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Anatomical segmentation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087602/novel-application-of-3d-contrast-enhanced-cmr-to-define-fibrotic-structure-of-the-human-sinoatrial-node-in-vivo
#1
Thomas A Csepe, Jichao Zhao, Lidiya V Sul, Yufeng Wang, Brian J Hansen, Ning Li, Anthony J Ignozzi, Anna Bratasz, Kimerly A Powell, Ahmet Kilic, Peter J Mohler, Paul M L Janssen, John D Hummel, Orlando P Simonetti, Vadim V Fedorov
AIMS: The adult human sinoatrial node (SAN) has a specialized fibrotic intramural structure (35-55% fibrotic tissue) that provides mechanical and electrical protection from the surrounding atria. We hypothesize that late gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) can be applied to define the fibrotic human SAN structure in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: LGE-CMR atrial scans of healthy volunteers (n olu, 23-52 y.o.) using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system with a spatial resolution of 1...
January 13, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087439/cerebrovascular-heterogeneity-and-neuronal-excitability
#2
REVIEW
Laura Librizzi, Marco de Curtis, Damir Janigro, Leonie Runtz, Frederic deBock, Emmanuel L Barbier, Nicola Marchi
The cerebral vasculature is a complex tridimensional network of arterial and venous vessels which are anatomically in proximity of and functionally coupled to neurons. Depending on the cellular composition of the vascular wall and its anatomical arrangement, cerebral vessels control regional blood flow, define interstitial homeostasis or cerebrospinal fluid circulation and influence immune cell patrolling. Pathological deviations from these functions promote or are a consequence of brain diseases, directly impacting neuronal firing...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086965/probabilistic-liver-atlas-construction
#3
Esther Dura, Juan Domingo, Guillermo Ayala, Luis Marti-Bonmati, E Goceri
BACKGROUND: Anatomical atlases are 3D volumes or shapes representing an organ or structure of the human body. They contain either the prototypical shape of the object of interest together with other shapes representing its statistical variations (statistical atlas) or a probability map of belonging to the object (probabilistic atlas). Probabilistic atlases are mostly built with simple estimations only involving the data at each spatial location. RESULTS: A new method for probabilistic atlas construction that uses a generalized linear model is proposed...
January 13, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078674/wilsonosiphonia-gen-nov-rhodomelaceae-rhodophyta-based-on-molecular-and-morpho-anatomical-characters
#4
Danilo E Bustamante, Boo Yeon Won, Kathy Ann Miller, Tae Oh Cho
Morphological, anatomical, and molecular sequence data were used to assess the establishment and phylogenetic position of the genus Wilsonosiphonia gen. nov. Phylogenies based on rbcL and concatenated rbcL and cox1 loci support recognition of Wilsonosiphonia gen. nov., sister to Herposiphonia. Diagnostic features for Wilsonosiphonia are rhizoids located at distal ends of pericentral cells and taproot-shaped multicellular tips of rhizoids. Wilsonosiphonia includes three species with diagnostic rbcL and cox1 sequences, W...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073368/advanced-knee-structure-analysis-aksa-a-comparison-of-bone-mineral-density-and-trabecular-texture-measurements-using-computed-tomography-and-high-resolution-peripheral-quantitative-computed-tomography-of-human-knee-cadavers
#5
Torsten Lowitz, Oleg Museyko, Valérie Bousson, Christine Chappard, Liess Laouisset, Jean-Denis Laredo, Klaus Engelke
BACKGROUND: A change of loading conditions in the knee causes changes in the subchondral bone and may be a cause of osteoarthritis (OA). However, quantification of trabecular architecture in vivo is difficult due to the limiting spatial resolution of the imaging equipment; one approach is the use of texture parameters. In previous studies, we have used digital models to simulate changes of subchondral bone architecture under OA progression. One major result was that, using computed tomography (CT) images, subchondral bone mineral density (BMD) in combination with anisotropy and global homogeneity could characterize this progression...
January 10, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073316/clinical-implications-of-the-anatomical-variation-of-deep-venous-thrombosis
#6
Ayman El-Menyar, Mohammad Asim, Gaby Jabbour, Hassan Al-Thani
Introduction Little is known about the anatomic variation and its implication in patients with lower limb deep venous thrombosis (DVT). We studied the clinical presentation, site of thrombosis and risk factors based on the anatomic distribution of lower limb DVT. Methods A retrospective analysis of clinically suspected DVT cases was conducted between 2008 and 2012. DVT was categorized by the location of the thrombosed segment and limb involved. The DVT anatomic segments were assessed according to left-to-right ratio, predisposing factors and clinical presentations...
January 1, 2017: Phlebology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072805/anatomical-variants-of-the-pudendal-nerve-observed-during-a-transgluteal-surgical-approach-in-a-population-of-patients-with-pudendal-neuralgia
#7
Stephane Ploteau, Marie-Aimee Perrouin-Verbe, Jean-Jacques Labat, Thibault Riant, Amelie Levesque, Roger Robert
BACKGROUND: Several studies have described the course and anatomical relations of the pudendal nerve. Several surgical nerve decompression techniques have been described, but only the transgluteal approach has been validated by a prospective randomized clinical trial. The purpose of this study was to describe the course of the nerve and its variants in a population of patients with pudendal neuralgia in order to guide the surgeon in the choice of surgical approach for pudendal nerve decompression...
January 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072386/main-effects-and-interactions-of-cerebral-hemispheres-gender-and-age-in-the-calculation-of-volumes-and-asymmetries-of-selected-structures-of-episodic-memory
#8
Rocio Ramirez-Carmona, Haydee Guadalupe Garcia-Lazaro, Brenda Dominguez-Corrales, Erika Aguilar-Castañeda, Ernesto Roldan-Valadez
The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of anatomical (cerebral hemisphere) and demographic (age and gender) variables on the gray matter (GM) volumes and volumetric asymmetry indices (VAIs) of selected structures involved in episodic memory. A cross-sectional study was performed in 47 healthy volunteers. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed similar IQs across the sample. Using SPM-based software, brain segmentation, labeling and volume measurements of the hippocampus, amygdala, middle temporal gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus were performed in each cerebral hemisphere...
October 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067202/pulmonary-fibrosis-tissue-characterization-using-late-enhanced-mri-compared-with-unenhanced-anatomic-high-resolution-ct
#9
Lisa P Lavelle, Darragh Brady, Sinead McEvoy, David Murphy, Brian Gibney, Annika Gallagher, Marcus Butler, Fionnula Shortt, Marie McMullen, Aurelie Fabre, David A Lynch, Michael P Keane, Jonathan D Dodd
PURPOSE: We aimed to prospectively evaluate anatomic chest computed tomography (CT) with tissue characterization late gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of pulmonary fibrosis (PF). METHODS: Twenty patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and twelve control patients underwent late-enhanced MRI and high-resolution CT. Tissue characterization of PF was depicted using a segmented inversion-recovery turbo low-angle shot MRI sequence...
January 9, 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066674/three-dimensional-computed-tomography-bronchography-and-angiography-in-the-preoperative-evaluation-of-thoracoscopic-segmentectomy-and-subsegmentectomy
#10
REVIEW
Wei-Bing Wu, Xin-Feng Xu, Wei Wen, Jing Xu, Quan Zhu, Xiang-Long Pan, Yang Xia, Liang Chen
Thoracoscopic pulmonary segmentectomy is technically meticulous due to the complicated anatomical variations of segmental bronchus and vessels. Currently three dimensional-computed tomography angiography (3D-CTA) could only meet the simple requirements of segmentectomy. Our center developed a software for reconstruction, "deepinsight", which could effectively solve some key technical problems. Preoperative three-dimensional computed tomography bronchography and angiography (3D-CTBA) could reveal the anatomical structures and improve the accuracy of operation...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063366/white-matter-lesions-relate-to-tract-specific-reductions-in-functional-connectivity
#11
Carolyn D Langen, Hazel I Zonneveld, Tonya White, Wyke Huizinga, Lotte G M Cremers, Marius de Groot, Mohammad Arfan Ikram, Wiro J Niessen, Meike W Vernooij
White matter lesions play a role in cognitive decline and dementia. One presumed pathway is through disconnection of functional networks. Little is known about location-specific effects of lesions on functional connectivity. This study examined location-specific effects within anatomically-defined white matter tracts in 1584 participants of the Rotterdam Study, aged 50-95. Tracts were delineated from diffusion magnetic resonance images using probabilistic tractography. Lesions were segmented on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images...
December 14, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062679/posterior-uniportal-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery-for-resection-of-the-apical-segment-of-the-right-lower-lobe-followed-by-completion-lobectomy
#12
Davor Stamenovic, Antje Messerschmidt
Uniportal thoracoscopic resections offer less pain and better cosmetic results. They are usually performed through an antero-lateral incision. Posterior uniportal approach has not been described yet. A 65-year-old female was admitted to our clinic for the treatment of an adenocarcinoma, located in the apical segment of the right lower lobe. Owing to the ideal location and size, anatomical segment resection and radical lymphadenectomy was planned. Fissureless video-assisted thoracoscopic resection of the apical segment of the right lower lobe, using a uniportal posterior approach was performed, followed by mediastinal lymphadenectomy...
January 6, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058452/the-tuber-cinereum-as-a-circumventricular-organ-an-anatomical-study-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#13
Satoshi Tsutsumi, Hideo Ono, Yukimasa Yasumoto
PURPOSE: The tuber cinereum (TC) comprises the hypothalamic gray matter that forms the anterior portion of the third ventricle floor. However, since it has been rarely documented in previous neuroimaging investigations, the aim of the current study was to explore the morphology of the TC using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Ninety-two patients were enrolled in this study. Following initial examination with conventional MRI sequences, a contrast study using intravenous gadolinium injection was performed in thin-sliced sections...
January 5, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057282/culprit-vessel-versus-multivessel-versus-in-hospital-staged-intervention-for-patients-with-st-segment-elevation-myocardial%C3%A2-infarction-and-multivessel-disease-stratified-analyses-in-high-risk-patient-groups-and-anatomic%C3%A2-subsets-of-nonculprit-disease
#14
M Bilal Iqbal, Imad J Nadra, Lillian Ding, Anthony Fung, Eve Aymong, Albert W Chan, Steven Hodge, Anthony Della Siega, Simon D Robinson
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated revascularization strategies for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and multivessel disease. BACKGROUND: In patients with STEMI and multivessel disease, it is unclear whether multivessel intervention (MVI), culprit vessel intervention (CVI) only (CVI-O) or CVI with staged revascularization (CVI-S) is associated with improved outcomes. Whether MVI at primary percutaneous coronary intervention may benefit specific patient groups is unclear...
January 9, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057275/anatomic-suitability-for-transcaval-access%C3%A2-based-on-computed-tomography
#15
REVIEW
Robert J Lederman, Adam B Greenbaum, Toby Rogers, Jaffar M Khan, Melissa Fusari, Marcus Y Chen
Transcaval access has been used successfully for over 200 transcatheter aortic valve replacements, large-bore percutaneous left ventricular assist devices, and thoracic endovascular aortic aneurysm repairs. This review teaches how to plan transcaval access and closure based on computed tomography. The main planning goals are to: 1) identify calcium-free crossing targets in the abdominal aorta along with optimal fluoroscopic projection angles and level with respect to lumbar vertebrae; 2) identify obstacles such as interposed bowel or pedunculated aortic atheroma; 3) plan covered stent bailout; and 4) identify jeopardized vascular branches such as renal arteries that might be obstructed by bailout covered stents if employed...
January 9, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055830/stratified-decision-forests-for-accurate-anatomical-landmark-localization-in-cardiac-images
#16
Ozan Oktay, Wenjia Bai, Ricardo Guerrero, Martin Rajchl, Antonio de Marvao, Declan P O'Regan, Stuart A Cook, Mattias P Heinrich, Ben Glocker, Daniel Rueckert
Accurate localization of anatomical landmarks is an important step in medical imaging, as it provides useful prior information for subsequent image analysis and acquisition methods. It is particularly useful for initialization of automatic image analysis tools (e.g. segmentation and registration) and detection of scan planes for automated image acquisition. Landmark localization has been commonly performed using learning based approaches, such as classifier and/or regressor models. However, trained models may not generalize well in heterogeneous datasets when the images contain large differences due to size, pose and shape variations of organs...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053539/complex-neurological-symptoms-in-bilateral-thalamic-stroke-due-to-percheron-artery-occlusion
#17
Paola Caruso, Paolo Manganotti, Rita Moretti
The artery of Percheron is a rare anatomical variant where a single thalamic perforating artery arises from the proximal posterior cerebral artery (P1 segment) between the basilar artery and the posterior communicating artery and supplies the rostral mesencephalon and both paramedian territories of the thalami. Almost one-third of human brains present this variant. Occlusion of the artery of Percheron mostly results in a bilateral medial thalamic infarction, which usually manifests with altered consciousness (including coma), vertical gaze paresis, and cognitive disturbance...
2017: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050833/vascular-morphodynamics-during-secondary-growth
#18
Pierre Barbier de Reuille, Laura Ragni
Quantification of vascular morphodynamics during secondary growth has been hampered by the scale of the process. Even in the tiny model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the xylem can include more than 2000 cells in a single cross section, rendering manual counting impractical. Moreover, due to its deep location, xylem is an inaccessible tissue, limiting live imaging. A novel method to visualize and measure secondary growth progression has been proposed: "the Quantitative Histology" approach. This method is based on a detailed anatomical atlas, and image segmentation coupled with machine learning to automatically extract cell shapes and identify cell type...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048919/su-g-jep3-05-geometry-based-transperineal-ultrasound-probe-positioning-for-image-guided-radiotherapy
#19
S Camps, F Verhaegen, P de With, D Fontanarosa
PURPOSE: The use of ultrasound (US) imaging in radiotherapy is not widespread, primarily due to the need for skilled operators performing the scans. Automation of probe positioning has the potential to remove this need and minimize operator dependence. We introduce an algorithm for obtaining a US probe position that allows good anatomical structure visualization based on clinical requirements. The first application is on 4D transperineal US images of prostate cancer patients. METHODS: The algorithm calculates the probe position and orientation using anatomical information provided by a reference CT scan, always available in radiotherapy workflows...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048863/su-f-j-105-towards-a-novel-treatment-planning-pipeline-delivering-pareto-optimal-plans-while-enabling-inter-and-intrafraction-plan-adaptation
#20
C Kontaxis, S Breedveld, G Bol, A Sharfo, B Heijmen, J Lagendijk, B Raaymakers
PURPOSE: To develop a new IMRT treatment planning methodology suitable for the new generation of MR-linear accelerator machines. The pipeline is able to deliver Pareto-optimal plans and can be utilized for conventional treatments as well as for inter- and intrafraction plan adaptation based on real-time MR-data. METHODS: A Pareto-optimal plan is generated using the automated multicriterial optimization approach Erasmus-iCycle. The resulting dose distribution is used as input to the second part of the pipeline, an iterative process which generates deliverable segments that target the latest anatomical state and gradually converges to the prescribed dose...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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