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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340118/group-music-therapy-as-a-preventive-intervention-for-young-people-at-risk-cluster-randomized-trial
#1
Christian Gold, Suvi Saarikallio, Alexander Hew Dale Crooke, Katrina Skewes McFerran
Background: Music forms an important part of the lives and identities of adolescents and may have positive or negative mental health implications. Music therapy can be effective for mental disorders such as depression, but its preventive potential is unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine whether group music therapy (GMT) is an effective intervention for young people who may be at risk of developing mental health problems, as indicated via unhealthy music use...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Music Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339940/restrictions-on-the-use-of-e-cigarettes-in-public-and-private-places-current-practice-and-support-among-adults-in-great-britain
#2
Leonie S Brose, Ann McNeill, Deborah Arnott, Hazel Cheeseman
Debates around policies regulating e-cigarette use make it important to obtain an overview of current practice, people's attitudes and correlates of policy support. Aims were to assess (i) current practices for e-cigarette use in homes and workplaces; (ii) characteristics associated with allowing e-cigarette use in the home; and (iii) level of, and characteristics associated with, support for extending smoke-free legislation to include e-cigarettes. Online survey in 2016, n = 11 389 adults in Great Britain...
February 4, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338911/new-horizons-in-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-in-older-people
#3
Victoria Ewan, Thomas Hellyer, Julia Newton, John Simpson
Approximately 1.5% of hospital patients develop hospital acquired pneumonia. Aspiration is the major risk factor for pneumonia and is associated with reduced ability to mechanically clear respiratory pathogens into the stomach. Currently non-invasive methods of diagnosing hospital acquired pneumonia are less robust than invasive methods, and lead to over-diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis is key to surveillance, prevention and treatment of HAP, and also to improving outcomes; newer imaging modalities such as phase contrast X-ray imaging and nanoparticle enhanced magnetic resonance imaging may help...
February 27, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338890/metabolic-syndrome-and-insulin-resistance-are-associated-with-frailty-in-older-adults-a-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Raúl F Pérez-Tasigchana, Luz M León-Muñoz, Esther Lopez-Garcia, Juan L Gutierrez-Fisac, Martín Laclaustra, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, Pilar Guallar-Castillón
Background: diabetes increases the risk of frailty that is a leading cause of disability and premature mortality in older people. Metabolic syndrome (MS) and insulin resistance (IR) are strong risk factors for diabetes and could, thus, lead to frailty. However, the association between MS or IR and frailty has barely been investigated. Methods: data were obtained from a cohort of 1,499 community-dwelling individuals aged ≥60, who were free of diabetes at 2008-10 and were followed up for 3...
March 1, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338875/does-baseline-hypotension-predict-incident-depression-in-a-cohort-of-community-dwelling-older-people-data-from-the-irish-longitudinal-study-on-ageing-tilda
#5
Robert Briggs, Rose Anne Kenny, Sean P Kennelly
Background: hypotension is now recognised as a risk factor for syncope, cardiovascular events and mortality, but it may also represent a risk factor for late life depression (LLD). The aim of this study was to clarify the longitudinal relationship between hypotension and incident LLD. Methods: this is a longitudinal study involving community-dwelling participants aged ≥50 years, using data from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. The Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was administered at baseline and at follow-up 2 years later...
March 10, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338866/the-growing-challenge-of-major-trauma-in-older-people-a-role-for-comprehensive-geriatric-assessment
#6
James Michael Fisher, Charlotte Bates, Jay Banerjee
In this commentary article, we describe the impact that an ageing population is having on the nature of major trauma seen in emergency departments. The proportion of major trauma victims who are older people is rapidly increasing and a fall from standing is now the most common mechanism of injury in major trauma. Potential barriers to effective care of this patient group are highlighted, including: a lack of consensus regarding triage criteria; potentially misleading physiological parameters within triage criteria; non-linear patient presentations and diagnostic nihilism...
March 10, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338849/a-preventative-lifestyle-intervention-for-older-adults-lifestyle-matters-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#7
Gail Mountain, Gill Windle, Daniel Hind, Stephen Walters, Anju Keertharuth, Robin Chatters, Kirsty Sprange, Claire Craig, Sarah Cook, Ellen Lee, Tim Chater, R Woods, Louise Newbould, Lauren Powell, Katy Shortland, Jennifer Roberts
Objectives: to test whether an occupation-based lifestyle intervention can sustain and improve the mental well-being of adults aged 65 years or over compared to usual care, using an individually randomised controlled trial. Participants: 288 independently living adults aged 65 years or over, with normal cognition, were recruited from two UK sites between December 2011 and November 2015. Interventions: lifestyle Matters is a National Institute for Health and Care Excellence recommended multi-component preventive intervention designed to improve the mental well-being of community living older people at risk of decline...
February 25, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338811/interventions-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-disability-due-to-acquired-joint-contractures-in-older-people-a-systematic-review
#8
Susanne Saal, Katrin Beutner, Julia Bogunski, Kathrin Obermüller, Martin Müller, Eva Grill, Gabriele Meyer
Background: acquired joint contractures have significant effects on quality of life and functioning. Objective: to determine the effects of interventions to prevent and treat disabilities in older people with acquired joint contractures. Methods: systematic search (last 8/2016) via Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, PEDro, CINAHL, trial registries, reference lists of retrieved articles and scientific congress pamphlets. Controlled and randomised controlled trials in English or German comparing an intervention with another intervention or standard care were included...
February 25, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338808/the-relationship-between-cognitive-impairment-mortality-and-discharge-characteristics-in-a-large-cohort-of-older-adults-with-unscheduled-admissions-to-an-acute-hospital-a-retrospective-observational-study
#9
Carole Fogg, Paul Meredith, Jackie Bridges, Gill P Gould, Peter Griffiths
Background: older people with dementia admitted to hospital for acute illness have higher mortality and longer hospital stays compared to those without dementia. Cognitive impairment (CI) is common in older people, and they may also be at increased risk of poor outcomes. Methods: retrospective observational study of unscheduled admissions aged ≥75 years. Admission characteristics, mortality rates and discharge outcomes were compared between three groups: (i) known dementia diagnosis (DD), (ii) CI but no diagnosis of dementia and (iii) no CI...
February 25, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338663/prevalence-and-associated-factors-of-blepharoptosis-in-korean-adult-population-the-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2008-2011
#10
M H Kim, J Cho, D Zhao, K I Woo, Y-D Kim, S Kim, S W Yang
PurposeThis study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors of involutional blepharoptosis in a nationwide representative sample in Korea.MethodsCross-sectional study 20 941 Korean men and women 40 years of age and older who participated in last 2 years (2008 and 2009) of the 4th wave of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV and the first 2 years (2010 and 2011) of KNHANES V. Ocular examinations were performed by ophthalmologists trained in procedure and grading methods, and blepharoptosis was defined as a marginal reflex distance <2 mm on either eye...
March 24, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338420/exploring-the-facilitators-and-barriers-to-physical-activity-in-older-people-with-sight-loss
#11
Amy E Burton, Louise Clancy, Lisa Cowap
This study aimed to explore facilitators and barriers to physical activity in older people with sight loss. Focus groups were conducted with 13 community dwelling older adults with sight loss ranging from poor to completely blind. Transcripts were analysed using an inductive thematic analysis. Facilitators and barriers are experienced in three ways: psychologically; through opportunity and access; and at a societal and policy level. Campaigns are needed to challenge unhelpful age-related stereotypes at both psychological and societal levels...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338379/head-neck-trunk-and-pelvis-tissue-mass-predictions-for-young-adults-using-anthropometric-measures-and-dxa
#12
Danielle L Gyemi, Charles Kahelin, Nicole C George, David M Andrews
Accurate prediction of wobbling mass (WM), fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and bone mineral content (BMC) of living people using regression equations developed from anthropometric measures (lengths, circumferences, breadths, skinfolds) has previously been reported, but only for the extremities. Multiple linear stepwise regression was used to generate comparable equations for the head, neck, trunk and pelvis of young adults (38 males, 38 females). Equations were validated using actual tissue masses from an independent sample of 13 males and 13 females by manually segmenting full body Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry scans...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337829/peer-bullying-in-seniors-subsidised-apartment-communities-in-saskatoon-canada-participatory-research
#13
Donna Goodridge, Jennifer Heal-Salahub, Elliot PausJenssen, George James, Joan Lidington
Given that 'home' is the major physical-spatial environment of many older adults and that home, social and neighbourhood environments are well-recognised to impact both the ability to age in place and quality of life in this population, a better understanding of the nature of social interactions within seniors' communal living environments is critical for health promotion. This paper describes a two-phase participatory research study examining peer bullying by older adults conducted in April and May, 2016. Responding to needs expressed by tenants, the objectives of this study were to identify the nature, prevalence and consequences of peer bullying for tenants of two low-income senior apartment communities...
March 23, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336354/educational-disparities-in-mortality-between-adults-aged-50-64-and-66-79-years-u-s
#14
Jiemin Ma, Sean Altekruse, Candace Cosgrove, Farhad Islami, Ahmedin Jemal
INTRODUCTION: This study estimated differences in educational disparities in mortality between ages 50-64 and 66-79 years in the U.S. and explored factors contributing to the differences. METHODS: Based on the follow-up of a nationally representative cohort in the National Longitudinal Mortality Study 2002-2011, relative differences in educational disparities (relative index of inequality) between people aged 50-64 and 66-79 years were calculated for deaths from all causes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, injuries, and other causes by sex and race/ethnicity...
March 20, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336296/serotonin-and-dopamine-transporter-pet-changes-in-the-premotor-phase-of-lrrk2-parkinsonism-cross-sectional-studies
#15
Daryl J Wile, Pankaj A Agarwal, Michael Schulzer, Edwin Mak, Katherine Dinelle, Elham Shahinfard, Nasim Vafai, Kazuko Hasegawa, Jing Zhang, Jessamyn McKenzie, Nicole Neilson, Audrey Strongosky, Ryan J Uitti, Mark Guttman, Cyrus P Zabetian, Yu-Shin Ding, Mike Adam, Jan Aasly, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Matthew Farrer, Vesna Sossi, A Jon Stoessl
BACKGROUND: People with Parkinson's disease can show premotor neurochemical changes in the dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic systems. Using PET, we assessed whether dopaminergic and serotonin transporter changes are similar in LRRK2 mutation carriers with Parkinson's disease and individuals with sporadic Parkinson's disease, and whether LRRK2 mutation carriers without motor symptoms show PET changes. METHODS: We did two cross-sectional PET studies at the Pacific Parkinson's Research Centre in Vancouver, BC, Canada...
March 20, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336059/progression-of-near-vision-loss-and-incidence-of-near-vision-impairment-in-an-adult-chinese-population
#16
Xiaotong Han, Leon B Ellwein, Xinxing Guo, Yin Hu, William Yan, Mingguang He
PURPOSE: To investigate the progression of near vision loss and the cumulative incidence of near vision impairment (NVI) 6 years after initial examination of an urban Chinese cohort. DESIGN: Population-based, prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: People aged ≥35 years examined at baseline in the Yuexiu District of Guangzhou, China. METHODS: Participants examined at baseline were invited for 2-year and 6-year follow-up examinations in 2010 and 2014, respectively...
March 20, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335729/study-protocol-for-the-sofia-project-swallowing-function-oral-health-and-food-intake-in-old-age-a-descriptive-study-with-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#17
Patricia Hägglund, Lena Olai, Katri Ståhlnacke, Mona Persenius, Mary Hägg, Maria Andersson, Susanne Koistinen, Eva Carlsson
BACKGROUND: Extensive studies have shown that older people are negatively impacted by impaired eating and nutrition. The abilities to eat, enjoy food, and participate in social activities associated with meals are important aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and recovery after illness. This project aims to (i) describe and analyze relationships between oral health and oral HRQoL, swallowing ability, eating ability, and nutritional risk among older individuals admitted to short-term care; (ii) compare the perceptions that older individuals and staff report on care quality related to oral hygiene and eating; and (iii) study the feasibility and effects of a training program for people with impaired swallowing (i...
March 23, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334978/therapeutic-window-of-dopamine-d2-3-receptor-occupancy-to-treat-psychosis-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Suzanne Reeves, Emma McLachlan, Julie Bertrand, Fabrizia D Antonio, Stuart Brownings, Akshay Nair, Suki Greaves, Alan Smith, David Taylor, Joel Dunn, Paul Marsden, Robert Kessler, Robert Howard
Antipsychotic drugs, originally developed to treat schizophrenia, are used to treat psychosis, agitation and aggression in Alzheimer's disease. In the absence of dopamine D2/3 receptor occupancy data to inform antipsychotic prescribing for psychosis in Alzheimer's disease, the mechanisms underpinning antipsychotic efficacy and side effects are poorly understood. This study used a population approach to investigate the relationship between amisulpride blood concentration and central D2/3 occupancy in older people with Alzheimer's disease by combining: (i) pharmacokinetic data (280 venous samples) from a phase I single (50 mg) dose study in healthy older people (n = 20, 65-79 years); (ii) pharmacokinetic, 18F-fallypride D2/3 receptor imaging and clinical outcome data on patients with Alzheimer's disease who were prescribed amisulpride (25-75 mg daily) to treat psychosis as part of an open study (n = 28; 69-92 years; 41 blood samples, five pretreatment scans, 19 post-treatment scans); and (iii) 18F-fallypride imaging of an antipsychotic free Alzheimer's disease control group (n = 10, 78-92 years), to provide additional pretreatment data...
February 4, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334724/incidence-of-multiple-sclerosis-in-puerto-rico-2014-a-population-based-study
#19
Angel Chinea, Carlos F Ríos-Bedoya, Cristina Rubi, Ivonne Vicente, Eduardo R Estades, Yatzka G Hernandez-Silvestrini
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects millions of people worldwide. The estimates for MS incidence are difficult to obtain but are important for understanding MS etiology, developing prevention strategies, and service planning. This study is aimed at estimating the 2014 incidence of MS in Puerto Rico (PR). METHODS: The PR MS Foundation's registry was used as the data source. Neurologists, specialty pharmacies, MRI centers, health insurance companies, and the PR Department of Health identified MS cases missed by the registry...
March 24, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333354/men-s-knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviours-relating-to-fertility
#20
Karin Hammarberg, Veronica Collins, Carol Holden, Kate Young, Robert McLachlan
BACKGROUND: The increasingly common practice in high-income countries to delay childbearing to the fourth and fifth decades of life increases the risk of involuntary childlessness or having fewer children than desired. Older age also increases the risk of age-related infertility, the need for ART to conceive, and obstetric and neonatal complications. Existing research relating to childbearing focusses almost exclusively on women, and in public discourse declining fertility rates are often assumed to be the result of women delaying childbearing to pursue other life goals such as a career and travel...
March 10, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
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