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Jes M Sanders, Alexandra B Steverson, Anna E Pawlowski, Daniel Schneider, Chad J Achenbach, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Matthew J Feinstein
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected (HIV+) persons have elevated risks for various manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD). No studies to our knowledge have compared atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL) prevalence and associated characteristics for HIV+ persons and matched uninfected controls. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Persons with diagnoses of HIV receiving care at a large urban academic medical center were frequency-matched 1:2 on age, sex, race, zip code, and clinic location with uninfected persons...
2018: PloS One
Zsolt Zador, Andrew T King, Nophar Geifman
BACKGROUND: Atypical meningiomas are common central nervous system neoplasms with high recurrence rate and poorer prognosis compared to their grade I counterparts. Surgical excision and radiotherapy remains the mainstay therapy but medical treatments are limited. We explore new drug candidates using computational drug repurposing based on the gene expression signature of atypical meningioma tissue with subsequent analysis of drug-generated expression profiles. We further explore possible mechanisms of action for the identified drug candidates using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA)...
2018: PloS One
Wei-Hsin Yuan, Anna Fen-Yau Li, Yi-Hong Chou, Hui-Chen Hsu, Ying-Yuan Chen
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine clinical and ultrasonographic characteristics of male breast tumors. METHODS: The medical records of male patients with breast lesions were retrieved from an electronic medical record database and a pathology database and retrospectively reviewed. A total of 112 men (125 breast masses) with preoperative breast ultrasonography (US) were included (median age, 59.50 years; age range, 15-96 years). Data extracted included patient age, if the lesions were bilateral, palpable, and tender, and the presence of nipple discharge...
2018: PloS One
Xingyu Zhang, Di Chen, Guifeng Xu, Weichun Huang, Xing Wang
Infection by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KP) is a public health challenge worldwide, in particular among children, which was associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There was limited data in pediatric populations, thus this study aimed to investigate molecular epidemiology and drug resistant mechanism of CR-KP strains from pediatric patients in Shanghai, China. A total of 41 clinical CR-KP isolates from sputum, urine, blood or drainage fluid were collected between July 2014 and May 2015 in Shanghai Children's Medical Center...
2018: PloS One
Sally Lindsay, Elaine Cagliostro, Joanne Leck, Winny Shen, Jennifer Stinson
PURPOSE: Many youths with disabilities find it challenging to disclose their medical condition and request workplace accommodations. Our objective was to explore when and how young people with disabilities disclose their condition and request workplace accommodations. METHODS: We conducted 17 in-depth interviews (11 females, six males) with youth with disabilities aged 15-34 (mean age 26). We analyzed our data using an interpretive, qualitative, and thematic approach...
March 20, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Rashi I Mehta, Rupal I Mehta
Hydrophilic polymers are ubiquitously applied as surface coatings on catheters and intravascular medical technologies. Recent clinical literature has heightened awareness on the complication of hydrophilic polymer embolism, the phenomenon wherein polymer coating layers separate from catheter and device surfaces, and may be affiliated with a range of unanticipated adverse reactions. Significant system barriers have limited and delayed reporting on this iatrogenic complication, the full effects of which remain underrecognized by healthcare providers and manufacturers of various branded devices...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
Anisha Garg, Karen B Mulloy
OBJECTIVES: Pilot study incorporating environmental and occupational health (EOH) learning objectives into medical school curriculum using problem based learning approach. METHODS: 184 Case Western Reserve University medical students participated in problem based learning curriculum emphasizing EOH topics. Multiple choice (MCQ), short essay (SEQ), and summative short essay (SSEQ) questions assessed student knowledge. Two rating scale questions and one open-ended question determined student attitudes and confidence...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Abdulaziz Anazi Alshamrani, Sami Al-Shahwan
BACKGROUND: Crouzon syndrome is the most common form of craniosynostosis, and mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 and 3 (FGFR2 and FGFR3) genes are implicated in its pathogenesis. OBSERVATION: A 10-year-old female patient with Crouzon syndrome and congenital glaucoma treated with trabeculectomy and ocular hypotensive medications was examined. The patient had proptosis, exposure keratopathy, megalocornea, thin central corneal thickness, a shallow anterior chamber, mild anterior subcapsular cataract, and a cup-to-disc ratio of 0...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Aine Cafferkey, Elizabeth Coyle, David Greaney, Sinead Harte, Niamh Hayes, Miriam Langdon, Birgitt Straub, Crina Burlacu
BACKGROUND: Simulation-based education is a modern training modality that allows healthcare professionals to develop knowledge and practice skills in a safe learning environment. The College of Anaesthetists of Ireland (CAI) was the first Irish postgraduate medical training body to introduce mandatory simulation training into its curriculum. Extensive quality assurance and improvement data has been collected on all simulation courses to date. AIMS: Describe The College of Anaesthetists of Ireland Simulation Training (CAST) programme and report the analysis of course participants' feedback...
March 20, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Abhinav Jain, Shrey Gandhi, Remya Koshy, Vinod Scaria
Incidental findings in genomic data have been studied in great detail in the recent years, especially from population-scale data sets. However, little is known about the frequency of such findings in ethnic groups, specifically the Middle East, which were not previously covered in global sequencing studies. The availability of whole exome and genome data sets for a highly consanguineous Arab population from Qatar motivated us to explore the incidental findings in this population-scale data. The sequence data of 1005 Qatari individuals were systematically analyzed for incidental genetic variants in the 59 genes suggested by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Alina Dima, Ciprian Jurcut, Anca Manolache, Daniel Vasile Balaban, Alina Popp, Mariana Jinga
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Celiac disease (CD) presents with a wide spectrum of extra-digestive symptoms, including hemorrhagic manifestations. The aim of this review was to conduct an extensive analysis of the hemorrhagic events reported in adult CD patients. METHODS: Case report and review of the literature. Pubmed (MEDLINE) database search from January 1970 onwards was performed using the medical subject headings [MeSH] terms "celiac disease" AND "blood coagulation disorders", "hemorrhage", "hematoma", "hematuria", "hemoptysis", "epistaxis", "hemosiderosis"...
March 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Marius C Florescu, Joseph Runge, John Lof, Elizabeth Stolze, Gretchen Fry, Maurino Flora, George Nio, Kirk W Foster
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is insufficient knowledge about the surgical anatomy and surgical techniques in large animals that can be used to test medical devices designed for human use. We encountered this problem in our study requiring the placement of jugular vein, tunneled, cuffed hemodialysis catheter in 70 kg pigs. Despite the operator's extensive expertise in placing tunneled hemodialysis catheters in humans, the important differences in anatomy made the procedure and choosing the appropriate catheter length challenging...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
Dhanya Lakshmi Narayanan, Shubha R Phadke
Stem cell transplantation and cord blood banking have received much popularity among general public and medical professionals in the recent past. But information about the scientific aspects, its utility and limitations is incomplete amongst laypersons as well as many medical practitioners. Stem cells differ from all other types of cells in the human body because of their ability to multiply in order to self perpetuate and differentiate into specialized cells. Stems cells could be totipotent, multipotent, pluripotent, oligopotent or unipotent depending on the type of cells that can arise or differentiate from them...
March 20, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Martin Mielke
Clinically relevant infections are the primary indication for the use of antimicrobial agents in human medicine. Consequently, the prevention of infections is the fundament of all measures to rationally reduce the use of antibiotics. A prevented infection must not be treated. For the prevention of several community-acquired infections, vaccines are available. In addition, several infections may be prevented on the basis of knowledge and responsible behavior. However, the prevention of nosocomial infections depends mainly on the responsibility of third parties in the context of medical procedures...
March 19, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Nicola Erdsack, Sophy R McCully Phillips, Sentiel A Rommel, D Ann Pabst, William A McLellan, John E Reynolds
Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) possess an unusual suite of adaptations to accommodate both a fully aquatic lifestyle and an herbivorous diet, including a low metabolic rate and a very limited thermoneutral zone. Their relatively high lower critical temperature of around 20 °C suggests strong sensitivity to cold, thereby limiting their distribution to tropical and subtropical waters. "Cold stress syndrome" affects and kills Florida manatees every year during intense or prolonged cold weather, posing one of the major threats to manatees...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Allison Brown, Aditya Nidumolu, Alexandra Stanhope, Justin Koh, Matthew Greenway, Lawrence Grierson
BACKGROUND: Quality Improvement (QI) training for health professionals is essential to strengthen health systems. However, QI training during medical school is constrained by students' lack of contextual understanding of the health system and an already saturated medical curriculum. The Program for Improvement in Medical Education (PRIME), an extracurricular offered at the Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicineat McMaster University (Hamilton, Canada), addresses these obstacles by having first-year medical students engage in QI by identifying opportunities for improvement within their own education...
March 19, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
Margit Dueholm
The aim of the present review is to give a comprehensive overview of minimal invasive treatment options and suggest a minimally invasive approach in women with adenomyosis (AD). A review of relevant literature on medical and surgical treatment options is performed. Surgical options include endometrial ablation, hysteroscopic endometrial and adenomyoma resection, laparoscopic resection of AD, high-intensity focused ultrasonography (HIFU), and uterine artery embolization (UAE). This review summarizes treatment strategies for the management of AD and highlights the present lack of knowledge, which makes suggestions of evidence-based treatment difficult...
February 15, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Geoffrey A Anderson, Peter Kayima, Lenka Ilcisin, Noralis Portal Benitez, Katherine H Albutt, Susan M Briggs, Deepika Nehra
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this project was to create a multitiered trauma training curriculum that was designed specifically for the low-resource setting. DESIGN: We developed 2 courses designed to teach principles and skills necessary for trauma care. The first course, "Emergency Ward Management of Trauma (EWMT)," is designed to teach interns the initial assessment and stabilization of trauma patients in the emergency ward. The second course for mid-level surgical residents, "Surgical Techniques and Repairs in Trauma for the Low-resource Environment" (STaRTLE), is a cadaver-based operative trauma course designed to teach surgical exposures and techniques...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Valérie Zimmerlé, Emeline Laurent, Valérie Tauveron, Annabel Maruani, Emmanuelle Le Bidre, Mahtab Samimi, Laurent Machet
INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous cancers are very common, easily visible on skin. The general practitioner (GP) is in the front line to manage the lesions. He has to recognize malignancy and refer most often to the specialist for excision, or consider that the lesion is benign and in ambiguous cases, offer clinical monitoring. The current low medical density in the Centre Val de Loire area makes access to general practitioners (GP) and dermatologists harder. The aim of this study was to evaluate GPs' everyday practice in cutaneous cancers screening in general, and particularly in melanoma screening, in a rural region of France...
March 16, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Gad Baneth, Gilad Segev, Michal Mazaki-Tovi, Hila Chen, Sharon Kuzi
BACKGROUND: Renal disease is considered the main cause of natural mortality in dogs with canine leishmaniosis. The pathological mechanisms associated with kidney injury in canine leishmaniosis include immune complex glomerulonephritis, tubulointerstitial nephritis and occasionally renal amyloidosis. Proteinuria is a frequent finding in canine leishmaniosis and its quantification by the urine protein-creatinine ratio (UPC) is an important parameter in the staging of canine lesihmaniosis as presented by the LeishVet group...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
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