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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243467/high-resolution-ct-of-the-lungs-indications-and-diagnosis
#1
Helena Lauri
High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is a method of examination which is more precise than chest 2-rat in the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases of the lung tissue and the airways. Modern CT equipment enables a volume HRCT scan covering the whole lung tissue. HRCT slices can also be constructed from contrast-enhanced CT scans of the chest of the whole body. HRCT of the lungs can be applied to the diagnosis of both acute and more chronic diffuse diseases of the lung tissue and the airways. The best-known indications for HRCT include idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237236/likelihood-of-pulmonary-hypertension-in-patients-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-and-emphysema
#2
Joseph Jacob, Brian J Bartholmai, Srinivasan Rajagopalan, Ronald Karwoski, Arjun Nair, Simon L F Walsh, Joseph Barnett, Gary Cross, Eoin P Judge, Maria Kokosi, Elisabetta Renzoni, Toby M Maher, Athol U Wells
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) have an increased likelihood of pulmonary hypertension (PHT) when compared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients without emphysema. METHODS: Two consecutive IPF populations having undergone transthoracic echocardiography were examined (n = 223 and n = 162). Emphysema and interstitial lung disease (ILD) extent were quantified visually; ILD extent was also quantified by a software tool, CALIPER...
December 13, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229102/clubbing-in-patients-with-fibrotic-interstitial-lung-diseases
#3
M J G van Manen, L C Vermeer, C C Moor, R Vrijenhoeff, J C Grutters, M Veltkamp, M S Wijsenbeek
BACKGROUND: Clubbing is associated with poor prognosis and is variably present in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), but is also seen in other fibrotic interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Little is known about the best methodology to assess clubbing in ILDs and, hence, the prevalence and clinical utility and clinical significance of clubbing. We therefore aimed to evaluate the agreement between different clubbing assessment methods in patients with fibrotic ILDs. Additionally, we assessed the prevalence of clubbing in different fibrotic ILDs and related clubbing to disease severity and quality of life...
November 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222500/long-term-outcomes-in-survivors-of-epidemic-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-infection
#4
Jiajia Chen, Jie Wu, Shaorui Hao, Meifang Yang, Xiaoqing Lu, Xiaoxiao Chen, Lanjuan Li
Patients who survive influenza A (H7N9) virus infection are at risk of physical and psychological complications of lung injury and multi-organ dysfunction. However, there were no prospectively individualized assessments of physiological, functional and quality-of-life measures after hospital discharge. The current study aims to assess the main determinants of functional disability of these patients during the follow-up. Fifty-six influenza A (H7N9) survivors were investigated during the 2-year after discharge from the hospital...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222007/current-concepts-in-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management-of-smoking-related-interstitial-lung-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Anupam Kumar, Sujith V Cherian, Robert Vassallo, Eunhee S Yi, Jay H Ryu
Tobacco exposure results in various changes to the airways and lung parenchyma. While emphysema represents the more common injury pattern, in some individuals, cigarette smoke injures alveolar epithelial and other lung cells resulting in diffuse infiltrates and parenchymal fibrosis. Smoking can trigger interstitial injury patterns mediated via recruitment and inappropriate persistence of myeloid and other immune cells including eosinophils. As our understanding of the role of cigarette smoke constituents in triggering lung injury continues to evolve, so does our recognition of the spectrum of smoking-related interstitial lung changes...
December 5, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219887/short-term-automated-quantification-of-radiologic-changes-in-the-characterization-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-versus-nonspecific-interstitial-pneumonia-and-prediction-of-long-term-survival
#6
Federica De Giacomi, Sushravya Raghunath, Ronald Karwoski, Brian J Bartholmai, Teng Moua
PURPOSE: Fibrotic interstitial lung diseases presenting with nonspecific and overlapping radiologic findings may be difficult to diagnose without surgical biopsy. We hypothesized that baseline quantifiable radiologic features and their short-term interval change may be predictive of underlying histologic diagnosis as well as long-term survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) presenting without honeycombing versus nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty biopsy-confirmed IPF and 20 biopsy-confirmed NSIP patients with available high-resolution chest computed tomography 4 to 24 months apart were studied...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212838/long-term-macrolides-in-diffuse-interstitial-lung-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Paola Faverio, Francesco Bini, Adriano Vaghi, Alberto Pesci
In the present review we provide currently available evidence for the use of macrolides in the treatment of diffuse interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Up to now, research on macrolides has mainly focused on three areas. First, macrolides have shown some promising results in cellular models and case reports as antifibrotic agents, by promoting autophagy and clearance of intracellular protein aggregates and acting as regulators of surfactant homeostasis. Secondly, macrolides have an immunomodulatory effect, which has been applied in some organising pneumonia cases...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212488/identification-of-the-lipid-biomarkers-from-plasma-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-by-lipidomics
#8
Feng Yan, Zhensong Wen, Rui Wang, Wenling Luo, Yufeng Du, Wenjun Wang, Xianyang Chen
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an irreversible interstitial pulmonary disease featured by high mortality, chronic and progressive course, and poor prognosis with unclear etiology. Currently, more studies have been focusing on identifying biomarkers to predict the progression of IPF, such as genes, proteins, and lipids. Lipids comprise diverse classes of molecules and play a critical role in cellular energy storage, structure, and signaling. The role of lipids in respiratory diseases, including cystic fibrosis, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been investigated intensely in the recent years...
December 6, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209910/efficacy-and-safety-of-nintedanib-for-the-treatment-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-an-update
#9
José Antonio Rodríguez-Portal
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a fatal form of progressive fibrosing interstitial pneumonia with limited treatment options. In recent years, its management has been transformed with the approval of two new antifibrotic drugs: nintedanib and pirfenidone. Nintedanib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that efficiently slows idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis progression and has an acceptable tolerability profile. This article reviews new available evidence on the long-term efficacy and safety of nintedanib in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis...
December 5, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208971/association-between-nonspecific-interstitial-pneumonia-and-presence-of-cd20-%C3%A2-b-lymphocytes-within-pulmonary-lymphoid-follicles
#10
Min Peng, Wenze Wang, Ling Qin, Hongrui Liu, Mingwei Qin, Wenjie Zheng, JuHong Shi, Wenbing Xu, Yuanjue Zhu
Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is characterised by interstitial infiltration of lymphocytes and varying amounts of interstitial fibrosis. B cells have been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of NSIP. However, the relationship between B-lymphocyte and the clinical outcomes of NSIP was unclear. In this study, 50 patients with histopathologically confirmed NSIP from Peking Union Medical College Hospital between April 2003 to December 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Using immunohistochemical analyses, CD20+ B cells were counted in the lymphoid follicles, perivascular, interstitial, and peribronchiolar regions of lung tissure...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207437/unfavourable-outcome-of-glucocorticoid-treatment-in-suspected-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#11
Ivo A Wiertz, Wim A Wuyts, Coline H M van Moorsel, Adriane D M Vorselaars, Hendrik W van Es, Matthijs F M van Oosterhout, Jan C Grutters
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The diagnostic classification of 'possible idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (posIPF)' is characterized by a radiological pattern of inconsistent usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan and a UIP pattern in surgical lung biopsy (SLB). The evidence base to guide treatment for patients with posIPF is lacking; the clinician must choose between observation, treatment with immunomodulatory agents or anti-fibrotic agents. METHODS: To evaluate outcomes of immunomodulatory treatment, a multicentre cohort of 59 posIPF patients treated with prednisone was analysed retrospectively...
December 5, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206633/exploration-of-the-muc5b-promoter-variant-and-ild-risk-in-patients-with-autoimmune-myositis
#12
Cheilonda Johnson, Paul Rosen, Thomas Lloyd, Maureen Horton, Lisa Christopher-Stine, Chester V Oddis, Andrew L Mammen, Sonye K Danoff
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is common in patients with autoimmune myositis but factors that determine susceptibility are unknown. Familial and sporadic idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are strongly associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of MUC5B (rs35705950). We sought to determine the relationship between MUC5B polymorphism expression and myositis-ILD. The MUC5B minor allele frequency (MAF) was examined in 402 European American participants; 60 with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), 208 with myositis-ILD, and 134 unaffected controls...
September 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206632/unclassifiable-interstitial-lung-disease-outcome-prediction-using-ct-and-functional-indices
#13
Joseph Jacob, Brian J Bartholmai, Srinivasan Rajagopalan, Ryoko Egashira, Anne Laure Brun, Maria Kokosi, Arjun Nair, Simon L F Walsh, Ronald Karwoski, Andrew G Nicholson, David M Hansell, Athol U Wells
BACKGROUND: Unclassifiable-interstitial lung disease (uILD) represents a heterogeneous collection of pathologies encompassing those fibrosing lung diseases which do not fulfill current diagnostic criteria. We evaluated baseline and longitudinal functional and CT (visual and quantitative computer [CALIPER] analysis) variables to identify outcome predictors in uILD. METHODS: Consecutive patients with uILD on multidisciplinary review (n = 95) had baseline functional (FVC, DLco, CPI [composite physiologic index]) and CT features (visual evaluation: CT pattern, fibrosis extent, honeycombing presence, traction bronchiectasis severity, pulmonary artery (PA) diameter; CALIPER evaluation: fibrosis extent, pulmonary vessel volume (PVV)) examined in univariate and multivariate Cox regression models...
September 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196242/imaging-aspects-of-interstitial-lung-disease-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-literature-review
#14
REVIEW
Alexandra Balbir-Gurman, Ludmila Guralnik, Mordechai Yigla, Yolanda Braun-Moscovici, Emilia Hardak
OBJECTIVE: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a frequent and severe complication of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), resulting in pulmonary fibrosis and respiratory failure (PF). METHODS: Chest computed tomography (CT-c) or high resolution CT (HRCT) is the main modality for assessment of ILD. We performed a systematic literature review on CT-c/HRCT findings in patients with ILD-RA, using the MEDLINE database for the period from 1991 to 2015. RESULTS: Findings on CT-c/HRCT attributed to ILD-RA are variable (ground glass opacities, reticular and nodular pattern, as well as a combined pattern of emphysema and PF)...
November 28, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194717/validity-of-ultrasound-lung-comets-for-assessment-of-the-severity-of-interstitial-pneumonia
#15
Mariko Asano, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Kazuhiro Sato, Yuji Okuda, Sho Sakamoto, Yukiyasu Hasegawa, Kazuhisa Sudo, Masahide Takeda, Masaaki Sano, Satoshi Kibira, Hiroshi Ito
OBJECTIVES: Ultrasound (US) lung comets are often observed in patients with interstitial lung disease or congestive heart failure, but few studies have explored the clinical importance of US lung comets in patients with the former condition. We explored whether the US lung comet number could be used to assess the severity of interstitial pneumonia. METHODS: Forty stable patients with interstitial pneumonia were examined. Lung comets evident on transthoracic US imaging in 12 selected regions of the posterior chest wall were analyzed...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189700/effectiveness-of-support-groups-to-improve-the-quality-of-life-of-people-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-pre-post-test-pilot-study
#16
Daniela Magnani, Graziana Lenoci, Sara Balduzzi, Giovanna Artioli, Paola Ferri
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is an interstitial lung disease, which progressively leads to severe disability and death. The average survival expectancy, ranges from 3 to 5 years from diagnosis, and the available medicines do not lead to healing. The progression of IPF lead to a decline in forced vital capacity (FVC), dyspnea, cough, continuous sleep interruptions, resulting in increased fatigue and deteriorating quality of life (QOL), progressive limitation of daily life activities and social life, with repercussions on psychological and emotional well-being, aggravated by anxiety, loss of sense of self-confidence and depression...
November 30, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187726/expression-of-interleukin-27-il-27-in-the-lower-airways-diseases-increased-levels-of-il-27-in-early-clinical-stages-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-patients
#17
Piotr Kopiński, Tomasz Wandtke, Andrzej Dyczek, Ewelina Wędrowska, Adriana Roży, Tomasz Senderek, Grzegorz Przybylski, Joanna Chorostowska-Wynimko
INTRODUCTION    Interleukin-27, is a cytokine secreted mostly by antigen presenting cells, key for the Th1 cells immune polarization. Its role in interstitial lung diseases (ILD) as well as in lung cancer has been investigated.  OBJECTIVES    Assessment of IL-27 expression in the lower airways of patients with selected ILD and early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).  PATIENTS AND METHODS    IL-27 concentration was examined by ELISA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) supernatants collected from patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis (PS), extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) and I-IIa NSCLC with peripheral localization, as well as in control subjects (n = 14, 30, 12, 14, 16 and 14, respectively)...
November 29, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186838/role-of-micrornas-in-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-pathway-mediated-pulmonary-fibrosis
#18
REVIEW
Hara Kang
Pulmonary fibrosis is the most common form of interstitial lung disease. The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway is extensively involved in the development of pulmonary fibrosis by inducing cell differentiation, migration, invasion, or hyperplastic changes. Accumulating evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) are dysregulated during the initiation of pulmonary fibrosis. miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs functioning as negative regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level...
November 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178216/diagnostic-utility-of-surgical-lung-biopsies-in-elderly-patients-with-indeterminate-interstitial-lung-disease
#19
Laszlo T Vaszar, Brandon T Larsen, Karen L Swanson, Jay H Ryu, Henry D Tazelaar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is increasingly diagnosed by clinical and computed tomography (CT) criteria; however, surgical lung biopsy (SLB) may still be required in patients who lack definite CT features of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). We reviewed a cohort of elderly patients who underwent SLB, to evaluate the benefit of SLB in diagnosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP). METHODS: We searched the pathology records of Mayo Clinic for ambulatory patients at least 75 years old, who underwent SLB between 2000 and 2012 for indeterminate IIP...
November 27, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170036/mucins-mucus-and-goblet-cells
#20
REVIEW
Jonathan Ma, Bruce K Rubin, Judith A Voynow
The respiratory epithelium is lined by mucus, a gel consisting of water, ions, proteins and macromolecules. The major macromolecular components of mucus are the mucin glycoproteins, which are critical for local defense of the airway. There are three classes of mucins in the airways: those that are secreted but do not polymerize (MUC7), those that are secreted and polymerize to form gels (MUC5AC, MUC5B), and those that have transmembrane domains and are cell surface associated (MUC1, MUC4, MUC16, MUC20). The mucins are regulated at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic level, and post-translational modifications play an important role in mucin binding and clearance of microbes and pollutants...
November 20, 2017: Chest
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