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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923904/augmentation-of-cytolytic-activity-in-murine-natural-killer-cells-and-inhibition-of-tumor-growth-by-the-ethanol-fraction-of-oyster-extract
#1
Kaito Sakaguchi, Ming Zhong, Saeko Kawai, Yoshio Shimizu, Eiichi Gohda
A reduced number and/or reduced activity of natural killer (NK) cells, which are important for defense against a variety of cancers and viral infections, occur under various stress conditions and in patients with various diseases. In this article, we report that the 30% to 50% ethanol precipitate of oyster extract (EPOE50) dose-dependently enhanced the activity of mouse spleen NK cells in vitro and in vivo. The activity of EPOE50 was eluted with a molecular weight of about 2000 by gel filtration and was inactivated by periodate but not by proteinase K...
December 5, 2016: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923699/in-vitro-inhibition-of-clostridium-difficile-by-commercial-probiotics-a-microcalorimetric-study
#2
Mansa Fredua-Agyeman, Paul Stapleton, Abdul W Basit, Anthony E Beezer, Simon Gaisford
The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of some commercial probiotics on the growth of Clostridium difficile using the isothermal microcalorimeter, an instrument which can monitor the real time growth of bacteria. Commercial probiotic strains and products, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5(®), Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12(®), Probio 7(®) and Symprove™ were co-cultured with C. difficile in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth supplemented with 0.1% (w/v) l-cysteine hydrochloride and 0.1% (w/v) sodium taurocholate and monitored in the microcalorimeter...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923645/evaluation-of-antioxidant-activity-of-phenolic-fractions-from-the-leaves-and-petals-of-dandelion-in-human-plasma-treated-with-h2o2-and-h2o2-fe
#3
Dariusz Jędrejek, Bogdan Kontek, Bernadetta Lis, Anna Stochmal, Beata Olas
Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) is a widespread perennial of the Asteraceae family. Dandelion is a rich source of different bioactive compounds, including phenolic compounds, terpenes, carbohydrates, proteins, fatty acids, vitamin and minerals. However, the content of phenolics in tested extracts by various authors was not always well described. Dandelion is also a commonly available food with a long history of human use and as such poses little risk of harm. In this study, we focused on four different phenolic fractions from leaves and petals of dandelion, which might be of great interest...
December 3, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923566/flavonolignans-inhibit-adp-induced-blood-platelets-activation-and-aggregation-in-whole-blood
#4
Michal Bijak, Rafal Szelenberger, Joanna Saluk, Pawel Nowak
Flavonolignans are a group of active chemical compounds presented in a silymarin - a standardized extract obtained from fruits and seeds of Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaernt.). Since the 70s of the last century, flavonolignans have been regarded to the official medicine as a substances having hepatoprotective properties. However many researches performed in recent years have demonstrated that flavonolignans posses many other healthy properties including modulation of variety cell-signaling pathways. The aim of our study was to examine the effects of three major flavonolignans (silybin, silychristin and silydianin) on ADP-induced blood platelet activation using the flow cytometry analysis as well as determine the mechanism of this interaction by bioinformatic ligand docking method...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923259/-established-therapies-and-new-therapeutic-strategies-in-alcoholic-liver-disease
#5
Helmut Karl Seitz, Sebastian Mueller
Chronical alcohol abuse causes more than 200 diseases and/or symptoms and among these alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is of special importance since it occurs frequently and may be life-threatening. In Europe alcohol consumption as well as ALD increased as compared to the rest of the world. It has been estimated that in Europe approximately 500 000 people die every year due to ALD. ALD consists of alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatocellar cancer (HCC ). Alcohol hepatitis (AH) is a clinical feature with jaundice and liver failure and a high mortality...
December 6, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922639/mesolimbic-leptin-signaling-negatively-regulates-cocaine-conditioned-reward
#6
M Shen, C Jiang, P Liu, F Wang, L Ma
The regulatory mechanisms underlying the response to addictive drugs are complex, and increasing evidence indicates that there is a role for appetite-regulating pathways in substance abuse. Leptin, an important adipose hormone that regulates energy balance and appetite, exerts its physiological functions via leptin receptors. However, the role of leptin signaling in regulating the response to cocaine remains unclear. Here we examined the potential role of leptin signaling in cocaine reward using a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921039/clinical-manifestation-and-management-of-adpkd-in-western-countries
#7
REVIEW
Claudia Sommerer, Martin Zeier
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary kidney disease in Western countries. The prevalence is between 2.4/10,000 and 3.9/10,000. ADPKD represents a systemic disease resulting in deterioration in renal function. Until now, mutations in two genes (PKD1 and PKD2) have been identified. Recently, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) approved the use of the vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan to slow the progression of cyst development and renal insufficiency connected with ADPKD in adult patients with chronic kidney disease stages 1-3 at initiation of treatment with evidence of rapidly progressing disease...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921038/the-clinical-manifestation-and-management-of-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-in-china
#8
REVIEW
Cheng Xue, Chen-Chen Zhou, Ming Wu, Chang-Lin Mei
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic hereditary kidney disease characterized by progressive enlargement of renal cysts. The incidence is 1-2‰ worldwide. Mutations in two genes (PKD1 and PKD2) cause ADPKD. Currently, there is no pharmaceutical treatment available for ADPKD patients in China. Summary: This review focused on advances in clinical manifestation, gene diagnosis, risk factors, and management of ADPKD in China. There is an age-dependent increase in total kidney volume (TKV) and decrease in renal function in Chinese ADPKD patients...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918997/the-curvilinear-effects-of-sexual-orientation-on-young-adult-substance-use
#9
Jamie E Parnes, Ryan L Rahm-Knigge, Bradley T Conner
Alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana are commonly used by adolescents and linked with harmful health-related outcomes (e.g. injury, dependence). Moreover, heavy episodic (binge) drinking predicts more severe consequences. When examined by sexual orientation, highest rates of substance use have been found among bisexual individuals, with lower use at either end of the spectrum. When examined also by sex, this curvilinear trend is maintained among women but not men. These substance use patterns were identified using group differences (i...
November 18, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918706/effects-of-gaba-neural-regulation-and-intrinsic-cardiac-factors-on-heart-rate-variability-in-zebrafish-larvae
#10
Rafael Antonio Vargas
Heart rate (HR) is a periodic activity that is variable over time due to intrinsic cardiac factors and extrinsic neural control, largely by the autonomic nervous system. Heart rate variability (HRV) is analyzed by measuring consecutive beat-to-beat intervals. This variability can contain information about the factors regulating cardiac activity under normal and pathological conditions, but the information obtained from such analyses is not yet fully understood. In this article, HRV in zebrafish larvae was evaluated under normal conditions and under the effect of substances that modify intrinsic cardiac activity and cardiac activity modulated by the nervous system...
December 5, 2016: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918316/cognitive-impairment-and-tramadol-dependence
#11
Medhat M Bassiony, Usama M Youssef, Mervat S Hassan, Ghada M Salah El-Deen, Hayam El-Gohari, Mohamed Abdelghani, Ahmed Abdalla, Dalia H Ibrahim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment is one of the consequences of substance abuse. Tramadol abuse is a public health problem in Egypt. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of cognitive impairment among tramadol-abuse patients and control subjects. METHODS: This study included 100 patients with tramadol abuse and 100 control subjects (matched for age, sex, and education) who were recruited from Zagazig University Hospital, Egypt...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917506/comparative-in-vitro-toxicity-assessment-of-perfluorinated-carboxylic-acids
#12
Cecon T Mahapatra, Nur P Damayanti, Samuel C Guffey, Jennifer S Serafin, Joseph Irudayaraj, Maria S Sepúlveda
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic fluorinated compounds that are highly bioaccumulative and persistent organic pollutants. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), an eight-carbon chain perfluorinated carboxylic acid, was used heavily for the production of fluoropolymers, but concerns have led to its replacement by shorter carbon chain homologues such as perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA). However, limited toxicity data exist for these substitutes. We evaluated the toxicity of PFOA, PFHxA and PFBA on a zebrafish liver cell line and investigated the effects of exposure on cell metabolism...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917494/disturbing-sleep-and-sleepfulness-during-recovery-from-substance-dependence-in-residential-rehabilitation-settings
#13
Sarah Nettleton, Robert Meadows, Joanne Neale
There is evidence that poor sleep mitigates recovery from substance dependence and increases risk of relapse. However, to date research literature is located within biomedical, clinical and psychological paradigms. To complement the extant work, this article offers a sociological exploration of sleep in the context of recovery from dependence on alcohol and/or other drugs. Drawing on qualitative data generated through interviews with 28 men and women living in residential rehabilitation settings in England, we provide a detailed exploration of sleep practices focusing on how these are enacted throughout the night...
December 5, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916960/detection-of-volatile-metabolites-derived-from-garlic-allium-sativum-in-human-urine
#14
Laura Scheffler, Yvonne Sauermann, Anja Heinlein, Constanze Sharapa, Andrea Buettner
The metabolism and excretion of flavor constituents of garlic, a common plant used in flavoring foods and attributed with several health benefits, in humans is not fully understood. Likewise, the physiologically active principles of garlic have not been fully clarified to date. It is possible that not only the parent compounds present in garlic but also its metabolites are responsible for the specific physiological properties of garlic, including its influence on the characteristic body odor signature of humans after garlic consumption...
December 1, 2016: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916716/effects-of-a-non-competitive-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-antagonist-tiletamine-in-adult-zebrafish
#15
Tatiana O Kolesnikova, Sergey L Khatsko, Vadim A Shevyrin, Yuri Yu Morzherin, Allan V Kalueff
Tiletamine is a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist chemically related to ketamine and phencyclidine. A common veterinary anesthetic drug, tiletamine is currently a Schedule III controlled substance. This compound exerts sedative effects in humans and animals, also having an abuse potential, toxicity and dissociative hallucinogenic properties clinically. However, the neurotropic profile of tiletamine remains poorly understood, necessitating novel models and in-vivo screens, including non-mammalian species...
December 1, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916279/insights-from-preclinical-choice-models-on-treating-drug-addiction
#16
REVIEW
Matthew L Banks, S Stevens Negus
Substance-use disorders are a global public health problem that arises from behavioral misallocation between drug use and more adaptive behaviors maintained by nondrug alternatives (e.g., food or money). Preclinical drug self-administration procedures that incorporate a concurrently available nondrug reinforcer (e.g., food) provide translationally relevant and distinct dependent measures of behavioral allocation (i.e., to assess the relative reinforcing efficacy of the drug) and behavioral rate (i.e., to assess motor competence)...
December 1, 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916138/alcohol-exposure-differentially-effects-anti-tumor-immunity-in-females-by-altering-dendritic-cell-function
#17
Matthew G Thompson, Flor Navarro, Lennox Chitsike, Luis Ramirez, Elizabeth J Kovacs, Stephanie K Watkins
Dendritic cells (DCs) are a critical component of anti-tumor immunity due to their ability to induce a robust immune response to antigen (Ag). Alcohol was previously shown to reduce DC ability to present foreign Ag and promote pro-inflammatory responses in situations of infection and trauma. However the impact of alcohol exposure on generation of an anti-tumor response, especially in the context of generation of an immune vaccine has not been examined. In the clinic, DC vaccines are typically generated from autologous blood, therefore prior exposure to substances such as alcohol may be a critical factor to consider regarding the effectiveness in generating an immune response...
December 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915431/time-dependent-postmortem-redistribution-of-morphine-and-its-metabolites-in-blood-and-alternative-matrices-application-of-ct-guided-biopsy-sampling
#18
Sandra N Staeheli, Dominic Gascho, Lars C Ebert, Thomas Kraemer, Andrea E Steuer
Interpretation of postmortem morphine concentrations in forensic toxicology provides several pitfalls such as missing information on tolerance, analyte stability, or postmortem redistribution (PMR). Recently, it had been shown that computed tomography (CT)-guided collection of biopsies using a robotic arm (virtobot) provides a valuable strategy for systematic studies on time-dependent PMR. Using this technique, time-dependent PMR of morphine and its metabolites was investigated in 12 cases. At admission to the institute (t1), femoral and heart blood (right ventricle) as well as biopsies from the right lung, the right kidney, liver, spleen, and muscle tissue were collected...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915237/placental-morphology-in-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#19
Marlene Tai, Anna Piskorski, Jennifer C W Kao, Lynn A Hess, Suzanne M de la Monte, Füsun Gündoğan
AIMS: Maternal alcohol drinking adversely affects pregnancy outcome. Although fetal health and development are highly dependent upon the integrity of placentation, little is known about placental morphology following gestational exposure to alcohol in humans. METHODS: In this clinical study, subjects were recruited between 2010 and 2013 from an outpatient substance abuse and mental health treatment center for women. Data collected included maternal age, substance abuse history, comorbidities, pregnancy outcomes, gestational age at delivery, birth weight and placental weight...
December 3, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913580/responding-to-challenges-for-people-with-psychotic-illness-updated-evidence-from-the-survey-of-high-impact-psychosis
#20
REVIEW
Vera A Morgan, Anna Waterreus, Vaughan Carr, David Castle, Martin Cohen, Carol Harvey, Cherrie Galletly, Andrew Mackinnon, Patrick McGorry, John J McGrath, Amanda L Neil, Suzy Saw, Johanna C Badcock, Debra L Foley, Geoff Waghorn, Sarah Coker, Assen Jablensky
OBJECTIVE: The objective is to summarise recent findings from the 2010 Australian Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP) and examine their implications for future policy and planning to improve mental health, physical health and other circumstances of people with a psychotic disorder. METHODS: Survey of High Impact Psychosis collected nationally representative data on 1825 people with psychotic illness. Over 60 papers have been published covering key challenges reported by participants: financial problems, loneliness and social isolation, unemployment, poor physical health, uncontrolled symptoms of mental illness, and lack of stable, suitable housing...
December 1, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
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