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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092735/toxicity-assessment-of-arsenic-and-cobalt-in-the-presence-of-aquatic-humic-substances-of-different-molecular-sizes
#1
Cláudia Hitomi Watanabe, Adnivia Santos Costa Monteiro, Erik Sartori Jeunon Gontijo, Vivian Silva Lira, Carolina de Castro Bueno, Nirmal Tej Kumar, Renata Fracácio, André Henrique Rosa
The release of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems can be influenced by humic acids. In this study, toxicity tests using environmentally relevant concentrations of arsenic and cobalt were conducted both in the presence and absence of aquatic humic substances (AHS) and the fractions of different molecular sizes in the range of (<5, 5-10;10-30; 30-100 and >100kDa) using the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia. AHS together with arsenic reduced the toxicity, and the toxicity decreased in fractions of larger molecular size AHS...
January 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092494/zebrafish-are-able-to-detect-ethanol-in-their-environment
#2
Steven Tran, Hayden Chow, Benjamin Tsang, Amanda Facciol, Prabhlene Gandhi, Priyanka Desai, Robert Gerlai
Zebrafish have become a popular animal model for studying the development of alcohol addiction. Several behavioral paradigms for studying alcohol addiction have been developed for zebrafish, including conditioned place preference, alcohol-induced tolerance, and withdrawal. However, alcohol choice preference tasks have not been established in zebrafish as of yet. The ability of zebrafish to detect alcohol in their environment is required in alcohol choice or preference tasks. To our knowledge, it is currently unknown whether zebrafish are able to detect alcohol in their environment immediately following bath immersion...
January 16, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092418/an-examination-of-the-etiologic-overlap-between-the-genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-insomnia-and-common-psychopathology
#3
Mackenzie J Lind, Sage E Hawn, Christina M Sheerin, Steven H Aggen, Robert M Kirkpatrick, Kenneth S Kendler, Ananda B Amstadter
BACKGROUND: Insomnia is comorbid with internalizing and externalizing psychiatric disorders. However, the extent to which the etiologic influences on insomnia and common psychopathology overlap is unclear. There are limited genetically informed studies of insomnia and internalizing disorders and few studies of overlap exist with externalizing disorders. METHODS: We utilized twin data from the Virginia Adult Twin Studies of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders (total n = 7,500)...
January 16, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092186/under-the-influence-of-facebook-excess-use-of-social-networking-sites-and-drinking-motives-consequences-and-attitudes-in-college-students
#4
Julia M Hormes
Background and aims Excessive use of social networking sites (SNS) has recently been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction (i.e., "disordered SNS use") using key criteria for the diagnosis of substance dependence and shown to be associated with a variety of impairments in psychosocial functioning, including an increased risk of problem drinking. This study sought to characterize associations between "disordered SNS use" and attitudes towards alcohol, drinking motives, and adverse consequences resulting from alcohol use in young adults...
March 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091811/charge-transfer-dissociation-ctd-mass-spectrometry-of-peptide-cations-study-of-charge-state-effects-and-side-chain-losses
#5
Pengfei Li, Glen P Jackson
1+, 2+, and 3+ precursors of substance P and bradykinin were subjected to helium cation irradiation in a 3D ion trap mass spectrometer. Charge exchange with the helium cations produces a variety of fragment ions, the number and type of which are dependent on the charge state of the precursor ions. For 1+ peptide precursors, fragmentation is generally restricted to C-CO backbone bonds (a and x ions), whereas for 2+ and 3+ peptide precursors, all three backbone bonds (C-CO, C-N, and N-Cα) are cleaved. The type of backbone bond cleavage is indicative of possible dissociation channels involved in CTD process, including high-energy, kinetic-based, and ETD-like pathways...
January 13, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090277/anti-quorum-sensing-activity-of-substances-isolated-from-wild-berry-associated-bacteria
#6
Suha M Abudoleh, Adel M Mahasneh
BACKGROUND: Quorum Sensing (QS) is a mechanism used by bacteria to determine their physiological activities and coordinate gene expression based on cell to cell signaling. Many bacterial physiological functions are under the regulation of quorum sensing such as virulence, luminescence, motility, sporulation and biofilm formation. The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize Quorum Sensing Inhibitory (QSI) substances from epiphytic bacteria residing on wild berries surfaces...
January 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089464/temperature-dependent-conformational-variation-of-chromophoric-dissolved-organic-matter-and-its-consequent-interaction-with-phenanthrene
#7
Wei Chen, Xiao-Yang Liu, Han-Qing Yu
Temperature variation caused by climate change, seasonal variation and geographic locations affects the physicochemical compositions of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), resulting in difference in the fates of CDOM-related environmental pollutants. Exploration into the thermal induced structural transition of CDOM can help to better understand their environmental impacts, but information on this aspect is still lacking. Through integrating fluorescence excitation-emission matrix coupled parallel factor analysis with synchronous fluorescence two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, this study provides an in-depth insight into the temperature-dependent conformational transitions of CDOM and their impact on its hydrophobic interaction with persistent organic pollutants (with phenanthrene as an example) in water...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088742/patterns-of-drug-use-and-hiv-infection-among-adults-in-a-nationally-representative-sample
#8
Stephanie Shiau, Stephen M Arpadi, Michael T Yin, Silvia S Martins
BACKGROUND: Little is known about drug use patterns among people living with HIV in comparison to an uninfected group in the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between legal and illegal drug use and HIV infection in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States. METHODS: Public use data files (2005-2014) from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) were used. Respondents were asked whether a medical professional had ever told them that they had HIV/AIDS...
January 7, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088618/modelling-possible-causality-in-the-associations-between-unemployment-cannabis-use-and-alcohol-misuse
#9
Joseph M Boden, Jungeun Olivia Lee, L John Horwood, Carolina Villamil Grest, Geraldine F H McLeod
BACKGROUND: There has been considerable interest in the extent to which substance use and unemployment may be related, particularly the causal pathways that may be involved in these associations. It has been argued that these associations may reflect social causation, in which unemployment influences substance use, or that they may reflect social selection, in which substance use increases the risk of becoming and remaining unemployed. The present study sought to test these competing explanations...
January 3, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088455/statistical-considerations-concerning-dissimilar-regulatory-requirements-for-dissolution-similarity-assessment-the-example-of-immediate-release-dosage-forms
#10
Magdalena Jasińska-Stroschein, Urszula Kurczewska, Daria Orszulak-Michalak
When performing in vitro dissolution testing, especially in the area of biowaivers, it is necessary to follow regulatory guidelines to minimize the risk of an unsafe or ineffective product being approved. The present study examines model-independent and model-dependent methods of comparing dissolution profiles based on various compared and contrasted international guidelines. Dissolution profiles for immediate release solid oral dosage forms were generated. The test material comprised tablets containing several substances, with at least 85% of the labeled amount dissolved within 15 minutes, 20-30 minutes or 45 minutes...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088386/trypsin-induces-biphasic-muscle-contraction-and-relaxation-via-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-and-neurokinin-receptors-1-2-in-porcine-esophageal-body
#11
Bai Xiaopeng, Yoshimasa Tanaka, Eikichi Ihara, Katsuya Hirano, Kayoko Nakano, Mayumi Hirano, Yoshinao Oda, Kazuhiko Nakamura
Duodenal reflux of fluids containing trypsin relates to refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Esophageal peristalsis and clearance are important factors in GERD pathogenesis. However, the function of trypsin in esophageal body contractility is not fully understood. In this study, effects of trypsin on circular smooth muscle (CSM) and longitudinal smooth muscle (LSM) of the porcine esophageal body were examined. Trypsin elicited a concentration dependent biphasic response, a major contraction and a subsequent relaxation only in CSM...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088032/oral-cannabidiol-does-not-produce-a-signal-for-abuse-liability-in-frequent-marijuana-smokers
#12
Shanna Babalonis, Margaret Haney, Robert J Malcolm, Michelle R Lofwall, Victoria R Votaw, Steven Sparenborg, Sharon L Walsh
BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring constituent of the marijuana plant. In the past few years, there has been great interest in the therapeutic effects of isolated CBD and it is currently being explored for numerous disease conditions (e.g., pain, epilepsy, cancer, various drug dependencies). However, CBD remains a Schedule I drug on the U.S. Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Despite its status, there are no well-controlled data available regarding its abuse liability...
December 14, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088016/release-and-cytotoxicity-studies-of-magnetite-ag-antibiotic-nanoparticles-an-interdependent-relationship
#13
Olena Ivashchenko, Anna Woźniak, Emerson Coy, Barbara Peplinska, Jacek Gapinski, Stefan Jurga
Though the cytotoxic properties of magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) are rather well investigated and known to be dose dependent and rather low, surface functionalization can drastically change their properties. To determine whether the cytotoxicity of magnetite/Ag/antibiotic NPs may be associated, among other things, with iron, silver and antibiotic release, this study investigates the release profiles and cytotoxicity of magnetite/Ag/rifampicin and magnetite/Ag/doxycycline NPs compares it similar profiles from magnetite, magnetite/Ag NPs and antibiotics...
January 9, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087527/floc-formation-reduces-the-ph-stress-experienced-by-microorganisms-living-in-alkaline-environments
#14
C J Charles, S P Rout, K A Patel, S Akbar, A P Laws, B R Jackson, S A Boxall, P N Humphreys
: The survival of microorganisms within a cementitious geological disposal facility for radioactive wastes is heavily dependent on their ability to survive the calcium dominated, hyper-alkaline conditions resulting from the dissolution of the cementitious materials. The present study shows that the formation of flocs, composed of a complex mixture of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), provides protection against alkaline pH values up to pH 13.0. The flocs were dominated by Alishewanella and Dietzia sp, producing a mannose rich carbohydrate fraction incorporating extracellular DNA, resulting in Ca(2+) sequestration...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081178/gender-differences-in-hiv-care-among-criminal-justice-involved-persons-baseline-data-from-the-care-corrections-study
#15
Curt Beckwith, Breana Uhrig Castonguay, Claudia Trezza, Lauri Bazerman, Rudy Patrick, Alice Cates, Halli Olsen, Ann Kurth, Tao Liu, James Peterson, Irene Kuo
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals recently released from incarceration have suboptimal linkage and engagement in community HIV care. We conducted a study to evaluate an information and communication technology intervention to increase linkage to community care among HIV-infected persons recently involved in the criminal justice (CJ) system. Baseline characteristics including risk behaviors and HIV care indicators are reported and stratified by gender. METHODS: We recruited HIV-infected individuals in the District of Columbia jail and persons with a recent history of incarceration through community and street outreach...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079752/changes-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-gene-expression-in-response-to-spinal-cord-stimulation
#16
Dana M Tilley, David L Cedeño, Courtney A Kelley, Margaret DeMaegd, Ramsin Benyamin, Ricardo Vallejo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been shown to influence pain-related genes in the spinal cord directly under the stimulating electrodes. There is limited information regarding changes occurring at the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). This study evaluates gene expression in the DRG in response to SCS therapy. METHODS: Rats were randomized into experimental or control groups (n = 6 per group). Experimental animals underwent spared-nerve injury, implantation of lead, and continuous SCS (72 hours)...
January 11, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079572/concurrent-treatment-of-ptsd-and-substance-use-disorders-using-prolonged-exposure-cope-a-pilot-study-in-alcohol-dependent-women
#17
Anna Persson, Sudie E Back, Therese K Killeen, Kathleen T Brady, Melanie L Schwandt, Markus Heilig, Åsa Magnusson
OBJECTIVES: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders are highly comorbid. Effective treatments are largely lacking. This pilot study evaluated the safety and feasibility of a novel intervention, Concurrent Treatment of PTSD and Substance Use Disorders Using Prolonged Exposure (COPE), in preparation for a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Twenty-two treatment-seeking women with current DSM-IV-TR PTSD and alcohol dependence (AD) were recruited...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077940/physician-tobacco-screening-and-advice-to-quit-among-u-s-adolescents-national-survey-on-drug-use-and-health-2013
#18
Lauren Collins, Sabrina L Smiley, Rakiya A Moore, Amanda L Graham, Andrea C Villanti
BACKGROUND: Initiating tobacco use in adolescence increases the risk of nicotine dependence and continued smoking. Physician screening for tobacco use increases the odds of physicians intervening with patients who smoke; However, without appropriate follow-through by the physician, screening for tobacco use is not enough to significantly increase cessation rates. Given the critical phase of development adolescence poses in tobacco use and evidence that physician intervention improves adult cessation efforts, we sought to examine physician tobacco use screening and advice to quit among adolescents (12-17 years)...
2017: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076644/main-mental-disorders-in-crack-cocaine-users-treated-at-psychosocial-care-centers-for-alcohol-and-drugs-in-the-city-of-recife-brazil
#19
Antonio Gomes de Castro, Diego César Nunes da Silva, Magda da Silva Figueiroa
Introduction: Brazil's Northeast region has the highest crack-cocaine consumption in the country. Crack-cocaine has more intense effects than cocaine powder and can cause greater chemical dependence. Psychosocial Care Centers for Alcohol and Drugs (CAPSad) are public health services that provide treatment for drug dependence. It is common for drug users, and particularly crack-cocaine users, to develop mental disorders. Objective: To evaluate the most common mental disorders in crack-cocaine dependents in treatment at CAPSad in the city of Recife, Brazil...
October 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076251/comparison-of-medical-diagnoses-among-same-sex-and-opposite-sex-partnered-patients
#20
Katie M Heiden-Rootes, Joanne Salas, Jeffrey F Scherrer, F David Schneider, Craig W Smith
BACKGROUND: Health disparities for gay and lesbian individuals are well documented in survey research. However, a limitation throughout the existing literature is the reliance on self-reported health conditions. This study used medical record diagnoses for gay and lesbian patients seen in primary care clinics. METHODS: This study used medical records of primary care patients (n = 31,569) seen at Midwestern, university-affiliated primary care clinics. First, all records with information about the sexual partnering of the patient were identified (n = 13,509)...
November 2016: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
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