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Richard J Cassidy, Yuan Liu, Kirtesh Patel, Jim Zhong, Conor E Steuer, David A Kooby, Maria C Russell, Theresa W Gillespie, Jerome C Landry
BACKGROUND: Stage II and III rectal cancers have been effectively treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) followed by definitive resection. Advancements in surgical technique and systemic therapy have prompted investigation of neoadjuvant multiagent chemotherapy (NMAC) regimens with the elimination of radiation (RT). The objective of the current study was to investigate factors that predict for the use of NCRT versus NMAC and compare outcomes using the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) for select stage II and III rectal cancers...
October 25, 2016: Cancer
Shuo Zhang, Xuelei Ma, Chenjing Zhu, Li Liu, Guoping Wang, Xia Yuan
Targeting immune cells or factors are effective for patients with solid tumors. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are known to have immunosuppressive functions, and the levels of MDSCs in patients with solid tumor are assumed to have prognostic values. This meta-analysis aimed at evaluating the relationship between MDSCs and the prognosis of patients with solid tumors. We searched articles in PUBMED and EMBASE comprehensively, updated to March 2016. Eight studies with 442 patients were included in the meta-analysis...
2016: PloS One
Elizabeth A Simonik, Ying Cai, Katherine N Kimmelshue, Dana M Brantley-Sieders, Holli A Loomans, Claudia D Andl, Grant M Westlake, Victoria M Youngblood, Jin Chen, Wendell G Yarbrough, Brandee T Brown, Lalitha Nagarajan, Stephen J Brandt
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) accounts for more than 300,000 deaths worldwide per year as a consequence of tumor cell invasion of adjacent structures or metastasis. LIM-only protein 4 (LMO4) and LIM-domain binding protein 1 (LDB1), two directly interacting transcriptional adaptors that have important roles in normal epithelial cell differentiation, have been associated with increased metastasis, decreased differentiation, and shortened survival in carcinoma of the breast. Here, we implicate two LDB1-binding proteins, single-stranded binding protein 2 (SSBP2) and 3 (SSBP3), in controlling LMO4 and LDB1 protein abundance in HNSCC and in regulating specific tumor cell functions in this disease...
2016: PloS One
Anna M Dahlin, Carl Wibom, Soma Ghasimi, Thomas Brännström, Ulrika Andersson, Beatrice Melin
Genome-wide association studies and candidate gene studies have identified several genetic variants that increase glioma risk. The majority of these variants are non-coding and the mechanisms behind the increased risk in carriers are not known. In this study, we hypothesize that some of the established glioma risk variants induce aberrant DNA methylation in the developing tumor, either locally (gene-specific) or globally (genome-wide). In a pilot data set including 77 glioma patients, we used Illumina beadchip technology to analyze genetic variants in blood and DNA methylation in matched tumor samples...
2016: PloS One
Kaichun Li, Mingzhen Ying, Dan Feng, Jie Du, Shiyu Chen, Bing Dan, Cuihua Wang, Yajie Wang
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1), the rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis, is a tumor suppressor that frequently down-regulated in cancers, especially breast cancer. Here, we provide both supporting and contradicting evidences about the expression pattern and function of FBP1 in breast cancer. Data mining of Oncomine database showed that FBP1 is commonly up-regulated in tumor tissues compared with non-tumor tissues regardless of histological type. Analysis of a large-scale cohort derived from Kaplan-Meier Plotter showed that lower FBP1 expression associated with poor clinical outcome...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Meijun Song, Hongcheng Wu, Shibo Wu, Ting Ge, Guoan Wang, Yingyan Zhou, Shimo Sheng, Jingbo Jiang
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and its clinical management remains challenge. Here, we repurposed antibiotic levofloxacin for lung cancer treatment. We show that levofloxacin is effectively against a panel of lung cancer cell lines via inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis, regardless of cellular origin and genetic pattern, in in vitro cell culture system and in vivo xenograft lung tumor model. Mechanistically, levofloxacin inhibits activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I and III, leading to inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and reduction of ATP production...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Li Chen, Liang Luo, Wei Chen, Hong-Xu Xu, Fan Chen, Lian-Zhou Chen, Wen-Tao Zeng, Jing-Song Chen, Xiao-Hui Huang
MicroRNA-24 (miR-24), a member of the miRNA family, functions as an oncogene in various types of human cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms of miR-24 involvement in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain poorly understood. The present study revealed that miRNA-24 down-regulates p53 through binding to the 3'-UTR of p53 mRNA based on a luciferase reporter assay, and that the expression level of miR-24 could affect the invasion of HCC lines via p53. Down-regulation of p53 significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of miR-24 knockdown on the invasion of HCC cells, suggesting that miR-24 could be a potential target for HCC treatment...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Saranya Satitmanwiwat, Chinarat Changsangfa, Anuson Khanuengthong, Kornkanok Promthep, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Teerakul Arpornsuwan, Kulnasan Saikhun, Hathaitip Sritanaudomchai
AIM: This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of the induction of apoptosis of human oral cancer cells by the scorpion venom peptide BmKn2. METHODS: Human oral squamous carcinoma cells (HSC4), mouth epidermoid carcinoma cells (KB), human normal gingival cells (HGC) and dental pulp cells (DPC) were treated with BmKn-2 peptide for 24h. Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed using phase contrast microscopy, by propidium iodide (PI) staining to assess nuclear morphology and by Annexin V staining...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Lila E Mullany, Jennifer S Herrick, Roger K Wolff, John R Stevens, Martha L Slattery
Smoking is known to influence messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. As microRNAs (miRNAs) are known repressors of mRNAs, we hypothesize that smoking may influence miRNA expression, thus altering mRNA expression. Our sample consisted of 1447 CRC cases that had normal colorectal mucosa and carcinoma miRNA data and lifestyle data. We examined current smoking, current versus never and former versus never (C/F/N) smoking(1), and pack-years smoked with miRNA expression in normal mucosa as well as differential miRNA expression between paired normal and carcinoma tissue for colon and rectal tissue to determine associations between smoking and miRNA expression...
October 22, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Michael P O'Leary, Aaron B Parrish, Cynthia M Tom, Brian W MacLaughlin, Beverley A Petrie
The National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommends that patients who are newly diagnosed with rectal cancer undergo staging CT scan of the chest. It is unclear whether posteroanterior and lateral chest radiography (X-ray) alone would provide adequate staging for most of these patients. A retrospective review was performed on all patients who had a two-view chest X-ray along with a chest CT for rectal cancer staging from 2007 to 2015. A total of 74 patients had both modalities. Sixty-three (85%) had a normal chest X-ray and 11 (15%) had an abnormal chest X-ray...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Weizhong Sheng, Yusheng Chen, Yuda Gong, Tiangeng Dong, Bo Zhang, Weidong Gao
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is aggressive and lethal with extrathyroidal invasion, distant metastasis, and resistance to conventional therapies. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are proposed to be responsible for high recurrence rate in ATC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been found as an important class of cellular regulators of ATC carcinogenesis. Identification of CSC-related miRNAs and targets is therefore a priority for the development of new therapeutic paradigms. Patient-derived ATC cells were cultured in conditional media on poly-hema-treated dish...
October 25, 2016: Oncology Reports
Lin Wang, Peiwu Yu
p53 mutations in tumors can induce the loss of wild-type tumor-suppressing p53 function, which results in the increase in proliferation, migration and invasion ability in cancer cells. Studies have shown that the expression of p53 is regulated by several microRNAs (miRNAs). In the present study, we found that miR-300 and p53 were significantly increased in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues when compared with levels noted in adjacent colorectal tissues. Both miR-300 and p53 were significantly correlated with lymphatic metastasis and TNM stage...
October 21, 2016: Oncology Reports
Hong-Xia Cui, Honglan Wang, Yuchun Wang, Juan Song, Hua Tian, Chunhui Xia, Yetong Shen
Changes in the carbohydrate structure on the surface of tumor cells is an important feature of cancer metastasis. The specific role of sialic acids in the glycoconjugate terminal has not yet been clearly elucidated in these processes. Previously, we reported that α2,3-sialic acid residues in breast cancer are associated with metastatic potential. The α2,3-sialyltransferase ST3Gal III, which adds α2,3-sialic acids to glycoproteins, is overexpressed in various tumors, and enzyme activity is correlated with tumor metastasis, yet its mechanistic role has not been fully evaluated...
October 18, 2016: Oncology Reports
Mingjiang Liu, He Xiusheng, Xiangjun Xiao, Yichun Wang
Osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive malignant tumor that is mesenchymal in origin with a very low 5-year survival rate, particularly in the patients with locally advanced or metastatic tumors and recurrent disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in essential biological processes as cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in normal or cancer cells, including OS cells. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-422a in OS. We demonstrated that miR-422a expression was significantly downregulated in OS tissues and cell lines compared with the normal controls...
October 19, 2016: Oncology Reports
Xi Chen, Qi Li, Xiao-Xi Kan, Ya-Jie Wang, Yu-Jie Li, Qing Yang, Hong-Bin Xiao, Ying Chen, Xiao-Gang Weng, Wei-Yan Cai, Xiao-Xin Zhu
Metastasis of breast cancer is the vital step for malignant progression. During such a process, hematogenous metastasis is an indispensable approach for the dissemination of cancer cells. A platelet, contributes to hypercoagulable state, and is also identified the crucial factor in the coagulation system for supporting metastasis. Therefore, the relationship of a platelet and a tumor cell plays a critical role in tumor cell metastasis. Consequently, inhibiting tumor cell‑induced platelet aggregation (TCIPA) is recongnized as a crucial target on suppression of tumor metastasis such as aspirin (ASA)...
October 19, 2016: Oncology Reports
Jie Li, He Huang, Yingguang Li, Li Li, Wenhui Hou, Zeshan You
Long non-coding RNA growth arrest-specific 5 (GAS5) was reported to be aberrantly expressed in various types of cancers. However, the role of GAS5 in the evolution and progression of ovarian cancer remains elusive. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the cellular function and clinical significance of GAS5 in ovarian cancer. GAS5 expression levels in 63 ovarian cancer tissues were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was performed to analyze the effect of GAS5 on cell proliferation...
October 24, 2016: Oncology Reports
Zhenhua Zhang, Li Liu, Chunliang Liu, Shousong Cao, Yizhun Zhu, Qibing Mei
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer‑related deaths in female patients, and the main reasons are late diagnosis, limited therapeutic options and metastasis. Therefore, development of molecular therapeutic targets for breast cancer to suppress tumorigenesis, growth and metastasis may improve the therapeutic options and be of great benefit to patients. Tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein 8-like 2 (TIPE2) is a novel molecule for maintaining immune homeostasis and is involved in cancer development...
October 21, 2016: Oncology Reports
Chun-Hao Li, Sa-Hoe Lim, Hyang-Hwa Ryu, Kyung-Sub Moon, Tae-Young Jung, Shin Jung
Stereotactic radiosurgery has been recognized as an effective treatment approach for metastatic brain tumors. By increasing the sensitivity of the tumor to radiation and decreasing the marginal dose, it is possible to improve therapeutic efficacy and decrease side-effects. In radiation-induced cells, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling mediates the phosphorylation of H2AX, which indicates DNA damage sensitivity and modulates the effect of radiation. Lewis lung cancer (LLC) and breast cancer (4T1) cells were irradiated with a Gamma Knife in cell culture tubes...
October 25, 2016: Oncology Reports
Hua-Qiang Zhu, Jin-Ben Ma, Xie Song, Heng-Jun Gao, Chao-Qun Ma, Hong Chang, Hong-Guang Li, Fang-Feng Liu, Jun Lu, Xu Zhou
Metformin, an oral biguanide drug used to treat type 2 diabetes, has displayed anticancer activities in several types of cancer cells. The combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin is the standard chemotherapy regimen for cholangiocarcinoma, but its benefit is limited. The present study aimed to investigate whether metformin could enhance the activities of gemcitabine and cisplatin against cholangiocarcinoma, and the underlying mechanisms. Metformin inhibited the proliferation of human cholangiocarcinoma RBE and HCCC-9810 cells and induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase by increasing the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways...
October 20, 2016: Oncology Reports
Yan Zhang, Jun Yuan, Xinli Zhang, Futang Yan, Minggang Huang, Tao Wang, Xiao Zheng, Ming Zhang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths with an increasing incidence in China. The aberrant expression of angiomotin (AMOT) has been confirmed in a variety of tumors and can interact with Yes-associated protein (YAP) to either promote or suppress the progression of cancer. Unfortunately, its role in CRC remains poorly elucidated. Herein, higher levels of AMOT were observed in CRC cell lines. Upregulation of AMOT in LoVo cells markedly increased cell proliferation and apoptotic resistance to 5-fluorouracil...
October 21, 2016: Oncology Reports
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