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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929047/isolated-hypospadias-the-impact-of-prenatal-exposure-to-pesticides-as-determined-by-meconium-analysis
#1
Elodie Haraux, Pierre Tourneux, Christelle Kouakam, Erwan Stephan-Blanchard, Bernard Boudailliez, Andre Leke, Celine Klein, Karen Chardon
Although endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs, including pesticides) are thought to increase the risk of hypospadias, no compounds have been formally identified in this context. Human studies may now be possible via the assessment of meconium as a marker of chronic prenatal exposure. The objective of the present study was to determine whether or not prenatal exposure to pesticides (as detected in meconium) constitutes a risk factor for isolated hypospadias. In a case-control study performed between 2011 and 2014 in northern France, male newborns with isolated hypospadias (n = 25) were matched at birth with controls (n = 58)...
June 18, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928899/carnosic-acid-attenuates-acrylamide-induced-retinal-toxicity-in-zebrafish-embryos
#2
Aishah Albalawi, Reem Hasaballah A Alhasani, Lincoln Biswas, James Reilly, Saeed Akhtar, Xinhua Shu
Acrylamide (ACR) is a water-soluble chemical used widely in industry, which can be formed in tobacco smoke and in starchy foods cooked at high temperatures. ACR is considered to be a neurotoxin, genotoxin and carcinotoxin. Previous studies reported that ACR-exposed workers and experimental animals exhibited visual function defects, although the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. In this study, we found that zebrafish embryos exposed to 1 mM and 2 mM ACR showed significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreased expression of the antioxidant genes Sod1, Sod2, Catalase, Gpx1 and Nrf2, reduced activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and elevated malondialdehyde (MDA), compared with control embryos...
June 18, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928592/complex-toxicity-as-disruption-of-adipocyte-or-osteoblast-differentiation-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-under-the-mixed-condition-of-tbbpa-and-tcdd
#3
Hideki Kakutani, Tomohiro Yuzuriha, Ema Akiyama, Teruyuki Nakao, Souichi Ohta
People are frequently and unintentionally exposed to many chemical compounds, such as environmental pollutants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), in food and from the atmosphere. In particular, endocrine-disrupting TBBPA and dioxins are found in human breast milk and in the body. Conventional studies evaluate toxicity by administering a single substance to cells or animals, but evaluation of the toxicity of mixtures of these ingested compounds is essential for "true" toxicological assessment...
2018: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927429/-modern-diagnostics-and-treatment-of-posttraumatic-hydrocephalus
#4
Ya A Latyshev, A D Kravchuk, L B Likhterman, N E Zakharova, O S Zaytsev, A G Gavrilov, V A Okhlopkov, A A Potapov
One of the frequent consequences of severe traumatic brain injury is posttraumatic hydrocephalus that not only hampers the processes of consciousness recovery, rehabilitation, and social adaptation of patients but also is the cause of disability. Pathological processes underlying the clinical picture of posttraumatic hydrocephalus and the relationship between CSF circulation disorders and structural changes in the brain substance have not been adequately studied. Of particular importance are patients in the chronic vegetative or minimally conscious state, recovery from which is blocked by posttraumatic hydrocephalus...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925858/downregulation-of-the-neuronal-opioid-gene-expression-concomitantly-with-neuronal-decline-in-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-of-human-alcoholics
#5
Igor Bazov, Daniil Sarkisyan, Olga Kononenko, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Victor M Karpyak, Tatiana Yakovleva, Georgy Bakalkin
Molecular changes in cortical areas of addicted brain may underlie cognitive impairment and loss of control over intake of addictive substances and alcohol. Prodynorphin (PDYN) gives rise to dynorphin (DYNs) opioid peptides which target kappa-opioid receptor (KOR). DYNs mediate alcohol-induced impairment of learning and memory, while KOR antagonists block excessive, compulsive-like drug and alcohol self-administration in animal models. In human brain, the DYN/KOR system may undergo adaptive changes, which along with neuronal loss, may contribute to alcohol-associated cognitive deficit...
June 20, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925102/safety-and-toxicology-of-magnolol-and-honokiol
#6
Andrea Sarrica, Natalja Kirika, Margherita Romeo, Mario Salmona, Luisa Diomede
Magnolia officinalis and Magnolia obovata bark extracts have been used for thousands of years in Chinese and Japanese traditional medicines and are still widely employed as herbal preparations for their sedative, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, and antispastic effects. Neolignans, particularly magnolol and honokiol, are the main substances responsible for the beneficial properties of the magnolia bark extract (MBE). The content of magnolol and honokiol in MBE depends on different factors, including the Magnolia plant species, the area of origin, the part of the plant employed, and the method used to prepare the extract...
June 20, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924634/reward-based-learning-as-a-function-of-severity-of-substance-abuse-risk-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-youth-with-adhd
#7
Muhammad A Parvaz, Kristen Kim, Sean Froudist-Walsh, Jeffrey H Newcorn, Iliyan Ivanov
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with elevated risk for later development of substance use disorders (SUD), specifically because youth with ADHD, similar to individuals with SUD, exhibit deficits in learning abilities and reward processing. Another known risk factor for SUD is familial history of substance dependence. Youth with familial SUD history show reward processing deficits, higher prevalence of externalizing disorders, and higher impulsivity scores...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922190/decision-making-under-risk-but-not-under-ambiguity-predicts-pathological-gambling-in-discrete-types-of-abstinent-substance-users
#8
Michael J Wilson, Jasmin Vassileva
This study explored how different forms of reward-based decision-making are associated with pathological gambling (PG) among abstinent individuals with prior dependence on different classes of drugs. Participants had lifetime histories of either "pure" heroin dependence ( n = 64), "pure" amphetamine dependence ( n = 51), or polysubstance dependence ( n = 89), or had no history of substance dependence ( n = 133). Decision-making was assessed via two neurocognitive tasks: (1) the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a measure of decision-making under ambiguity (i...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914090/-fusarium-molds-and-mycotoxins-potential-species-specific-effects
#9
REVIEW
Alessia Bertero, Antonio Moretti, Leon J Spicer, Francesca Caloni
This review summarizes the information on biochemical and biological activity of the main Fusarium mycotoxins, focusing on toxicological aspects in terms of species-specific effects. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have centered on the peculiarity of the responses to mycotoxins, demonstrating that toxicokinetics, bioavailability and the mechanisms of action of these substances vary depending on the species involved, but additional studies are needed to better understand the specific responses. The aim of this review is to summarize the toxicological responses of the main species affected by Fusarium mycotoxins...
June 15, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913923/national-guidelines-for-evaluating-pain-patients-legal-right-to-prioritised-health-care-at-multidisciplinary-pain-clinics-in-norway-implemented-2009
#10
Karen Walseth Hara, Petter Borchgrevink
Background All nations are posed with the challenge of deciding how to allocate limited health care resources. A Patients' Rights Law from 1999 gives patients in Norway with a serious health condition, for which there is efficacious and cost-effective treatment, a legal right to receive health care from the National Health Care system. Methods Recently national guidelines have been produced for implementing these legal rights within 32 fields of specialist health care. One of these fields deals with serious chronic pain conditions...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913817/na-k-atpase-dependent-regulation-of-astrocyte-ca2-signalling-a-novel-mechanism-for-modulation-of-long-term-pain
#11
Elisabeth Hansson, Linda Block, Johan Forshammar, Christopher Lundborg, Björn Biber
Background Long-term or chronic pain represents a major health problem and is associated with significant socio-economic costs. During injury, pain can be dissociated from its normal physiological role. It can persist for a longer period of time, even after the primary noxious stimulus has more or less subsided. Analgesic drugs, with predominant neuronal sites of actions, seem to be relatively ineffective. Chronic pain is probably partly a consequence of ongoing neuroinflammation. The mechanisms behind these phenomena, and how the neuronal and non-neuronal activities evoked by painful stimuli and inflammation are processed in the brain and throughout the CNS, are not well understood...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913400/soil-sterilisation-methods-for-use-in-oecd-106-how-effective-are-they
#12
Katherine Lees, Mark Fitzsimons, Jason Snape, Alan Tappin, Sean Comber
Under many circumstances chemical risk assessments for pharmaceuticals and other substances are required to differentiate between 'loss' of a chemical from the aqueous phase as a result of abiotic (sorption or precipitation reactions) or biotic (biodegradation) processes. To distinguish only abiotic processes, it is necessary to work under sterile conditions. Reported methods include poisoning the soil with sodium azide, irradiation and autoclaving. However, a key aspect of any testing is the representativeness of the matrix and so any sterilisation procedure needs to ensure that the integrity of the sample is maintained, in particular particle size distribution, pH and organic carbon partitioning potential...
June 11, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912858/effect-of-caffeine-on-sprint-cycling-in-experienced-cyclists
#13
Dawn E Anderson, Sarah E LeGrand, Reece D McCart
Anderson, DE, LeGrand, SE, and McCart, RD. Effect of caffeine on sprint cycling in experienced cyclists. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Research regarding the ergogenic effects of caffeine (CAF) in anaerobic activity remains inconclusive. However, some researchers have found significant improvements in anaerobic performance when testing specifically trained athletes. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced, cross-over design was implemented to assess the impact of CAF on a 30-second Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) in experienced cyclists...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912652/tolerance-of-bitter-stimuli-and-attenuation-accumulation-of-their-bitterness-in-humans
#14
Emi Mura, Minako Yagi, Kohei Yokota, Eri Seto, Kentaro Matsumiya, Yasuki Matsumura, Yukako Hayashi
Some components of bitterness make key flavor contributions to promote the palatability of foods, whereas other components are recognized as aversive signals to avoid consuming harmful substances. These contradictory behaviors suggest that humans tolerate tastes of bitterants based on certain criteria. Here, we investigated human taste tolerance and sensory cues leading to diverse taste tolerance of bitter compounds. Tolerance of eight bitter compounds, which are typically contained in foods, was evaluated by measuring detection and rejection thresholds...
June 18, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911636/differential-analgesic-effects-of-subanesthetic-concentrations-of-lidocaine-on-spontaneous-and-evoked-pain-in-human-painful-neuroma-a-randomized-double-blind-study
#15
Adriana Miclescu, Martin Schmelz, Torsten Gordh
Background Both peripheral nerve injury and neuroma pain are the result of changes in sodium channel expression. Lidocaine selectively inhibits the spontaneous ectopic activity by binding to sodium channels. Subanesthetics concentrations of lidocaine are able to produce a differential block of the ectopic discharges, but not propagation of impulses, suppressing differentially the associated neuropathic pain symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between the analgesic effects of lidocaine 0...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911270/nano-delivery-of-trace-minerals-for-marine-fish-larvae-influence-on-skeletal-ossification-and-the-expression-of-genes-involved-in-intestinal-transport-of-minerals-osteoblast-differentiation-and-oxidative-stress-response
#16
Genciana Terova, Simona Rimoldi, Marisol Izquierdo, Cristina Pirrone, Wafa Ghrab, Giovanni Bernardini
Currently, the larviculture of many marine fish species with small-sized larvae depends for a short time after hatching, on the supply of high-quality live zooplankton to ensure high survival and growth rates. During the last few decades, the research community has made great efforts to develop artificial diets, which can completely substitute live prey. However, studies aimed at determining optimal levels of minerals in marine larvae compound feeds and the potential of novel delivery vectors for mineral acquisition has only very recently begun...
June 17, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910745/psychedelic-fauna-for-psychonaut-hunters-a-mini-review
#17
REVIEW
Laura Orsolini, Michela Ciccarese, Duccio Papanti, Domenico De Berardis, Amira Guirguis, John M Corkery, Fabrizio Schifano
Currently different classes of psychoactive substances are easily available for abuse, including several hundred novel psychoactive substances (NPS). Some of these drugs occur naturally in plants and animals or are chemically modified from plant or animal compounds and have been abused by humans over millennia. Recently, the occurrence of a new "drug culture" (e.g., psychonauts) who consume a great variety of NPS with hallucinogenic/psychedelic properties, facilitated the development of a new "psychedelic trend" toward the consumption of substances contained in some species of animals ("psychedelic fauna")...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910012/therapeutic-alliance-predicts-mood-but-not-alcohol-outcome-in-a-comorbid-treatment-setting
#18
Deirdre Richardson, Simon Adamson, Daryle Deering
INTRODUCTION: The pan-theoretical variable of alliance has been consistently reported to have a moderate yet robust effect on psychotherapy treatment outcome. However, the relationship is less clear in the addiction field where there is more limited research. The current study investigated the relationship between alliance and treatment outcome in an alcohol dependent and depressed population. METHOD: The Treatment Evaluation of Alcohol and Mood (TEAM) study was a randomized controlled pharmacotherapy trial with supportive clinical case management...
August 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909719/impure-but-not-inactive-behavioral-pharmacology-of-dibenzylpiperazine-a-common-by-product-of-benzylpiperazine-synthesis
#19
Sean B Dolan, Ritu A Shetty, Michael J Forster, Michael B Gatch
BACKGROUND: Substituted piperazines comprise a substantial proportion of the novel psychoactive substance market. Among the most widely abused piperazine compounds are meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), tri-fluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP), and, especially, benzylpiperazine (BZP), which are commonly incorporated, either alone or in combination, in illicit "party pills" or "ecstasy" formulations. Illicit synthesis of BZP often results in production of an impure by-product dibenzylpiperazine (DBZP), which frequently appears alongside BZP in these formulations; however, despite its ubiquity, little information exists regarding the abuse liability of DBZP...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909308/the-multilevel-antibiotic-induced-perturbations-to-biological-systems-early-life-exposure-induces-long-lasting-damages-to-muscle-structure-and-mitochondrial-metabolism-in-flies
#20
David Renault, Hesham Yousef, Amr A Mohamed
Antibiotics have been increasingly used over the past decades for human medicine, food-animal agriculture, aquaculture, and plant production. A significant part of the active molecules of antibiotics can be released into the environment, in turn affecting ecosystem functioning and biogeochemical processes. At lower organizational scales, these substances affect bacterial symbionts of insects, with negative consequences on growth and development of juveniles, and population dynamics. Yet, the multiple alterations of cellular physiology and metabolic processes have remained insufficiently explored in insects...
June 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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