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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659574/the-impact-of-school-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-improvements-on-infectious-disease-using-serum-antibody-detection
#1
Anna N Chard, Victoria Trinies, Delynn M Moss, Howard H Chang, Seydou Doumbia, Patrick J Lammie, Matthew C Freeman
BACKGROUND: Evidence from recent studies assessing the impact of school water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions on child health has been mixed. Self-reports of disease are subject to bias, and few WASH impact evaluations employ objective health measures to assess reductions in disease and exposure to pathogens. We utilized antibody responses from dried blood spots (DBS) to measure the impact of a school WASH intervention on infectious disease among pupils in Mali. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We randomly selected 21 beneficiary primary schools and their 21 matched comparison schools participating in a matched-control trial of a comprehensive school-based WASH intervention in Mali...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488131/mechanisms-of-oral-tolerance
#2
REVIEW
Leticia Tordesillas, M Cecilia Berin
Oral tolerance is a state of systemic unresponsiveness that is the default response to food antigens in the gastrointestinal tract, although immune tolerance can also be induced by other routes, such as the skin or inhalation. Antigen can be acquired directly by intestinal phagocytes, or pass through enterocytes or goblet cell-associated passages prior to capture by dendritic cells (DCs) in the lamina propria. Mucin from goblet cells acts on DCs to render them more tolerogenic. A subset of regulatory DCs expressing CD103 is responsible for delivery of antigen to the draining lymph node and induction of Tregs...
February 27, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464257/a-fabrication-method-of-gold-coated-colloidosomes-and-their-application-as-targeted-drug-carriers
#3
Qian Sun, Yao Du, Elizabeth A H Hall, Dong Luo, Gleb B Sukhorukov, Alexander F Routh
Colloidosomes have attracted considerable attention in recent years because of their potential applications in a range of industries, such as food, bioreactors and medicine. However, traditional polymer shell colloidosomes leak low molecular weight encapsulated materials due to their intrinsic shell permeability. Here, we report aqueous core colloidosomes coated with a gold shell, which make the capsules impermeable. The shells can be ruptured using ultrasound. The gold coated colloidosomes are prepared by making an aqueous core capsule with a polymer shell and then adding HAuCl4 , surfactant and l-ascorbic acid to form a second shell...
February 21, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452594/comparative-immunogenicity-of-preparations-of-yeast-derived-dengue-oral-vaccine-candidate
#4
Jyotiranjan Bal, Nguyen Ngoc Luong, Jisang Park, Ki-Duk Song, Yong-Suk Jang, Dae-Hyuk Kim
BACKGROUND: Dengue is listed as a neglected tropical disease by the Center for Disease Control and Preservation, as there are insufficient integrated surveillance strategies, no effective treatment, and limited licensed vaccines. Consisting of four genetically distinct serotypes, dengue virus (DENV) causes serious life-threatening infections due to its complexity. Antibody-dependent enhancement by pre-existing cross-reactive as well as homotypic antibodies further worsens the clinical symptoms of dengue...
February 16, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388365/collagen-derived-peptides-modulate-cd4-t-cell-differentiation-and-suppress-allergic-responses-in-mice
#5
Akihiko Nishikimi, Yoh-Ichi Koyama, Sayaka Ishihara, Shusaku Kobayashi, Chisa Tometsuka, Masashi Kusubata, Kumiko Kuwaba, Osamu Hayashida, Shunji Hattori, Koko Katagiri
INTRODUCTION: Collagen peptides have been widely used as a food supplement. After ingestion of collagen peptides, oligopeptides containing hydroxyproline (Hyp), which are known to have some physiological activities, are detected in peripheral blood. However, the effects of collagen-peptide administration on immune response are unclear. In the present study, we tested the effects of collagen-peptide ingestion on allergic response and the effects of collagen-derived oligopeptides on CD4+ T-cell differentiation...
February 1, 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348316/evaluation-of-next-generation-anti-cd20-antibodies-labeled-with-zirconium-89-in-human-lymphoma-xenografts
#6
Jason T Yoon, Mark S Longtine, Bernadette V Marquez-Nostra, Richard L Wahl
Radioimmunotherapies with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the B-lymphocyte antigen 20 (CD20) are effective treatments for B-cell lymphomas, but United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved radioimmunotherapies exclusively use radiolabeled murine antibodies, potentially limiting re-dosing. The FDA recently approved two unlabeled anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, obinutizumab and ofatumumab, termed "next generation" as they are humanized (obinituzumab) or fully human (ofatumumab), thus potentially allowing a greater potential for re-dosing than with previous generation anti-CD20 antibodies, including rituximab (chimeric) and tositumumab (murine) which contain more murine peptide sequences...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278400/modulation-of-innate-immunity-by-lignin-carbohydrate-a-novel-tlr4-ligand-results-in-augmentation-of-mucosal-iga-and-systemic-igg-production
#7
Ryohei Tsuji, Kumiko Ikado, Daisuke Fujiwara
Previous study revealed that a specific lignin-carbohydrate preparation, named as lignin-rich enzyme lignin (LREL) derived from plant husk, is a novel toll-like receptor 4 ligand and shows a potent immune-stimulatory activity against dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro. In this report, we investigated immune-stimulatory activity of LREL in vivo. Single intraperitoneal (i.p.) or oral treatment of LREL elicited activation of systemic and mucosal DCs, which were accompanied by significant elevation of cell surface activation markers and ratio of IL-12p40 producing cells...
December 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239690/antibody-drug-conjugates-design-and-development-for-therapy-and-imaging-in-and-beyond-cancer-labex-mabimprove-industrial-workshop-july-27-28-2017-tours-france
#8
Camille Martin, Claire Kizlik-Masson, André Pèlegrin, Hervé Watier, Marie-Claude Viaud-Massuard, Nicolas Joubert
The annual "Antibody Industrial Symposium", co organized by LabEx MAbImprove, MabDesign and Polepharma, was held in Tours, France on June 27-28, 2017. The focus was on antibody-drug-conjugates (ADCs), new entities which realize the hope of Paul Ehrlich's magic bullet. ADCs result from the bioconjugation of a highly cytotoxic drug to a selective monoclonal antibody, which acts as a vector. Building on knowledge gained during the development of three approved ADCs, brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris®), ado trastuzumab emtansine (Kadcyla®) and inotuzumab ozogamicin (Besponsa®), and the many ADCs in development, this meeting addressed strategies and the latest innovations in the field from fundamental research to manufacturing...
February 2018: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223488/oral-administration-of-plga-encapsulated-cpg-odn-and-campylobacter-jejuni-lysate-reduces-cecal-colonization-by-campylobacter-jejuni-in-chickens
#9
Khaled Taha-Abdelaziz, Douglas C Hodgins, Tamiru Negash Alkie, Wanderely Quinteiro-Filho, Alexander Yitbarek, Jake Astill, Shayan Sharif
Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a major cause of bacterial food-borne illness in humans. It is considered a commensal organism of the chicken gut and infected chickens serve as a reservoir and shed bacteria throughout their lifespan. Contaminated poultry products are considered the major source of infection in humans. Therefore, to reduce the risk of human campylobacteriosis, it is essential to reduce the bacterial load in poultry products. The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of soluble and PLGA-encapsulated oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated CpG motifs (E-CpG ODN) as well as C...
January 8, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158374/maternal-igg-immune-complexes-induce-food-allergen-specific-tolerance-in-offspring
#10
Asa Ohsaki, Nicholas Venturelli, Tess M Buccigrosso, Stavroula K Osganian, John Lee, Richard S Blumberg, Michiko K Oyoshi
The role of maternal immune responses in tolerance induction is poorly understood. To study whether maternal allergen sensitization affects offspring susceptibility to food allergy, we epicutaneously sensitized female mice with ovalbumin (OVA) followed by epicutaneous sensitization and oral challenge of their offspring with OVA. Maternal OVA sensitization prevented food anaphylaxis, OVA-specific IgE production, and intestinal mast cell expansion in offspring. This protection was mediated by neonatal crystallizable fragment receptor (FcRn)-dependent transfer of maternal IgG and OVA immune complexes (IgG-IC) via breast milk and induction of allergen-specific regulatory T (T reg) cells in offspring...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147098/purification-and-anti-pathogenic-properties-of-immunoglobulin-concentrates-from-porcine-blood
#11
Tae-Hwan Jung, Jae-Hwan Choi, Kyung-Chul Koh, Woo-Min Jeon, Kyoung-Sik Han
During slaughtering, animal blood is typically discarded, resulting in water pollution. However, this discarded blood has valuable components, such as immunoglobulin (Ig). Although several studies have been conducted to develop methods for effective recycling of slaughterhouse blood, they have not been commercially utilized in Korea. Here, we extracted an Ig-rich fraction from porcine blood that was then subjected to various in vitro tests, including pathogen growth inhibition, antigenic cross-reactivity, and anti-toxin activity...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141741/a-hospital-based-study-of-intestinal-capillariasis-in-thailand-clinical-features-potential-clues-for-diagnosis-and-epidemiological-characteristics-of-85-patients
#12
Lakkhana Sadaow, Oranuch Sanpool, Pewpan M Intapan, Watana Sukeepaisarnjaroen, Thidarat K Prasongdee, Wanchai Maleewong
Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis, a fish-borne nematode, is an important, emerging zoonotic helminthiasis. Cases may be fatal if suitable treatment is not administered in time. We reported a hospital-based study of 85 cases in Thailand, most of which were in the northeast. All patients had a history of eating raw or insufficiently cooked fresh water fish or prawns. The clinical manifestations are characterized by chronic diarrhea, borborygmi, abdominal pain, marked weight loss, muscle weakness, fatigue, dizziness, anorexia, and edema, as well as protein and electrolyte loss...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133571/development-of-protective-immunity-in-new-zealand-white-rabbits-challenged-with-bacillus-anthracis-spores-and-treated-with-antibiotics-and-obiltoxaximab-a-monoclonal-antibody-against-protective-antigen
#13
Lisa N Henning, Sarah Carpenter, Gregory V Stark, Natalya V Serbina
Recommended management of inhalational anthrax, a high-priority bioterrorist threat, includes antibiotics and antitoxins. Obiltoxaximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against anthrax Protective Antigen (PA) is licensed under the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Animal Rule for treatment of inhalational anthrax. Because of spore latency, disease re-emergence after treatment cessation is a concern and there is a need to understand development of endogenous protective immune responses following antitoxin-containing anthrax treatment regimens...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102418/the-utility-of-food-antigen-test-in-the-diagnosis-of-crohn-s-disease-and-remission-maintenance-after-exclusive-enteral-nutrition
#14
Gefei Wang, Jianan Ren, Guanwei Li, Qiongyuan Hu, Guosheng Gu, Huajian Ren, Zhiwu Hong, Jieshou Li
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) involves intensive immunologic responses to food antigens. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) showed efficacy in inducing disease remission. However, relapse commonly occurred when normal diet was reintroduced. We aimed to investigate the food-specific IgG antibodies of CD, and clarify the effects of exclusion diet guided by food-specific antibodies on remission maintenance after EEN. METHODS: All available data of food-specific antibodies were retrieved from the database and analyzed for the diagnostic value...
October 25, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037873/cross-linked-ovalbumin-catalyzed-by-polyphenol-oxidase-preparation-structure-and-potential-allergenicity
#15
Ke Liu, Shuguang Chen, Hongbing Chen, Ping Tong, Jinyan Gao
Ovalbumin (OVA) is described as one of the major allergens in hen's egg, and it is the most abundant protein in egg white. Enzyme-mediated covalent cross-linking of food proteins, can influence their structure and allergenicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of polyphenol oxidase from Agaricus bisporus to cross-link OVA (CL-OVA) in the presence or absence of caffeic acid, followed by characterizing the structure and allergenicity of CL-OVA. A single-factor experiment was designed to assess the optimum conditions for cross-linking of OVA by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...
February 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924447/passive-blood-anaphylaxis-subcutaneous-immunoglobulins-are-a-cause-of-ongoing-passive-anaphylactic-reaction
#16
Przemyslaw Zdziarski, Andrzej Gamian, Jacek Majda, Agnieszka Korzeniowska-Kowal
BACKGROUND: Allergic, especially anaphylactic, reactions during immunoglobulin replacement therapy are rare, but their pathophysiology and classification remain ambiguous. Recent findings show positive results of skin tests with commercially available immunoglobulins, but target antigens and responsible compounds of the tested immunoglobulins have not been strictly identified. CASE DESCRIPTION AND FINDINGS: Four adult patients with recently diagnosed common variable immunodeficiency qualified for standard subcutaneous immunoglobulin replacement therapy regimen...
2017: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854915/critically-appraised-topic-on-adverse-food-reactions-of-companion-animals-4-can-we-diagnose-adverse-food-reactions-in-dogs-and-cats-with-in-vivo-or-in-vitro-tests
#17
Ralf S Mueller, Thierry Olivry
BACKGROUND: The gold standard to diagnose adverse food reactions (AFRs) in the dog and cat is currently an elimination diet with subsequent provocation trials. However, those trials are inconvenient and client compliance can be low. Our objective was to systematically review the literature to evaluate in vivo and in vitro tests used to diagnose AFR in small animals. RESULTS: We searched three databases (CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE and Web of Science) for pertinent references on September 16, 2016...
August 30, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830946/analysis-of-spleen-induced-fimbria-production-in-recombinant-attenuated-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-vaccine-strains
#18
Paweł Łaniewski, Chang-Ho Baek, Kenneth L Roland, Roy Curtiss
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genome encodes 13 fimbrial operons. Most of the fimbriae encoded by these operons are not produced under laboratory conditions but are likely to be synthesized in vivo We used an in vivo expression technology (IVET) strategy to identify four fimbrial operons, agf, saf, sti, and stc that are expressed in the spleen. When any three of these operons were deleted, the strain retained wild-type virulence. However, when all four operons were deleted, the resulting strain was completely attenuated, indicating that these four fimbriae play functionally redundant roles critical for virulence...
August 22, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780941/the-pathophysiology-of-anaphylaxis
#19
REVIEW
Laurent L Reber, Joseph D Hernandez, Stephen J Galli
Anaphylaxis is a severe systemic hypersensitivity reaction that is rapid in onset; characterized by life-threatening airway, breathing, and/or circulatory problems; and usually associated with skin and mucosal changes. Because it can be triggered in some persons by minute amounts of antigen (eg, certain foods or single insect stings), anaphylaxis can be considered the most aberrant example of an imbalance between the cost and benefit of an immune response. This review will describe current understanding of the immunopathogenesis and pathophysiology of anaphylaxis, focusing on the roles of IgE and IgG antibodies, immune effector cells, and mediators thought to contribute to examples of the disorder...
August 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776443/exploring-the-immunopotentiation-of-chinese-yam-polysaccharide-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-nanoparticles-in-an-ovalbumin-vaccine-formulation-in-vivo
#20
Li Luo, Tao Qin, Yifan Huang, Sisi Zheng, Ruonan Bo, Zhenguang Liu, Jie Xing, Yuanliang Hu, Jiaguo Liu, Deyun Wang
Biocompatible and biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and has frequently been used to develop potential vaccine delivery systems. The immunoregulation and immunopotentiation of Chinese yam polysaccharide (CYP) have been widely demonstrated. In the current study, cell uptake mechanisms in dendritic cells (DCs) were monitored in vitro using confocal laser scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and flow cytometry. To study a CYP-PLGA nanoparticle-adjuvanted delivery system, CYP and ovalbumin (OVA) were encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles (CYPPs) to act as a vaccine, and the formulation was tested in immunized mice...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
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