are more sensitive to this threat-related stimulus. However, we still know little about the neural correlates of such variability. In the current study, we exploited a visual search paradigm, and asked the subjects to search for a fearful face or a target gender. Every subject showed a shallower search function for fearful face search than face gender search, indicating a stable fearful face advantage. We then used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and correlated this advantage to the gray matter volume (GMV) of some presumably face related cortical areas...
April 5, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390850/grey-matter-reduction-in-the-caudate-nucleus-in-patients-with-persistent-negative-symptoms-an-ale-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Ying Li, Wen-Xiu Li, Dong-Jie Xie, Yi Wang, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan
OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we used Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analysis to quantitatively examine brain grey matter reduction in schizophrenia patients with persistent negative symptoms (PNS). METHOD: A total of 12 voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies were included in ALE meta-analysis using more stringent criterion of PNS. RESULTS: Significant grey matter reduction in the PNS group relative to controls was observed in the left caudate nucleus, the left precentral region, the left middle frontal region, the bilateral parahippocampal region, the left anterior cingulate region, the bilateral medial frontal gyrus, the thalamus and the insula...
April 5, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387678/memory-is-not-enough-the-neurobiological-substrates-of-dynamic-cognitive-reserve
#14
Laura Serra, Michela Bruschini, Carlotta Di Domenico, Giulia Bechi Gabrielli, Camillo Marra, Carlo Caltagirone, Mara Cercignani, Marco Bozzali
Changes in the residual memory variance are considered as a dynamic aspect of cognitive reserve (d-CR). We aimed to investigate for the first time the neural substrate associated with changes in the residual memory variance overtime in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Thirty-four aMCI patients followed-up for 36 months and 48 healthy elderly individuals (HE) were recruited. All participants underwent 3T MRI, collecting T1-weighted images for voxel-based morphometry (VBM). They underwent an extensive neuropsychological battery, including six episodic memory tests...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383208/olfactory-brain-gray-matter-volume-reduction-in-patients-with-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#15
Pengfei Han, Katherine L Whitcroft, Jessica Fischer, Johannes Gerber, Mandy Cuevas, Peter Andrews, Thomas Hummel
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common inflammatory condition and a major cause of olfactory loss. Olfactory dysfunction has been associated with reduced olfactory bulb (OB) volume and gray matter (GM) density in the olfactory-related brain areas. The aim of this study was to investigate brain GM structural and OB volume alterations in patients with CRS. METHODS: Structural brain images were collected from 21 CRS patients and 31 healthy controls on a 3-T scanner...
April 6, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382554/measurement-of-vertebral-bone-marrow-proton-density-fat-fraction-in-children-using-quantitative-water-fat-mri
#16
Stefan Ruschke, Amber Pokorney, Thomas Baum, Holger Eggers, Jeffrey H Miller, Houchun H Hu, Dimitrios C Karampinos
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the feasibility of employing a 3D time-interleaved multi-echo gradient-echo (TIMGRE) sequence to measure the proton density fat fraction (PDFF) in the vertebral bone marrow (VBM) of children and to examine cross-sectional changes with age and intra-individual variations from the lumbar to the cervical region in the first two decades of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quantitative water-fat imaging of the spine was performed in 93 patients (49 girls; 44 boys; age median 4...
April 5, 2017: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374074/abnormal-subcortical-nuclei-shapes-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Ji Chen, Junxiang Zhang, Xuebing Liu, Xiaoyang Wang, Xiangjin Xu, Hui Li, Bo Cao, Yanqiu Yang, Jingjing Lu, Ziqian Chen
OBJECTIVES: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases the risk of brain atrophy and dementia. We aimed to elucidate deep grey matter (GM) structural abnormalities and their relationships with T2DM cognitive deficits by combining region of interest (ROI)-based volumetry, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and shape analysis. METHODS: We recruited 23 T2DM patients and 24 age-matched healthy controls to undergo T1-weighted structural MRI scanning. Images were analysed using the three aforementioned methods to obtain deep GM structural shapes and volumes...
April 3, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373956/a-neural-network-underlying-intentional-emotional-facial-expression-in-neurodegenerative-disease
#18
Kelly A Gola, Tal Shany-Ur, Peter Pressman, Isa Sulman, Eduardo Galeana, Hillary Paulsen, Lauren Nguyen, Teresa Wu, Babu Adhimoolam, Pardis Poorzand, Bruce L Miller, Katherine P Rankin
Intentional facial expression of emotion is critical to healthy social interactions. Patients with neurodegenerative disease, particularly those with right temporal or prefrontal atrophy, show dramatic socioemotional impairment. This was an exploratory study examining the neural and behavioral correlates of intentional facial expression of emotion in neurodegenerative disease patients and healthy controls. One hundred and thirty three participants (45 Alzheimer's disease, 16 behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, 8 non-fluent primary progressive aphasia, 10 progressive supranuclear palsy, 11 right-temporal frontotemporal dementia, 9 semantic variant primary progressive aphasia patients and 34 healthy controls) were video recorded while imitating static images of emotional faces and producing emotional expressions based on verbal command; the accuracy of their expression was rated by blinded raters...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366873/elucidating-the-aberrant-brain-regions-in-bipolar-disorder-using-t1-weighted-t2-weighted-magnetic-resonance-ratio-images
#19
Takuya Ishida, Tomohiro Donishi, Jun Iwatani, Shinichi Yamada, Shun Takahashi, Satoshi Ukai, Kazuhiro Shinosaki, Masaki Terada, Yoshiki Kaneoke
Although diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have revealed brain abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BD) subjects, DTI methods might not detect disease-related abnormalities in the white matter (WM) where nerve fibers are crossing. We investigated BD myelin-related abnormal brain regions in both gray matter and WM for 29 BD and 33 healthy control (HC) participants using T1-weighted (T1w)/T2-weighted (T2w) ratio images that increase myelin-related contrast irrespective of nerve fiber orientation. To check effect of the brain volume, the results were compared with those of voxel-based morphometry (VBM)...
March 25, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357535/emotional-intelligence-moderates-the-relationship-between-regional-gray-matter-volume-in-the-bilateral-temporal-pole-and-critical-thinking-disposition
#20
Xiaonan Yao, Shuge Yuan, Wenjing Yang, Qunlin Chen, Dongtao Wei, Yuling Hou, Lijie Zhang, Jiang Qiu, Dong Yang
Critical thinking enables people to form sound beliefs and provides a basis for emotional life. Research has indicated that individuals with better critical thinking disposition can better recognize and regulate their emotions, though the neuroanatomical mechanisms involved in this process remain to be elucidated. Further, the influence of emotional intelligence on the relationship between brain structure and critical thinking disposition has not been examined. The present study utilized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate the neural structures underlying critical thinking disposition in a large sample of college students (N = 296)...
March 29, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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