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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457317/effects-of-alcohol-intoxication-on-self-reported-drinking-patterns-expectancies-motives-and-personality-a-randomized-controlled-experimental-study
#1
Sören Kuitunen-Paul, Elisabeth Obst, Ruth Schmidt, Christian Sommer, Paula T Kuitunen, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Ulrich S Zimmermann
Alcohol intoxication may affect self-reports of alcohol use and related constructs, such as impulsivity and dependence symptoms. Improved knowledge about potential systematic reporting biases induced by alcohol, e.g. through disinhibition, may be relevant for the assessment of intoxicated individuals both in clinical routine and research. We therefore randomly assigned 54 socially drinking males aged 18 to 19 without lifetime diagnosis of DSM-IV alcohol dependence to one of two experimental arms: either placebo infusion at day 1 and alcohol infusion at day 2, or vice versa...
February 19, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456355/role-of-yoga-in-management-of-substance-use-disorders-a-narrative-review
#2
REVIEW
Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Arpit Parmar, Ankit Gupta, Yatan Pal Singh Balhara
Substance use disorders are comparable to chronic medical illnesses and have a chronic relapsing course. Despite being significant contributors to morbidity and mortality, limited treatment options exist. The current narrative review was aimed at providing an overview of yoga therapy in substance-use disorders and discuss the relevant methodological issues. Articles published in English language till May 2017 indexed with PubMed, PubMed central, and Google Scholar were searched using search terms "Yoga," "Substance use," "Drug dependence," "Nicotine," "Tobacco," "Alcohol," "Opioids," "Cannabis," "Cocaine," "Stimulants," "Sedative hypnotics," "Inhalants," and "Hallucinogens" for inclusion in the review...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456275/antimicrobial-packaging-based-on-%C3%A9-polylysine-bioactive-film-for-the-control-of-mycotoxigenic-fungi-in-vitro-and-in-bread
#3
C Luz, J Calpe, F Saladino, Fernando B Luciano, M Fernandez-Franzón, J Mañes, G Meca
ɛ-Poly-l-lysine (ɛ-PL) is a cationic peptide with a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. This study investigates the use of ɛ-PL as natural antimicrobial to inhibit fungal growth and to reduce aflatoxins (AFs) production. Antifungal activity of starch biofilms with different concentrations of ɛ-Poly-l-lysine (ɛ-PL) was determined in solid medium against Aspergillus parasiticus (AFs producer) and Penicillium expansum . Then, biofilms were tested as antimicrobial devices for the preservation of bread loaf inoculated with A...
January 2018: Journal of Food Processing and Preservation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454928/resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-amygdala-and-problem-drinking-in-non-dependent-alcohol-drinkers
#4
Sien Hu, Jaime S Ide, Herta H Chao, Simon Zhornitsky, Kimberly A Fischer, Wuyi Wang, Sheng Zhang, Chiang-Shan R Li
Alcohol misuse is associated with dysfunction of the amygdala-prefrontal cortical circuit. The amygdala and its cortical targets show decreased activity during a variety of task challenges in individuals engaged in problem drinking. On the other hand, it is less clear how amygdala resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) may be altered in association with alcohol misuse and whether such changes are restricted to prefrontal cortical structures. Further, the influences of comorbid substance use and depression and potential sex differences have not been assessed in earlier work...
February 7, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454490/subchronic-exposure-to-acrylamide-leads-to-pancreatic-islet-remodeling-determined-by-alpha-cell-expansion-and-beta-cell-mass-reduction-in-adult-rats
#5
Milena Stošić, Milica Matavulj, Jelena Marković
Acrylamide (AA) is a toxic substance, used to synthesize polymers for industrial and laboratory processes. Also, AA is a food contaminant formed during the high temperature preparation of carbohydrate-rich food. The main subject of this study was to examine effects of subchronic AA treatment on the islets of Langerhans of adult rats. Adult male Wistar rats were orally treated with 25 or 50 mg/kg bw of AA for 3 weeks. Qualitative and quantitative immunohistochemical evaluation of glucagon and insulin expression and stereological analyses of pancreatic alpha and beta cells were performed...
February 14, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453693/exploiting-the-unique-phenotypes-of-the-earthworm-eudrilus-eugeniae-to-evaluate-the-toxicity-of-chemical-substances
#6
Beryl Vedha Yesudhason, Paulkumar Kanniah, Elaiya Raja Subramanian, Vasanthakumar Ponesakki, Veeraragavan Rajendiran, Sudhakar Sivasubramaniam
Both the evaluation and the determination of toxicity of chemical substances present in the environment have implications in human health. In this present study, the natural phenomenon named autotomy, a self-defense mechanism employed by several animals against the toxic chemical contaminants, was considered to assess the toxicity of different chemical substances. We investigated the effects of glucose, sodium chloride, kanamycin, mercuric chloride, arsenic trioxide, and lead oxide on the phenotypes of earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452862/protective-effect-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-allele-drb1-13-02-on-age-related-brain-gray-matter-volume-reduction-in-healthy-women
#7
Lisa M James, Peka Christova, Scott M Lewis, Brian E Engdahl, Angeliki Georgopoulos, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
BACKGROUND: Reduction of brain volume (brain atrophy) during healthy brain aging is well documented and dependent on genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors. Here we investigated the possible dependence of brain gray matter volume reduction in the absence of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) allele DRB1*13:02 which prevents brain atrophy in Gulf War Illness (James et al., 2017). METHODS: Seventy-one cognitively healthy women (32-69years old) underwent a structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI) scan to measure the volumes of total gray matter, cerebrocortical gray matter, and subcortical gray matter...
February 8, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452044/food-addiction-is-associated-with-higher-neuroticism-lower-conscientiousness-higher-impulsivity-but-lower-extraversion-in-obese-patient-candidates-for-bariatric-surgery
#8
Paul Brunault, Pierre-Henri Ducluzeau, Robert Courtois, Céline Bourbao-Tournois, Irène Delbachian, Christian Réveillère, Nicolas Ballon
BACKGROUND: The "food addiction" phenotype identifies a subpopulation of individuals experiencing substance-dependence symptoms toward specific foods. In the current debate on whether the "food addiction" phenotype should be considered as an addictive disorder, assessment of the personality traits associated with this phenotype would provide arguments for or against the "food addiction" phenotype and its inclusion in the "substance-related and addictive disorder" category...
February 16, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451585/psychoactive-substance-abuse-and-dependence-and-its-association-with-anxiety-disorders-a-population-based-study-of-young-adults-in-brazil
#9
Mariana B de Matos, Christian L de Mola, Jéssica P Trettim, Karen Jansen, Ricardo A da Silva, Luciano D de Mattos Souza, Liliane da Costa Ores, Mariane L Molina, Fernanda T Coelho, Ricardo T Pinheiro, Luciana de A Quevedo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between abuse of and dependence on different psychoactive substances and the presence of anxiety disorders in a sample of young adults from a city in southern Brazil. METHODS: Between 2007 and 2009, we carried out a cross-sectional, population-based study of individuals aged 18-24 years who lived in Pelotas, a city in southern Brazil. We evaluated anxiety disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0 (MINI), and use of psychoactive substances with the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST 2...
February 15, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450253/drug-nicotine-and-alcohol-use-among-exercisers-does-substance-addiction-co-occur-with-exercise-addiction
#10
Attila Szabo, Mark D Griffiths, Rikke Aarhus Høglid, Zsolt Demetrovics
Background: Scholastic works suggest that those at risk for exercise addiction are also often addicted to illicit drugs, nicotine, and/or alcohol, but empirical evidence is lacking. Aims: The aim of the present work was to examine the co-occurrence of illicit drug, nicotine, and alcohol use frequency (prevalence of users) and severity (level of problem in users) among exercisers classified at three levels of risk for exercise addiction: (i) asymptomatic, (ii) symptomatic, and (iii) at-risk...
June 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450250/association-between-drug-use-and-urban-violence-data-from-the-ii-brazilian-national-alcohol-and-drugs-survey-bnads
#11
Renata Rigacci Abdalla, Luciana Massaro, André de Queiroz Constantino Miguel, Ronaldo Laranjeira, Raul Caetano, Clarice S Madruga
Objective: To investigate the association of alcohol and cocaine use with urban violence (both as victim and as perpetrator) in a representative sample of the Brazilian population. Method: The Second Brazilian Alcohol and Drugs Survey (II BNADS) interviewed 4607 individuals aged 14 years and older from the Brazilian household population including an oversample of 1157 adolescents (14 to 18 years old). The survey gathered information on alcohol, tobacco and illegal substances use as well as on risk factors for abuse and dependence, behaviors associated with the use of substances and the possible consequences, as urban violence indicators...
June 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449109/arsenic-containing-hydrocarbons-disrupt-a-model-in-vitro-blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-barrier
#12
S M Müller, F Ebert, J Bornhorst, H-J Galla, K A Francesconi, T Schwerdtle
Lipid-soluble arsenicals, so-called arsenolipids, have gained a lot of attention in the last few years because of their presence in many seafoods and reports showing substantial cytotoxicity emanating from arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (AsHCs), a prominent subgroup of the arsenolipids. More recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that some arsenolipids might have adverse effects on brain health. In the present study, we focused on the effects of selected arsenolipids and three representative metabolites on the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (B-CSF-B), a brain-regulating interface...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447356/barriers-to-the-availability-and-accessibility-of-controlled-medicines-for-chronic-pain-in-africa
#13
Elmang Nchako, Scottie Bussell, Carlos Nesbeth, Chisom Odoh
Africans endure a high burden of pain and suffering from HIV/AIDS and cancer, yet receive a meager amount of the world's pain medication. This tragedy occurs needlessly, given that inexpensive, effective and easily administered interventions are available. WHO has a 'three-step analgesic ladder' framework for managing cancer pain. This widely adopted clinical practice guideline is an integral part of palliative care programs and has also been applied to non-cancer pain. However, untreated pain is a major public health problem due to the discordance between scientific evidence and public policy...
February 13, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445850/factors-associated-with-household-food-insecurity-and-depression-in-pregnant-south-african-women-from-a-low-socio-economic-setting-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Zulfa Abrahams, Crick Lund, Sally Field, Simone Honikman
PURPOSE: Food insecurity has been linked with maternal depression in low-income settings. Few studies have looked at factors associated with both food insecurity and maternal depression as outcomes. This study aimed to assess factors associated with food insecurity and depression in a sample of pregnant South African women. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study at a Midwife Obstetric Unit in a low-income suburb in Cape Town. Pregnant women attending the clinic for their first antenatal visit were invited to participate...
February 14, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443541/a-method-for-choosing-the-best-samples-for-mars-sample-return
#15
Peter R Gordon, Mark A Sephton
Success of a future Mars Sample Return mission will depend on the correct choice of samples. Pyrolysis-FTIR can be employed as a triage instrument for Mars Sample Return. The technique can thermally dissociate minerals and organic matter for detection. Identification of certain mineral types can determine the habitability of the depositional environment, past or present, while detection of organic matter may suggest past or present habitation. In Mars' history, the Theiikian era represents an attractive target for life search missions and the acquisition of samples...
February 14, 2018: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442216/psychiatric-comorbidities-among-patients-undergoing-liver-transplantation-in-south-korea-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#16
Jaesung Heo, O Kyu Noh, Young-Taek Oh, Mison Chun, Logyoung Kim
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of mental disorders in patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) based on claims data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) in South Korea. METHODS: We confirmed mental disorders in a nationwide cohort of 3758 patients receiving LT between January 2010 and December 2014. We categorized the prevalence of mental disorders based on patient age at the time of LT. RESULTS: A total of 288 patients for LT were diagnosed with a mental disorder 1 year before their cancer diagnosis...
February 13, 2018: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442016/properties-and-role-of-the-quorum-sensing-molecule-farnesol-in-relation-to-the-yeast-candida-albicans
#17
S Dižová, H Bujdáková
Farnesol is a quorum sensing (QS) molecule synthesized by Candida albicans acting as a negative regulator of morphogenesis; it blocks the yeast-to-hyphae transformation. This molecule is currently studied in particular from the viewpoint of possible use as a substance with anticancer properties and with an antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm effect in yeasts resistant or tolerant to conventional therapeutic agents, for example fluconazole. Besides the aforementioned effect on morphological transformation through cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA) pathway, it also affects other biochemical pathways of yeasts, for example those ones for sterol biosynthesis or triggering of apoptosis via accumulation of ROS (reactive oxygen species) that damage essential cellular compartments...
June 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441422/mapping-brain-functional-alterations-in-betel-quid-chewers-using-resting-state-fmri-and-network-analysis
#18
Jun-Cheng Weng, Yu-Syuan Chou, Guo-Joe Huang, Yeu-Sheng Tyan, Ming-Chou Ho
RATIONALE: The World Health Organization regards betel quid (BQ) as a human carcinogen, and DSM-IV and ICD-10 dependence symptoms may develop with its heavy use. BQ's possible effects of an enhanced reward system and disrupted inhibitory control may increase the likelihood of habitual substance use. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to employ resting-state fMRI to examine the hypothesized enhanced reward system (e.g., the basal forebrain system) and disrupted inhibitory control (e...
February 13, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439512/the-influence-of-inflammation-and-nerve-damage-on-the-neurochemical-characterization-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-like-immunoreactive-cgrp-li-neurons-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-porcine-descending-colon
#19
Krystyna Makowska, Slawomir Gonkowski
The enteric nervous system (ENS), localized in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract, regulates the functions of the intestine using a wide range of neuronally-active substances. One of them is the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), whose participation in pathological states in the large intestine remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of inflammation and nerve damage using a double immunofluorescence technique to neurochemically characterize CGRP-positive enteric nervous structures in the porcine descending colon...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439491/exogenous-melatonin-mitigates-acid-rain-stress-to-tomato-plants-through-modulation-of-leaf-ultrastructure-photosynthesis-and-antioxidant-potential
#20
Biswojit Debnath, Mubasher Hussain, Muhammad Irshad, Sangeeta Mitra, Min Li, Shuang Liu, Dongliang Qiu
Acid rain (AR) is a serious global environmental issue causing physio-morphological changes in plants. Melatonin, as an indoleamine molecule, has been known to mediate many physiological processes in plants under different kinds of environmental stress. However, the role of melatonin in acid rain stress tolerance remains inexpressible. This study investigated the possible role of melatonin on different physiological responses involving reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism in tomato plants under simulated acid rain (SAR) stress...
February 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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