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Visceral segmentation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205485/combination-of-increased-visceral-fat-and-long-segment-involvement-development-and-validation-of-an-updated-imaging-marker-for-differentiating-crohn-s-disease-from-intestinal-tuberculosis
#1
Saurabh Kedia, K S Madhusudhan, Raju Sharma, Sawan Bopanna, Dawesh P Yadav, Sandeep Goyal, Saransh Jain, Prasenjit Das, Siddhartha Dattagupta, Govind Makharia, Vineet Ahuja
BACKGROUND: Computed tomographic(CT) features(long segment, ileocaecal area involvement and lymph nodes>1cm) have demonstrated good specificity but poor sensitivity, while visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio on CT(VF/SC>0.63) has moderate sensitivity and specificity in differentiating Crohn's disease(CD) and intestinal tuberculosis(ITB). AIM: To develop and validate an updated model incorporating CT features and VF/SC to improve the diagnostic accuracy of imaging in differentiating CD/ITB...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197607/inflammatory-response-modulation-through-a-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-during-surgically-induced-visceral-ischemia-in-an-animal-model
#2
Bianca Pane, Valerio Gazzola, Giovanni Spinella, Paola Bagnato, Federica Grillo, Valerio Gaetano Vellone, Domenico Palombo
BACKGROUND: Ischemia / reperfusion (I/R) injury represents one of the most severe complications in vascular surgery where cross-clamping of the aorta and subsequent visceral ischemia are a recurrent issue. The literature describes a family of nuclear receptors, i.e., peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), in particular PPARγ isoform, which are important modulators of vascular inflammation resulting from I/R injury. The aim of our study is to evaluate how PPARγ agonist administration could reduce local and systemic inflammatory response after I/R injury during aortic supraceliac clamping in animal model...
November 29, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179706/intralobar-pulmonary-sequestration-expanding-toward-the-contralateral-thorax-two-case-reports
#3
Hizuru Amano, Jun Fujishiro, Akinari Hinoki, Hiroo Uchida
BACKGROUND: Intralobar pulmonary sequestration (ILS) is defined as a portion of parenchyma that is contained within the normal pleural investment of the lung but not connected to the tracheobronchial tree, and supplied by anomalous systemic arteries. As ILS is enveloped within the lobe of the normal lung, it is extremely rare for ILS to invade into the mediastinum. We report two atypical cases of infants with ILS expanded toward the posterior mediastinum and contralateral thorax through the pulmonary ligament...
November 28, 2017: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160143/some-autonomic-deficits-of-acute-or-chronic-cervical-spinal-contusion-reversed-by-interim-brainstem-stimulation
#4
Alberto A Vitores, Stephanie S Sloley, Catalina Martinez, Melissa M Carballosa-Gautam, Ian D Hentall
Prolonged electrical stimulation of the hindbrain's nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) or its major midbrain input region, the periaqueductal gray (PAG), was previously found in rats to promote recovery from sensory-motor and histological deficits of acute thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, some visceral deficits of acute and chronic midline cervical (C5) contusion are similarly examined. Cranially implanted wireless stimulators delivered intermittent 8 Hz, 30-70 µA cathodal pulse trains to a brainstem microelectrode...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143090/pattern-of-lower-intestinal-ostomies-in-a-low-income-country-case-of-southeast-of-niger-republic
#5
Harissou Adamou, Oumarou Habou, Ibrahim Amadou Magagi, Ousseini Adakal, Amadou Magagi, Maazou Halidou, Rachid Sani
BACKGROUND: Intestinal ostomies are common surgical procedures performed in visceral surgery as part of management for several gastrointestinal diseases. This study aims to report the socio-demographic characteristics, indications and prognosis of intestinal ostomies in low-income country. METHODS: This was a 4-year retrospective study (January 2013 to December 2016) at Zinder National Hospital (Niger). All patients with a digestive ostomy on an ileum or colic segment were included in the study...
November 15, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139618/beyond-sarcopenia-characterization-and-integration-of-skeletal-muscle-quantity-and-radiodensity-in-a-curable-breast-cancer-population
#6
Marc S Weinberg, Shlomit S Shachar, Hyman B Muss, Allison M Deal, Karteek Popuri, Hyeon Yu, Kirsten A Nyrop, Shani M Alston, Grant R Williams
Skeletal muscle loss, commonly known as sarcopenia, is highly prevalent and prognostic of adverse outcomes in oncology. However, there is limited information on adults with early breast cancer and examination of other skeletal muscle indices, despite the potential prognostic importance. This study characterizes and examines age-related changes in body composition of adults with early breast cancer and describes the creation of a novel integrated muscle measure. Female patients diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer with abdominal computerized tomography (CT) scans within 12 weeks from diagnosis were identified from local tumor registry (N = 241)...
November 15, 2017: Breast Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121940/plasma-irisin-is-elevated-in-type-2-diabetes-and-is-associated-with-increased-e-selectin-levels
#7
Karan S Rana, Chathyan Pararasa, Islam Afzal, David A Nagel, Eric J Hill, Clifford J Bailey, Helen R Griffiths, Ioannis Kyrou, Harpal S Randeva, Srikanth Bellary, James E Brown
BACKGROUND: Irisin is a hormone released mainly from skeletal muscle after exercise which increases adipose tissue energy expenditure. Adipocytes can also release irisin after exercise, acting as a local adipokine to induce white adipose tissue to take on a brown adipose tissue-like phenotype, suggesting that irisin and its receptor may represent a novel molecular target for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diabetes. Previous reports provide conflicting evidence regarding circulating irisin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM)...
November 9, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097335/isolated-transverse-process-spinal-fractures-increase-the-likelihood-of-incurring-visceral-and-pelvic-injuries-a-retrospective-review-at-a-level-1-trauma-center
#8
Lucas R Philipp, Jason Boulter, Christopher Deibert, Faiz U Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Although isolated transverse process fractures (ITPF) do not confer any inherent risk of compromised spinal stability, there is growing interest in their overall prognostic significance. As a proxy for localized or directional forces in high energy traumatic mechanisms, ITPF may serve as an indicator for the presence of other coexisting traumatic injuries. Specific injuries may be predicted by the presence of ITPF at specific spinal levels, but few studies have examined this in depth and may not account for confounding variables...
October 30, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078662/how-to-demarcate-intersegmental-plane-with-resected-segments-inflation-method-using-the-slip-knot-technique-in-thoracoscopic-anatomic-segmentectomy
#9
Makoto Endoh, Hiroyuki Oizumi, Hirohisa Kato, Jun Suzuki, Hikaru Watarai, Akira Hamada, Katsuyuki Suzuki, Satoshi Shiono
Intersegmental demarcation line on the surface of the visceral pleura could not be found at thoracoscopic findings. The resected segments inflation (RSI) method has been reported as a useful technique for visualizing the intersegmental demarcation line during segmentectomy. Thoracoscopic anatomic segmentectomy is performed as follows: firstly, the pulmonary vein and artery of the segment planned for resection are dissected from the hilum in order to isolate the segmental bronchus located behind the pulmonary artery...
2017: Journal of Visualized Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057349/clinical-evaluation-of-microendoscopy-assisted-extreme-lateral-interbody-fusion
#10
Tomohide Segawa, Hirohiko Inanami, Hisashi Koga
BACKGROUND: Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) has rapidly become a popular operative procedure for lumbar canal stenosis and scoliosis. This approach provides direct access to the lateral aspect of the disc with minimal disruption of spinal structures, including ligaments and muscles. However, it involves risk of injuries to the lumbar nerve plexus, segmental artery and intestinal tract because of the limited surgical field. This study aimed to clarify the benefit of using a microendoscope to prevent these injuries...
September 2017: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053705/vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-pregnant-rats-and-effects-on-inflammatory-markers-in-the-brainstem-of-neonates
#11
Allison Judkins, Rhaya L Johnson, Samuel T Murray, Steven M Yellon, Christopher G Wilson
BackgroundVagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an Food and Drug Administration-approved method delivering electrical impulses for treatment of depression and epilepsy in adults. The vagus nerve innervates the majority of visceral organs and cervix, but potential impacts of VNS on the progress of pregnancy and the fetus are not well studied.MethodsWe tested the hypothesis that VNS in pregnant dams does not induce inflammatory changes in the cardio-respiratory control regions of the pups' brainstem, potentially impacting the morbidity and mortality of offspring...
November 22, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026365/incidental-finding-of-bronchopulmonary-sequestration-in-a-64-year-old-female
#12
Pichapong Tunsupon, Ayesha Arshad, Sumit Patel, M Jeffery Mador
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary sequestration is a congenital abnormality of the primitive foregut. In adults, the typical age at presentation is 20-25 years. CASE REPORT: A 64-year-old female was referred for evaluation of an 8 × 6-cm right lower lobe cystic lesion. Her medical history was significant for recurrent right lower lobe pneumonia requiring multiple hospitalizations. Her physical examination was significant for crackles at the right lung base. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest with contrast showed cystic changes with thickened septation of the medial segment of the right lower lobe lacking distinct visceral pleura and with arterial supply from the anomalous branch of the thoracic aorta arising near the celiac trunk...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021750/cough-anal-reflex-may-be-the-expression-of-a-pre-programmed-postural-action
#13
Paolo Cavallari, Francesco Bolzoni, Roberto Esposti, Carlo Bruttini
When coughing, an involuntary contraction of the external anal sphincter occurs, in order to prevent unwanted leakages or sagging of the pelvis muscular wall. Literature originally described such cough-anal response as a reflex elicited by cough, therefore identifying a precise cause-effect relationship. However, recent studies report that the anal contraction actually precedes the rise in abdominal pressure during cough expiratory effort, so that the sphincter activity should be pre-programmed. In recent years, an important family of pre-programmed muscle activities has been well documented to precede voluntary movements: these anticipatory actions play a fundamental role in whole body and segmental postural control, hence they are referred to as anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017799/automated-segmentation-of-abdominal-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-in-obese-adolescent-in-mri
#14
Steve C N Hui, Teng Zhang, Lin Shi, Defeng Wang, Chei-Bing Ip, Winnie C W Chu
PURPOSE: To develop a reliable and reproducible automatic technique to segment and measure SAT and VAT based on MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chemical-shift water-fat MRI were taken on twelve obese adolescents (mean age: 16.1±0.6, BMI: 31.3±2.3) recruited under the health monitoring program. The segmentation applied a spoke template created using Midpoint Circle algorithm followed by Bresenham's Line algorithm to detect narrow connecting regions between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues...
October 7, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987807/canine-susceptibility-to-visceral-leishmaniasis-a-systematic-review-upon-genetic-aspects-considering-breed-factors-and-immunological-concepts
#15
Tassia Cristina Bello de Vasconcelos, Marina Carvalho Furtado, Vínicus Silva Belo, Fernanda Nazaré Morgado, Fabiano Borges Figueiredo
Dogs have different susceptibility degrees to leishmaniasis; however, genetic research on this theme is scarce, manly on visceral form. The aims of this systematic review were to describe and discuss the existing scientific findings on genetic susceptibility to canine leishmaniasis, as well as to show the gaps of the existing knowledge. Twelve articles were selected, including breed immunological studies, genome wide associations or other gene polymorphism or gene sequencing studies, and transcription approaches...
October 5, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925408/liver-volume-and-hepatic-adiposity-in-childhood-relations-to-body-growth-and-visceral-fat
#16
R Malpique, J Bassols, A López-Bermejo, M Diaz, F Villarroya, J Pavia, A Congo, F de Zegher, L Ibáñez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The sequence of prenatal growth restraint and postnatal catch-up growth may lead to hepato-visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation before the onset of puberty. In prepubertal children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) or small for gestational age (SGA), we assessed potential relationships between the aforementioned sequence and liver volume. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study population consisted of 86 children (41 AGA and 45 SGA with catch-up growth; age (mean±s...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906349/intestinal-obstruction-due-to-kaposiform-hemangioendothelioma-in-a-1-month-old-infant-a-case-report
#17
Joong Kee Youn, Shin-Hoo Park, Ji-Won Han, Chaeyoun Oh, Hyun-Young Kim, Sung-Eun Jung
RATIONALE: Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is an aggressive vascular tumor, mainly occurring in infants and young children and previously reported cases were mainly cutaneous or visceral form. Intestinal kaposiform hemangioma was first reported in 2012. Intestinal type KHE showed better prognosis if the lesion was limited in the gastrointestinal tract and coagulopathy was not accompanied. Since the number of reported cases is small, further study for treatment options and prognosis need to be done...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894290/association-of-proton-density-fat-fraction-in-adipose-tissue-with-imaging-based-and-anthropometric-obesity-markers-in-adults
#18
D Franz, D Weidlich, F Freitag, C Holzapfel, T Drabsch, T Baum, H Eggers, A Witte, E J Rummeny, H Hauner, D C Karampinos
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of the proton density fat fraction (PDFF), measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), of supraclavicular and gluteal adipose tissue with subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (SAT and VAT) volumes, liver fat fraction and anthropometric obesity markers. The supraclavicular fossa was selected as a typical location where brown adipocytes may be present in humans and the gluteal region was selected as a typical location enclosing primarily white adipocytes...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882402/visceral-endoderm-and-the-primitive-streak-interact-to-build-the-fetal-placental-interface-of-the-mouse-gastrula
#19
Adriana M Rodriguez, Karen M Downs
Hypoblast/visceral endoderm assists in amniote nutrition, axial positioning and formation of the gut. Here, we provide evidence, currently limited to humans and non-human primates, that hypoblast is a purveyor of extraembryonic mesoderm in the mouse gastrula. Fate mapping a unique segment of axial extraembryonic visceral endoderm associated with the allantoic component of the primitive streak, and referred to as the "AX", revealed that visceral endoderm supplies the placentae with extraembryonic mesoderm. Exfoliation of the AX was dependent upon contact with the primitive streak, which modulated Hedgehog signaling...
September 5, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876395/oral-insulin-improves-metabolic-parameters-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#20
Leandro C Lipinski, Louise B Kmetiuk, Paulo C F Mathias, Ananda Malta, Giovani M Favero, Tatiane A Ribeiro, Alceu Toledo, Mario R Montemor Netto, Marcos R S Rodrigues
INTRODUCTION/AIM: The gut has shown to have a pivotal role on the pathophysiology of metabolic disease. Food stimulation of distal intestinal segments promotes enterohormones secretion influencing insulin metabolism. In diabetic rats, oral insulin has potential to change intestinal epithelium behavior. This macromolecule promotes positive effects on laboratorial metabolic parameters and decreases diabetic intestinal hypertrophy. This study aims to test if oral insulin can influence metabolic parameters and intestinal weight in obese non-diabetic rats...
July 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
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