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Mihiretu Kebede, Desalegn Tigabu Zegeye, Berihun Megabiaw Zeleke
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To monitor the progress of therapy and disease progression, periodic CD4 counts are required throughout the course of HIV/AIDS care and support. The demand for CD4 count measurement is increasing as ART programs expand over the last decade. This study aimed to predict CD4 count changes and to identify the predictors of CD4 count changes among patients on ART. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Hospital from 3,104 adult patients on ART with CD4 counts measured at least twice (baseline and most recent)...
December 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Prabir K Patra, David Crisp, Johannes W Kaiser, Debra Wunch, Tazu Saeki, Kazuhito Ichii, Takashi Sekiya, Paul O Wennberg, Dietrich G Feist, David F Pollard, David W T Griffith, Voltaire A Velazco, M De Maziere, Mahesh K Sha, Coleen Roehl, Abhishek Chatterjee, Kentaro Ishijima
The powerful El Niño event of 2015-2016 - the third most intense since the 1950s - has exerted a large impact on the Earth's natural climate system. The column-averaged CO2 dry-air mole fraction (XCO2) observations from satellites and ground-based networks are analyzed together with in situ observations for the period of September 2014 to October 2016. From the differences between satellite (OCO-2) observations and simulations using an atmospheric chemistry-transport model, we estimate that, relative to the mean annual fluxes for 2014, the most recent El Niño has contributed to an excess CO2 emission from the Earth's surface (land + ocean) to the atmosphere in the range of 2...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Gonzalo Nápoles, Carlos Mosquera, Rafael Falcon, Isel Grau, Rafael Bello, Koen Vanhoof
Rough Cognitive Networks (RCNs) are a kind of granular neural network that augments the reasoning rule present in Fuzzy Cognitive Maps with crisp information granules coming from Rough Set Theory. While RCNs have shown promise in solving different classification problems, this model is still very sensitive to the similarity threshold upon which the rough information granules are built. In this paper, we cast the RCN model within the framework of fuzzy rough sets in an attempt to eliminate the need for a user-specified similarity threshold while retaining the model's discriminatory power...
September 28, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Pablo G Romano, Marina Giuseppina Guenza
Markov State Models (MSM) are used to model the kinetics of processes sampled by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. MSM reduce the high dimensionality inherent to MD simulations as they partition the free energy landscape into discrete states, generating a kinetic model as a series of uncorrelated jumps between states. Here, we detail a new method, called GRadient Adaptive Decomposition, which optimizes coarse-grained MSM by refining borders with respect to the gradient along the free energy surface. The proposed method requires only a small number of initial microstates because it corrects for errors produced by limited sampling...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Svjetlana Karabuva, Boris Lukšić, Ivica Brizić, Zorica Latinović, Adrijana Leonardi, Igor Križaj
Venom of the nose-horned viper (V. a. ammodytes) as also venoms of some related European viperids can induce also cardiotoxic effects in mammals. In this work we demonstrated that the protein in the V. a. ammodytes venom acting on heart is a myotoxic secreted phospholipase A2 analogue ammodytin L (AtnL). In the isolated perfused rat heart AtnL induced significant and irreversible cardiotoxicity characterized by atrioventricular (AV) blockade. This venom protein induced appearance of high levels of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and troponin I in the sinus effluent of the isolated heart, indicative for myocardial damage, which is obviously the primary cause of its cardiotoxic action...
October 10, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Florian M Schwandner, Michael R Gunson, Charles E Miller, Simon A Carn, Annmarie Eldering, Thomas Krings, Kristal R Verhulst, David S Schimel, Hai M Nguyen, David Crisp, Christopher W O'Dell, Gregory B Osterman, Laura T Iraci, James R Podolske
Spaceborne measurements by NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) at the kilometer scale reveal distinct structures of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) caused by known anthropogenic and natural point sources. OCO-2 transects across the Los Angeles megacity (USA) show that anthropogenic CO2 enhancements peak over the urban core and decrease through suburban areas to rural background values more than ~100 kilometers away, varying seasonally from ~4.4 to 6.1 parts per million. A transect passing directly downwind of the persistent isolated natural CO2 plume from Yasur volcano (Vanuatu) shows a narrow filament of enhanced CO2 values (~3...
October 13, 2017: Science
A Chatterjee, M M Gierach, A J Sutton, R A Feely, D Crisp, A Eldering, M R Gunson, C W O'Dell, B B Stephens, D S Schimel
Spaceborne observations of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 are used to characterize the response of tropical atmospheric CO2 concentrations to the strong El Niño event of 2015-2016. Although correlations between the growth rate of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation are well known, the magnitude of the correlation and the timing of the responses of oceanic and terrestrial carbon cycle remain poorly constrained in space and time. We used space-based CO2 observations to confirm that the tropical Pacific Ocean does play an early and important role in modulating the changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations during El Niño events-a phenomenon inferred but not previously observed because of insufficient high-density, broad-scale CO2 observations over the tropics...
October 13, 2017: Science
A Eldering, P O Wennberg, D Crisp, D S Schimel, M R Gunson, A Chatterjee, J Liu, F M Schwandner, Y Sun, C W O'Dell, C Frankenberg, T Taylor, B Fisher, G B Osterman, D Wunch, J Hakkarainen, J Tamminen, B Weir
NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) mission was motivated by the need to diagnose how the increasing concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is altering the productivity of the biosphere and the uptake of CO2 by the oceans. Launched on 2 July 2014, OCO-2 provides retrievals of the column-averaged CO2 dry-air mole fraction ([Formula: see text]) as well as the fluorescence from chlorophyll in terrestrial plants. The seasonal pattern of uptake by the terrestrial biosphere is recorded in fluorescence and the drawdown of [Formula: see text] during summer...
October 13, 2017: Science
Junjie Liu, Kevin W Bowman, David S Schimel, Nicolas C Parazoo, Zhe Jiang, Meemong Lee, A Anthony Bloom, Debra Wunch, Christian Frankenberg, Ying Sun, Christopher W O'Dell, Kevin R Gurney, Dimitris Menemenlis, Michelle Gierach, David Crisp, Annmarie Eldering
The 2015-2016 El Niño led to historically high temperatures and low precipitation over the tropics, while the growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) was the largest on record. Here we quantify the response of tropical net biosphere exchange, gross primary production, biomass burning, and respiration to these climate anomalies by assimilating column CO2, solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, and carbon monoxide observations from multiple satellites. Relative to the 2011 La Niña, the pantropical biosphere released 2...
October 13, 2017: Science
Raushan Kumar, K A Martin Xavier, Manjusha Lekshmi, Vignaesh Dhanabalan, Madonna T Thachil, Amjad K Balange, Venkateshwarlu Gudipati
BACKGROUND: Functional extruded snacks were prepared using paste shrimp powder (Acetes spp.) which is rich in protein content. The process variables required for the preparation of extruded snacks was optimized using response surface methodology. Extrusion temperature (130 - 144 °C), level of Acetes powder (100 - 200 g kg(-1) ) and feed moisture (140 - 200 g kg(-1) ) were selected as design variables, and expansion ratio, porosity, hardness, crispness and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance value were taken as the response variables...
October 10, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Diep Ganguly, Peter Alexander Crisp, Steven R Eichten, Barry J Pogson
Improving the responsiveness, acclimation, and memory of plants to abiotic stress holds substantive potential for improving agriculture. An unresolved question is the involvement of chromatin marks in the memory of agriculturally-relevant stresses. Such potential has spurred numerous investigations yielding both promising and conflicting results. Consequently, it remains unclear to what extent robust stress-induced DNA methylation variation can underpin stress memory. Using a slow onset water deprivation treatment in Arabidopsis we investigated the malleability of the DNA methylome to drought stress within a generation and under repeated drought stress over five successive generations...
October 6, 2017: Plant Physiology
Sushila Arya, Sanja Kupesic-Plavsic, Zuber D Mulla, Alok K Dwivedi, Zeni Crisp, Jisha Jose, Luis S Noble
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of letrozole in combination with low dose gonadotropins for ovulation induction in anovulatory infertility from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and controlled ovarian stimulation for endometriosis, and unexplained infertility patients. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study in a setting of private Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Clinic affiliated with the University. Three hundred couples (650 cycles) requiring OI/COS for PCOS (92 patients, 195 cycles), endometriosis (89 patients, 217 cycles), and unexplained infertility (119 patients, 238 cycles)...
November 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Noa Pereira Prada Schnor, Rozangela Verlengia, Patrícia Fátima Sousa Novais, Alex Harley Crisp, Celso Vieira de Souza Leite, Irineu Rasera-Junior, Maria Rita Marques de Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: Obesity can cause systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) factor that is also influenced by genetic variability. The present study aims to investigate the association between gene polymorphisms related with obesity on the prevalence of SAH and DM2 in the preoperative period and 1 year after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In total, 351 obese women in a Brazilian cohort completed the study. The clinical diagnosis of SAH and DM2 was monitored from medical records...
July 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Iñigo De Miguel Beriain
The development of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas gene-modification technologies has opened impressive possibilities for the biomedical sciences. However, their application to human embryos and early fetuses has raised huge ethical and legal discussions because it affects the human germline. This paper provides a critical and in-depth analysis of the current legal framework on this topic in the EU context and at the national level in the member states. It also offers an alternative interpretation of the regulation, so as to help researchers, practitioners, policy makers and society as a whole to find efficient responses to challenges that cannot wait for a legally updated answer...
September 2017: Regenerative Medicine
G Appannah, G K Pot, W H Oddy, S A Jebb, G L Ambrosini
BACKGROUND: Although growing evidence suggests that dietary patterns associated with noncommunicable diseases in adulthood may develop early in life, when these are established, as well as their determinants, remains unclear. METHODS: We examined determinants and tracking of a dietary pattern (DP) associated with metabolic risk and its key food groups among 860 adolescents in the Western Australian Pregnancy (Raine) Cohort study. Food intake was reported using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at 14 and 17 years...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Agnieszka Wójtowicz, Anna Oniszczuk, Tomasz Oniszczuk, Sławomir Kocira, Karolina Wojtunik, Marcin Mitrus, Anna Kocira, Jarosław Widelski, Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak
Application of Moldavian dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) leaves in extruded snacks was evaluated. Directly expanded corn snacks (crisps) were supplemented with 5-20% of dragonhead leaves. The supplemented snacks were characterized to have improved nutritional value and were a good source of dietary fibre. The presence of phenolic compounds, especially rosmarinic acid, showed a high antioxidant potential and a radical scavenging activity of tested snacks, especially if a high content of additive was used...
September 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Agnieszka Makowska, Małgorzata Majcher, Sylwia Mildner-Szkudlarz, Anna Jedrusek-Golinska, Krzysztof Przygoński
The effect of selected plant additives (couch grass, artichoke, kale, nettle, ground buckwheat husks, broad beans, fenugreek seeds, and extracts of yellow tea and mulberry leaf) on the volatile compounds, color, texture, sensory attributes, polyphenols, and antioxidant properties of triticale crisp bread was studied. The volatile profile of control bread was dominated by lipid oxidation products with hexanal and (E)-2-nonenal predominant. The additives strongly modified the volatile profile of the extruded crisp bread...
September 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Neelam Yadav, Anil Kumar Chhillar, Chandra S Pundir
The nanoparticles of hemoglobin (HbNPs) were prepared by desolvation method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM),UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transformation infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Protein profile of HbNPs was also studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). An amperometric acrylamide biosensor was constructed by immobilizing covalently HbNPs onto polycrystalline Au electrode...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Beverly Belkova, Jaromir Hradecky, Kamila Hurkova, Veronika Forstova, Lukas Vaclavik, Jana Hajslova
This research was focused on a critical assessment of vacuum frying as a technology enabling minimization of acrylamide formation in potato crisps and reducing undesirable chemical changes that occur in frying oil at high temperatures. The potato slices were fried in rapeseed oil under vacuum at 125°C and atmospheric pressure at 165°C. The experiments were performed on two potato varieties, Saturna and Impala. Vacuum frying reduced the formation of acrylamide by 98% and also other Maillard reaction products, specifically alkylpyrazines...
February 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Stephen J Powers, Donald S Mottram, Andrew Curtis, Nigel G Halford
European manufacturers' data on acrylamide in potato crisps from 2002 to 2016 were analysed. A previous study showed a 53% reduction in mean acrylamide levels from 763 ng g(-1) in 2002 to 358 ng g(-1) in 2011. Analysis of data from the longer period showed that since 2011 there has been a levelling off, with the mean level for 2016 being 412 ng g(-1) (still a 46% reduction from 2002), suggesting that the most effective acrylamide reduction measures had been devised and implemented by 2011. There were similar trends in the 90(th) and 95(th) quantile values, with the 90(th) quantile values being below 1000 ng g(-1) (the European Commission's current 'Indicative Value' for acrylamide in potato crisps) since 2010...
September 27, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
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