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Neurology, Neurosurgery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210402/interdisciplinary-management-of-minimally-displaced-orbital-roof-fractures-delayed-pulsatile-exophthalmos-and-orbital-encephalocele
#1
Austin Y Ha, William Mangham, Sarah A Frommer, David Choi, Petra Klinge, Helena O Taylor, Adetokunbo A Oyelese, Stephen R Sullivan
Traumatic orbital roof fractures are rare and are managed nonoperatively in most cases. They are typically associated with severe mechanisms of injury and may be associated with significant neurologic or ophthalmologic compromise including traumatic brain injury and vision loss. Rarely, traumatic encephalocele or pulsatile exophthalmos may be present at the time of injury or develop in delayed fashion, necessitating close observation of these patients. In this article, we describe two patients with minimally displaced blow-in type orbital roof fractures that were later complicated by orbital encephalocele and pulsatile exophthalmos, prompting urgent surgical intervention...
March 2017: Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208985/pattern-of-inpatient-dermatology-consultations-in-a-tertiary-care-centre-from-northern-india
#2
Abhilasha Williams, Anuradha Bhatia, Bimal Kanish, Paulina Rose Chaudhary, Clarence James Samuel
INTRODUCTION: The importance of dermatology inpatient consultation is of significant importance yet is not well documented. AIM: To retrospectively analyse the spectrum of dermatology inpatient consultations from the various departments and to document the most commonly occurring dermatological disorders from each speciality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was done in an 800 bedded premier teaching hospital in Ludhiana, Punjab, North Western India...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188505/undergraduate-neuroscience-majors-a-missed-opportunity-for-psychiatry-workforce-development
#3
Matthew N Goldenberg, John H Krystal
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine whether and to what extent medical students with an undergraduate college major in neuroscience, relative to other college majors, pursue psychiatry relative to other brain-based specialties (neurology and neurosurgery) and internal medicine. METHODS: The authors analyzed data from AAMC matriculation and graduation surveys for all students who graduated from US medical schools in 2013 and 2014 (n = 29,714). Students who majored in neuroscience, psychology, and biology were compared to all other students in terms of their specialty choice at both time points...
February 10, 2017: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187805/the-history-of-neurocritical-care
#4
E F M Wijdicks
Critical care medicine came into sharp focus in the second part of the 20th century. The care of acutely ill neurologic patients in the USA may have originated in postoperative neurosurgical units, but for many years patients with neurocritical illness were admitted to intensive care units next to patients with general medical or surgical conditions. Neurologists may have had their first exposure to the complexity of neurocritical care during the poliomyelitis epidemics, but few were interested. Much later, the development of neurocritical care as a legitimate subspecialty was possible as a result of a new cadre of neurologists, with support by departments of neurosurgery and anesthesia, who appreciated their added knowledge and expertise in care of acute neurologic illness...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185975/effect-of-geopolitical-forces-on-neurosurgical-training-in-sub-saharan-africa
#5
Kara E Dempsey, Mahmood M Qureshi, Solomon M Ondoma, Robert J Dempsey
BACKGROUND: The population of Sub-Saharan Africa suffers from a critical shortage and maldistribution of healthcare professionals, especially highlighted in surgical subspecialties such as neurosurgery. In light of the Lancet Report and the World Health Organization's directive to provide essential surgical care through the developing world, solutions need to be found to close this training and distribution gap. METHODS: Methods correcting the situation will only succeed if one understands the geopolitical forces which have shaped the distribution of healthcare in the region and continue to this day...
February 6, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185969/joseph-buford-pennybacker-cbe-md-frcs-1907-1983-continuing-sir-hugh-cairns-oxford-legacy-and-pioneer-of-the-modern-management-of-cerebral-abscesses
#6
REVIEW
Ravindran Visagan, Harold Ellis
The authors examine the life and contribution of Joseph Buford Pennybacker to British neurosurgery and the modern management of cerebral abscesses. Pennybacker's inspirational journey began with him aspiring to Ephraim McDowell. It saw him cross the Atlantic, learn medicine at Edinburgh, train in neurology at Queen Square in London and learn neurosurgery under Sir Hugh Cairns in Oxford. He navigated a successful career through World War Two and together with Cairns established the Radcliffe Infirmary in Oxford as a highly esteemed neurosurgical unit...
February 6, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185669/electrical-stimulation-and-monitoring-devices-of-the-cns-an-imaging-review
#7
REVIEW
Sohil H Patel, Casey H Halpern, Timothy M Shepherd, Vincent M Timpone
Functional neurosurgery is a rapidly growing field with exciting future potential applications. This article describes currently used implanted electronic devices for neurologic stimulation and monitoring. The devices to be reviewed include invasive EEG electrodes, deep brain stimulator, motor cortex stimulator, responsive neurostimulation, osteo-integrated hearing aid, middle ear implant, cochlear implant, auditory brainstem implant, vagal nerve stimulator and spinal cord stimulator. Emphasis is placed on the normal components, function, positioning, potential complications and MRI safety of these devices...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180072/the-diminishing-dominance-of-the-dominant-hemisphere-language-fmri-in-focal-epilepsy
#8
Chris Tailby, David F Abbott, Graeme D Jackson
"Which is the dominant hemisphere?" is a question that arises frequently in patients considered for neurosurgery. The concept of the dominant hemisphere implies uniformity of language lateralisation throughout the brain. It is increasingly recognised that this is not the case in the healthy control brain, and it is especially not so in neurological diseases such as epilepsy. In the present work we adapt our published objective lateralisation method (based on the construction of laterality curves) for use with sub-lobar cortical, subcortical and cerebellar regions of interest (ROIs)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176963/expressive-aphasia-caused-by-streptococcus-intermedius-brain-abscess-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#9
Misbahuddin Khaja, Darryl Adler, George Lominadze
BACKGROUND: Brain abscess is an uncommon but life-threatening infection. It involves a focal, intracerebral infection that begins in a localized area of cerebritis and develops into a collection of pus, surrounded by a well-vascularized capsule. Brain abscess still poses a significant problem in developing countries but rarely in developed countries. Predisposing factors vary in different parts of the world. With the introduction of antibiotics and imaging studies, the mortality rate has decreased between 5% and 15%...
2017: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175390/preface-to-clinical-neurosurgery-volume-63-proceedings-of-the-congress-of-neurological-surgeons-2015-annual-meeting
#10
Krystal L Tomei, Todd C Hankinson, Carrie R Muh, Aaron S Dumont, Samuel H Cheshier, Cheerag Upadhyaya, Omar Choudhri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169942/rbc-transfusion-improves-cerebral-oxygen-delivery-in-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#11
Rajat Dhar, Allyson R Zazulia, Colin P Derdeyn, Michael N Diringer
OBJECTIVES: Impaired oxygen delivery due to reduced cerebral blood flow is the hallmark of delayed cerebral ischemia following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Since anemia reduces arterial oxygen content, it further threatens oxygen delivery increasing the risk of cerebral infarction. Thus, subarachnoid hemorrhage may constitute an important exception to current restrictive transfusion practices, wherein raising hemoglobin could reduce the risk of ischemia in a critically hypoperfused organ...
February 6, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169349/dynamic-hub-load-predicts-cognitive-decline-after-resective-neurosurgery
#12
Ellen W S Carbo, Arjan Hillebrand, Edwin van Dellen, Prejaas Tewarie, Philip C de Witt Hamer, Johannes C Baayen, Martin Klein, Jeroen J G Geurts, Jaap C Reijneveld, Cornelis J Stam, Linda Douw
Resective neurosurgery carries the risk of postoperative cognitive deterioration. The concept of 'hub (over)load', caused by (over)use of the most important brain regions, has been theoretically postulated in relation to symptomatology and neurological disease course, but lacks experimental confirmation. We investigated functional hub load and postsurgical cognitive deterioration in patients undergoing lesion resection. Patients (n = 28) underwent resting-state magnetoencephalography and neuropsychological assessments preoperatively and 1-year after lesion resection...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144849/biocompatible-bacterial-cellulose-membrane-in-dural-defect-repair-of-rat
#13
Frederico de Melo Tavares de Lima, Flávia Cristina Morone Pinto, Belmira Lara da Silveira Andrade-da-Costa, Jaiurte Gomes Martins da Silva, Olávio Campos Júnior, José Lamartine de Andrade Aguiar
Duraplasty is necessary in nearly 30% of all neurological surgeries. Different tissues and materials have been evaluated in dura mater repair or as dural substitutes in neurosurgery. The aim was to evaluate the biocompatibility of the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes, produced from sugarcane molasses, for dural defect repair in rats. Forty adults males Wistar rats divided into two groups: a control (ePTFE) and an experimental (BC). Bilateral frontoparietal craniectomy was performed, and a dural defect was created...
March 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131534/the-first-sixty-five-craniopharyngioma-operations-in-france
#14
REVIEW
I Castro-Dufourny, R Carrasco, R Prieto, L Barrios, J-M Pascual
Craniopharyngiomas (CPs) are benign epithelial tumors that develop along the hypothalamus-hypophyseal axis and were first described by Jakob Erdheim in 1904. These tumors have represented a challenge for surgeons since the rise of modern neurosurgery. The study of CPs is linked to the development of this surgical discipline in parallel with neuroendocrinology within the French school of neurology, led by Joseph Babinski. For the present study, all CP cases published in the French scientific literature before the development of modern neuroradiology were gathered, and 65 cases that underwent surgical procedures between 1921 and 1973 were selected...
January 25, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127351/brain-hydatid-cyst-with-atypical-symptoms-in-an-adult-a-case-report
#15
Shahnam Baboli, Simin Baboli, Saeed Soleiman Meigooni
Brain hydatid cyst constitutes one of the leading causes of cranial mass in the endemic region, especially among the children. Symptoms of the disease are associated with rising of intracranial pressure and focal neurological deficit. Surgical excision of the cyst is essential to treatment. Here we present a 19 yr-old male livings in Ardabil, northwest of Iran, referred to Neurosurgery Clinic in Khanevadeh University Hospital, Tehran, Iran with a large brain hydatid cyst and atypical symptoms. He was treated by surgical excision of the cyst without any complication...
July 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124435/current-applications-and-limitations-of-surgical-treatments-for-movement-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Paul Krack, Raul Martinez-Fernandez, Marta Del Alamo, Jose A Obeso
Functional neurosurgery for the treatment of both psychiatric and neurological disorders has been performed regularly since the 1940s. However, misuse in the early days and the appearance of effective medical treatments, such as levodopa and neuroleptic drugs, greatly reduced surgical approaches over several decades. The development of a comprehensive model of basal ganglia pathophysiology in the 1990s facilitated the resurgence of functional neurosurgery, mainly for the treatment of levodopa-related motor complications in Parkinson's disease...
January 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120046/music-and-mind-in-memoriam-professor-carlo-alberto-pagni-md-phd-february-13-1931-march-1-2009
#17
Klaus R H von Wild
Carlo Alberto Pagni, born in La Spezia, Italy, on February 13, 1931, was an eminent and respected professor of neurosurgery and chairman of the neurosurgical clinic of the University of Turin from 1980 to 2003. He died on March 1, 2009. As a professor of neurology and neurological surgery he was renowned as an expert on vascular, tumor, and functional neurosurgery. Beyond the Italian Neurosurgical Society, he was the doyen of functional neurosurgery, specializing in motor cortex stimulation for the treatment of focal dystonia, Parkinson's disease, and postictal spasticity and pain...
2017: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119770/lumbar-herniated-disc-spontaneous-regression
#18
Idiris Altun, Kasım Zafer Yüksel
BACKGROUND: Low back pain is a frequent condition that results in substantial disability and causes admission of patients to neurosurgery clinics. To evaluate and present the therapeutic outcomes in lumbar disc hernia (LDH) patients treated by means of a conservative approach, consisting of bed rest and medical therapy. METHODS: This retrospective cohort was carried out in the neurosurgery departments of hospitals in Kahramanmaraş city and 23 patients diagnosed with LDH at the levels of L3-L4, L4-L5 or L5-S1 were enrolled...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108318/response-inhibition-set-shifting-and-complex-executive-function-in-patients-with-chronic-lower-back-pain
#19
Rytis Masiliūnas, Dalia Vitkutė, Edgaras Stankevičius, Vaidas Matijošaitis, Kęstutis Petrikonis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to evaluate how response inhibition, set shifting, and complex executive function (represented by risky decision-making) are altered in chronic lower back pain patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 29 patients with chronic lower back pain (CLBP >6 months) aged 49-69 years and 30 healthy volunteers matched for age, gender, and education were enrolled in a case-control study. The study was conducted in the Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery of Panevėžys Regional Hospital, Lithuania...
January 2, 2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106498/performing-concurrent-operations-in-academic-vascular-neurosurgery-does-not-affect-patient-outcomes
#20
Corinna C Zygourakis, Janelle Lee, Julio Barba, Errol Lobo, Michael T Lawton
OBJECTIVE Concurrent surgeries, also known as "running two rooms" or simultaneous/overlapping operations, have recently come under intense scrutiny. The goal of this study was to evaluate the operative time and outcomes of concurrent versus nonconcurrent vascular neurosurgical procedures. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed 1219 procedures performed by 1 vascular neurosurgeon from 2012 to 2015 at the University of California, San Francisco. Data were collected on patient age, sex, severity of illness, risk of mortality, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status, procedure type, admission type, insurance, transfer source, procedure time, presence of resident or fellow in operating room (OR), number of co-surgeons, estimated blood loss (EBL), concurrent vs nonconcurrent case, severe sepsis, acute respiratory failure, postoperative stroke causing neurological deficit, unplanned return to OR, 30-day mortality, and 30-day unplanned readmission...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
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