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Visceral segmentation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658780/inter-and-intraobserver-variability-of-an-anatomical-landmark-based-manual-segmentation-method-by-mri-for-the-assessment-of-skeletal-muscle-fat-content-and-area-in-subjects-from-the-general-population
#1
Lena Sophie Kiefer, Jana Fabian, Roberto Lorbeer, Jürgen Machann, Corinna Storz, Mareen Sarah Kraus, Elke Wintermeyer, Christopher L Schlett, Frank Roemer, Konstantin Nikolaou, Annette Peters, Fabian Bamberg
OBJECTIVES: Changes in skeletal muscle composition, such as fat content and mass, may exert unique metabolic and musculoskeletal risks; however, the reproducibility of their assessment is unknown. We determined the variability of the assessment of skeletal muscle fat content and area by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a population-based sample. METHODS: A random sample from a prospective, community-based cohort study (KORA-FF4) was included. Skeletal muscle fat content was quantified as proton-density fat-fraction (PDFF) and area as cross-sectional area (CSA) in multi-echo Dixon sequences (TR 8...
April 16, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656048/trunk-muscle-quality-assessed-by-computed-tomography-association-with-adiposity-indices-and-glucose-tolerance-in-men
#2
Alexandre Maltais, Natalie Alméras, Isabelle Lemieux, Angelo Tremblay, Jean Bergeron, Paul Poirier, Jean-Pierre Després
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Thigh muscle attenuation measured by computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be a reliable and useful index of skeletal muscle fat infiltration. Thigh muscle fat content assessed by CT has been linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes and is a correlate of insulin resistance in sedentary individuals. However, as measurement of mid-thigh fat content requires the assessment of another region of interest beyond the usual abdominal scan required to measure levels of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, this study aimed at testing the hypothesis that skeletal muscle fat measured from a single abdominal scan (L4 -L5 ) would also provide information relevant to the estimation of muscle fat infiltration as it relates to cardiometabolic risk...
April 12, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622443/pericardial-and-visceral-but-not-total-body-fat-are-related-to-global-coronary-and-extra-coronary-atherosclerotic-plaque-burden
#3
Gaston A Rodriguez-Granillo, Exequiel Reynoso, Carlos Capunay, Jimena Carpio, Patricia Carrascosa
BACKGROUND: To explore the relationship between coronary and extra-coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden with total and regional fat depots among patients undergoing ECG-gated aortic computed tomography angiography (CTA). METHODS: The subjects of this study comprised a cohort of consecutive patients who underwent ECG-gated thoracoabdominal CTA. We assessed the number of coronary segments with plaques (segment-involvement score, SIS); and the extra-coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden, comprising the aorta and supra-aortic trunks, iliofemoral arteries, and visceral arteries (extra-coronary SS)...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595556/histopathology-of-exfoliation-syndrome
#4
Tero T Kivelä
Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is characterized by light and electron microscopy by age-dependent gradual accumulation of whitish material of largely unknown composition and origin along both anterior and posterior chambers and widely within the iris stroma. These deposits can be fairly specifically labeled with selected antibodies and lectins. Immunohistochemistry shows that intraocular exfioliation deposits share antigens with the microfibrillar elastic fiber system and several basement membrane components, including carbohydrate epitopes on glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, and cell adhesion molecules...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579315/co-expression-of-%C3%AE-and-%C3%A2-opioid-receptors-by-mouse-colonic-nociceptors
#5
Raquel Guerrero-Alba, Eduardo Emmanuel Valdez-Morales, Nestor Nivardo Jiménez-Vargas, Romke Bron, Daniel Poole, David Reed, Joel Castro, Melissa Campaniello, Patrick A Hughes, Stuart M Brierley, Nigel Bunnett, Alan E Lomax, Stephen Vanner
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To better understand opioid signaling in visceral nociceptors, we examined the expression and selective activation of mu (MOR) and delta opioid receptors (DOR) by dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons innervating the mouse colon. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: DRG neurons projecting to the colon were identified by retrograde tracing. DOR-GFP reporter mice, in situ hybridization, single-cell RT-PCR, and MOR-specific antibodies were used to characterize expression of MOR and DOR...
March 26, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576279/prognostic-factors-and-survival-after-surgical-resection-of-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumor-with-validation-of-established-and-modified-staging-systems
#6
Nikolaos Benetatos, James Hodson, Ravi Marudanayagam, Robert P Sutcliffe, John R Isaac, John Ayuk, Tahir Shah, Keith J Roberts
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) display wide heterogeneity with highly variable prognosis. This study aimed to identify variables related to survival after surgical resection of PNET. METHODS: A total of 143 patients were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Patient characteristics were analyzed and prognostic factors for overall survival and progression-free survival were evaluated. The WHO, ENETS and AJCC scoring systems were applied to the cohort, and their ability to predict patient outcomes were compared...
March 6, 2018: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565651/quantitative-mri-evaluation-of-whole-abdomen-adipose-tissue-volumes-in-healthy-volunteers-validation-of-technique-and-implications-for-clinical-studies
#7
Matthew Marzetti, Tracy Brunton, Laura McCreight, Ewan Pearson, Stephen Docherty, Stephen J Gandy
OBJECTIVE: To explore "whole abdomen" MRI methods for quantifying adipose tissue volumes and to establish associations with body mass index (BMI) and measurement reproducibility - relative to existing "partial abdomen" methods. METHODS: Fifteen healthy volunteers were scanned on a 3.0T MRI scanner using a double-echo three-point-Dixon gradient echo sequence. Whole abdomen volumes were acquired via three separate scans ("supine 1", "supine 2" and "prone")...
March 22, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558292/synergy-of-sex-differences-in-visceral-fat-measured-with-ct-and-tumor-metabolism-helps-predict-overall-survival-in-patients-with-renal-cell-carcinoma
#8
Gerard K Nguyen, Vincent M Mellnick, Aldrin Kay-Yuen Yim, Amber Salter, Joseph E Ippolito
Purpose To determine if sex differences in abdominal visceral fat composition, measured by using computed tomography (CT), and tumor glucose metabolism, measured by gene expression, can help predict outcomes in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Materials and Methods This retrospective cohort study included 222 patients with clear cell RCC from The Cancer Imaging Atlas. By using CT, body fat was segmented into subcutaneous fat and visceral fat areas (VFAs) and normalized to total fat to obtain the relative VFA (rVFA) and relative subcutaneous fat area...
March 20, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557587/fenestrated-endovascular-aortic-repair-and-clinical-trial-devices-for-complex-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms
#9
Clayton J Brinster, Ross Milner
Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) has revolutionized the treatment of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), with consistently low reported perioperative morbidity and mortality. Universal applicability of EVAR to treat AAA is hindered by several specific anatomic constraints, however, and many patients cannot be treated with commercially available stent grafts within the device specific instructions for use. Treatment of these complex pararenal aneurysms is increasingly accomplished by extension of EVAR into the visceral segment of the abdominal aorta with branches or fenestrations that allow perfusion of the visceral and renal arteries...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557586/flexible-robotic-catheters-in-the-visceral-segment-of-the-aorta-advantages-and-limitations
#10
Mimi M Li, Mohamad S Hamady, Colin D Bicknell, Celia V Riga
Flexible robotic catheters are an emerging technology which provide an elegant solution to the challenges of conventional endovascular intervention. Originally developed for interventional cardiology and electrophysiology procedures, remotely steerable robotic catheters such as the Magellan system enable greater precision and enhanced stability during target vessel navigation. These technical advantages facilitate improved treatment of disease in the arterial tree, as well as allowing execution of otherwise unfeasible procedures...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557216/fully-automated-segmentation-and-quantification-of-visceral-and-subcutaneous-fat-at-abdominal-ct-application-to-a-longitudinal-adult-screening-cohort
#11
Scott J Lee, Jianmin Liu, Jianhua Yao, Andrew Kanarek, Ronald M Summers, Perry J Pickhardt
OBJECTIVE: To investigate a fully-automated CT-based adiposity tool, applying it to a longitudinal adult screening cohort. METHODS: A validated automated adipose tissue segmentation algorithm was applied to non-contrast abdominal CT scans in 8852 consecutive asymptomatic adults (mean age, 57.1 years; 3926M/4926F) undergoing colonography screening. The tool was also applied to follow-up CT scans in a subset of 1584 individuals undergoing longitudinal surveillance (mean interval, 5...
March 20, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503006/percutaneous-axillary-artery-access-for-fenestrated-and-branched-thoracoabdominal-endovascular-repair
#12
Luca Bertoglio, Daniele Mascia, Tommaso Cambiaghi, Andrea Kahlberg, Germano Melissano, Roberto Chiesa
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of upper extremity access (UEA) with percutaneous closure of the axillary artery (AxA) during endovascular treatment of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms with fenestrated and branched endografts. METHODS: Between January 2014 and 2017, 34 out of 37 patients (92%) required UEA during a staged branched and fenestrated endovascular approach. A percutaneous AxA (pAxA) approach was used in 14 consecutive patients (41%) with the off-label use of two Perclose ProGlide (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, Calif) devices...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501838/adipose-tissue-extrinsic-factor-obesity-induced-inflammation-and-the-role-of-the-visceral-lymph-node
#13
REVIEW
Aaron M Magnuson, Josephine K Fouts, Daniel P Regan, Andrea D Booth, Steve W Dow, Michelle T Foster
Obesity-related adverse health consequences occur predominately in individuals with upper body fat distribution commonly associated with increased central adiposity. Visceral adipose tissue accumulation is described to be the greatest driver of obesity-induced inflammation, however evidence also supports that the intestines fundamentally contribute to the development of obesity-induced metabolic disease. The visceral adipose depot shares the same vasculature and lymph drainage as the small intestine. We hypothesize that the visceral lymph node, which drains adipose tissue and the gastrointestinal tract, is central to the exacerbation of systemic pro-inflammation...
March 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482890/-endovascular-repair-of-the-thoracic-aorta
#14
Ludovic Canaud, Pierre Alric
Degenerative aneurysms of the thoracic aorta are increasing in prevalence. The recognition of the decreased morbidity of this approach compared with open repair was readily apparent, as it avoided left thoracotomy, aortic cross-clamping, and left heart bypass. Repair of isolated descending thoracic aortic aneurysms using stent grafts was introduced in 1995, and in an anatomically suitable subgroup of patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm, repair with endovascular stent graft provides favorable outcomes, with decreased perioperative morbidity and mortality relative to open repair...
February 23, 2018: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478789/-thoracoabdominal-aneurysms
#15
Raphael Soler, Aurelien Vallee, Dominique Fabre, Stéphan Haulon
Endovascular treatment of thoracoabdominal aneurysms: what's new? Thoracoabdominal aneurysms (T-AAA) are aortic aneurysms that involve both the thoracic and abdominal segments of the aorta and its associated visceral branches. Although the first successful open repair was reported over 50 years ago, the risks of treatment remain considerable. As the first generations of devices available for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) were relatively simple tubes or bifurcated grafts, initial attempts to extend the benefits of EVAR to patients with T-AAA lead to "hybrid solution"...
February 22, 2018: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462037/the-free-hand-technique-for-s2-alar-iliac-screw-placement-a-safe-and-effective-method-for-sacropelvic-fixation-in-adult-spinal-deformity
#16
Jamal N Shillingford, Joseph L Laratta, Lee A Tan, Nana O Sarpong, James D Lin, Charla R Fischer, Ronald A Lehman, Yongjung J Kim, Lawrence G Lenke
BACKGROUND: Spinopelvic fixation is an integral part of achieving solid fusion across the lumbosacral junction, especially in deformity procedures requiring substantial correction or long-segment constructs. Traditional S2-alar-iliac (S2AI) screw-placement techniques utilize fluoroscopy, increasing operative time and radiation exposure to the patient and surgeon. We describe a novel free-hand technique for S2AI screw placement in patients with adult spinal deformity. METHODS: We reviewed the records of 45 consecutive patients who underwent spinopelvic fixation performed with use of S2AI screws by the senior surgeon and various fellows or residents over a 12-month period (2015 to 2016)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444580/-our-experience-with-left-sided-retroperitoneal-approach-to-resection-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#17
B Čertík, V Třeška, J Moláček, M Čechura, R Šulc, K Houdek
INTRODUCTION: At most vascular surgery departments, transperitoneal approach predominates in resections of the aortic aneurysms. For difficult reconstructions of the aorta in the visceral segment, a left flank retroperitoneal approach is used most frequently. METHOD: The authors retrospectively evaluate the left retroperitoneal approach in the management of abdominal aortic aneurysms during a 10-year period. From the total number of 445 operated patients, the left-sided retroperitoneal approach was used in 23 cases...
2018: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432979/a-novel-multi-atlas-strategy-with-dense-deformation-field-reconstruction-for-abdominal-and-thoracic-multi-organ-segmentation-from-computed-tomography
#18
Bruno Oliveira, Sandro Queirós, Pedro Morais, Helena R Torres, João Gomes-Fonseca, Jaime C Fonseca, João L Vilaça
Anatomical evaluation of multiple abdominal and thoracic organs is generally performed with computed tomography images. Owing to the large field-of-view of these images, automatic segmentation strategies are typically required, facilitating the clinical evaluation. Multi-atlas segmentation (MAS) strategies have been widely used with this process, requiring multiple alignments between the target image and the set of known datasets, and subsequently fusing the alignment results to obtain the final segmentation...
February 2, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349408/infolding-of-fenestrated-endovascular-stent-graft
#19
Jason G E Zelt, Prasad Jetty, Adnan Hadziomerovic, Sudhir Nagpal
We report a case of infolding of a fenestrated stent graft involving the visceral vessel segment after a juxtarenal abdominal aorta aneurysm repair. The patient remains free of any significant endoleak, and the aortic sac has shown regression. The patient remains asymptomatic, with no abdominal pain, with normal renal function, and without ischemic limb complications. We hypothesize that significant graft oversizing (20%-30%) with asymmetric engineering of the diameter-reducing ties may have contributed to the infolding...
September 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery Cases and Innovative Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327566/upper-extremity-access-options-for-complex-endovascular-aortic-interventions
#20
Kedar S Lavingia, Anahita Dua, Jordan R Stern
The advancement of endovascular therapy has led to minimally invasive solutions to increasingly complex aortic pathology, including thoracoabdominal aneurysms and those involving the visceral segment. Upper extremity access is beneficial in a variety of these complex interventions, and may be absolutely required for certain procedures such as placement of parallel chimney grafts. Traditionally, the brachial artery has been the primary access site on the arm, using either a percutaneous or open approach. Brachial access is safe and effective, and remains suitable for the majority of clinical situations...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
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