keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Substance dependence

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040827/effects-of-lorcaserin-belviq-%C3%A2-on-nicotine-and-food-maintained-responding-in-non-human-primates
#1
David S Jacobs, Claire E Barkin, Michelle R Kohut, Jack Bergman, Stephen J Kohut
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that the FDA-approved serotonin 5-HT2C receptor agonist, lorcaserin (Belviq(®)), may be a promising candidate for the management of substance use disorders, including nicotine addiction. The present study was conducted to determine the efficacy and selectivity of acute or continuous lorcaserin treatment for decreasing the reinforcing effects of nicotine in a primate species. METHODS: Adult rhesus monkeys (n=4) with a history of nicotine self-administration (>2years) responded for injections of nicotine (0...
October 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036797/effects-of-venotonic-drugs-on-the%C3%A2-microcirculation-comparison-between-ruscus-extract-and-micronized-diosmine1
#2
Fatima Zely Garcia de Almeida Cyrino, Daniela Signorelli Balthazar, Fernando Lencastre Sicuro, Eliete Bouskela
BACKGROUND: Chronic venous disease of the lower limbs is a common public health problem worldwide with negative impact on quality of life and results with drugs used to treat it are sparse, probably due to lack of good experimental models. OBJECTIVE: In this investigation we have tested the effects of two commonly used venotonic substances, Ruscus extract and micronized diosmine, on the microcirculation in vivo. METHODS: These substances were given orally, by gavage, during two weeks, twice daily and observations were made using the hamster cheek pouch preparation...
October 7, 2017: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035935/prevalence-and-correlations-between-suicide-attempt-depression-substance-use-and-functionality-among-patients-with-limb-amputations
#3
Pedro I Arias Vázquez, Rosa G Castillo Avila, Mayra Del C Dominguez Zentella, Yazmín Hernández-Díaz, Thelma B González-Castro, Carlos A Tovilla-Zárate, Isela E Juárez-Rojop, María L López-Narváez, Ana Frésan
Most patients undergoing limb amputations suffer significant emotional changes. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of suicide attempts and depression in a sample of Mexican patients with limb amputations and, second, to determine whether the patients' functionality correlates with the presence of depression. We studied 40 patients who had undergone a limb amputation. The suicide attempt was evaluated using the Suicide Intent Scale. The depression was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, whereas the functionality of the patients was measured using the Functional Independence Measure...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035774/facial-dog-bite-injuries-in-children-a-case-report
#4
Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti, Edgleys Porto, Bruno Ferreira Dos Santos, Christiane Leite Cavalcanti, Alidianne Fábia Cabral Cavalcanti
INTRODUCTION: Dog bites are common and can affect victims of different ages, from children to the elderly. Injuries are usually located in different body regions, including head and face. The treatment of choice for injuries is the suture of the lesion, accompanied by antibiotic therapy and tetanus and anti-rabies vaccination. PRESENTATION OF CASE: An 11-year-old male black patient was admitted to the Surgery and Maxillo-Facial Traumatology Service, on an urgent basis, victim of domestic animal aggression (dog biting)...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035706/serious-suicide-attempts-in-outpatients-with-multiple-substance-use-disorders
#5
R Icick, E Karsinti, J-P Lépine, V Bloch, G Brousse, F Bellivier, F Vorspan
BACKGROUND: Suicide is a major public health concern and suicide attempts (SA) are frequent and burdensome in people suffering from substance use disorders (SUDs). In particular, serious SAs are a preoccupying form of attempt, which remain largely overlooked in these populations, especially regarding basic risk factors such as gender, addictive comorbidity and substance use patterns. Thus, we undertook a gender-specific approach to identify the risk factors for serious SAs in outpatients with multiple SUDs...
September 23, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035044/nicotine-alters-the-gut-microbiome-and-metabolites-of-gut-brain-interactions-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#6
Liang Chi, Ridwan Mahbub, Bei Gao, Xiaoming Bian, Pengcheng Tu, Hongyu Ru, Kun Lu
As the primary active substance in tobacco, nicotine affects the activity of the central nervous system, and its effects are sex-dependent. There are complex interactions between the gut and brain, and the gut microbiome can influence neuronal activity and host behavior, with diverse chemical signaling being involved. However, it is unclear whether nicotine can affect the normal gut microbiome and associated chemical signaling of the gut-brain axis. Sex is an important factor that shapes the gut microbiome, but the role of sex in the interaction among nicotine, gut bacteria, and related metabolites remains unknown...
October 16, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034725/polypharmacy-and-risk-of-falls-and-fractures-for-patients-with-hiv-infection-and-substance-dependence
#7
Theresa W Kim, Alexander Y Walley, Alicia S Ventura, Gregory J Patts, Timothy C Heeren, Gabriel B Lerner, Nicholas Mauricio, Richard Saitz
Although people with HIV infection (PLWH) are at higher risk of polypharmacy and substance use, there is limited knowledge about potential harms associated with polypharmacy such as falls and fractures in this population. The study objective was to determine whether polypharmacy, as measured by the number and type of medication, is associated with falls and fractures among PLWH and DSM-IV substance dependence in the past year or ever injection drug use (IDU). We identified the number of medications by electronic medical record review in the following categories: (i) systemically active, (ii) non-antiretroviral (non-ARV), (iii) sedating, (iv) non-sedating as well as any opioid medication and any non-opioid sedating medication...
October 16, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034498/design-synthesis-and-screening-of-triazolopyrimidine-pyrazole-hybrids-as-potent-apoptotic-inducers
#8
Raj Kamal, Vipan Kumar, Ravinder Kumar, Jitender K Bhardwaj, Priyanka Saraf, Priya Kumari, Vikas Bhardwaj
An efficient synthesis of novel 3-(3-aryl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-5,7-dimethyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]-pyrimidines was accomplished by the oxidation of pyrimidinylhydrazones by using organoiodine(III) reagent. All new triazolopyrimidine derivatives bearing the pyrazole scaffold were screened to evaluate them as a reproductive toxicant in the testicular germ cells of goat (Capra hircus). This study aimed at assessing the cytological and biochemical changes in testicular germ cells after the exposure to triazolopyrimidines in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
October 16, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034141/commercial-phenoxyacetic-herbicides-control-heavy-metal-uptake-by-wheat-in-a-divergent-way-than-pure-active-substances-alone
#9
Elżbieta Skiba, Wojciech M Wolf
BACKGROUND: Impact of two widely used commercial herbicides, i.e. Aminopielik D 450 SL and Chwastox 300 SL, on the uptake and translocation of selected heavy metals in wheat plants Triticum aestivum L. cultivated in the laboratory pot experiments was investigated. Mineral-humus, loamy sand soil representative for the central part of Poland was applied. Bioavailable, exchangeable and total forms of Cd, Co, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Mn were determined. Transfer coefficients, translocation, and bioaccumulation factors illustrating metal migration in the plant were investigated...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033939/induction-of-apoptosis-and-subsequent-phagocytosis-of-virus-infected-cells-as-an-antiviral-mechanism
#10
REVIEW
Firzan Nainu, Akiko Shiratsuchi, Yoshinobu Nakanishi
Viruses are infectious entities that hijack host replication machineries to produce their progeny, resulting, in most cases, in disease and, sometimes, in death in infected host organisms. Hosts are equipped with an array of defense mechanisms that span from innate to adaptive as well as from humoral to cellular immune responses. We previously demonstrated that mouse cells underwent apoptosis in response to influenza virus infection. These apoptotic, virus-infected cells were then targeted for engulfment by macrophages and neutrophils...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033802/the-neurobiological-mechanism-of-chemical-aversion-emetic-therapy-for-alcohol-use-disorder-an-fmri-study
#11
Ralph L Elkins, Todd L Richards, Robert Nielsen, Richard Repass, Henriettae Stahlbrandt, Hunter G Hoffman
A recent NIH epidemiology study found the lifetime prevalence of alcohol use disorder in the United States to be 29%. Alcohol drinking behavior is strongly "learned" via pleasure center activation/reinforcement. Alcohol craving is a powerful desire to drink alcoholic beverages. Craving was added as one of the defining criteria for alcohol use disorder in DSM5, and craving reduction is becoming an increasingly important treatment goal. In the current study, patients with alcohol use disorder received 10 days of inpatient multi-modal treatments at Schick Shadel Hospital (SSH) of Seattle...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033795/cellular-mechanisms-of-cortisol-induced-changes-in-mauthner-cell-excitability-in-the-startle-circuit-of-goldfish
#12
Daniel R Bronson, Thomas Preuss
Predator pressure and olfactory cues (alarm substance) have been shown to modulate Mauthner cell (M-cell) initiated startle escape responses (C-starts) in teleost fish. The regulation of such adaptive responses to potential threats is thought to involve the release of steroid hormones such as cortisol. However, the mechanism by which cortisol may regulate M-cell excitability is not known. Here, we used intrasomatic, in vivo recordings to elucidate the acute effects of cortisol on M-cell membrane properties and sound evoked post-synaptic potentials (PSPs)...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031879/the-effects-of-extracellular-polymeric-substances-on-magnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-stability-and-the-removal-of-microcystin-lr-in-aqueous-environments
#13
Yangyang Yang, Jun Hou, Peifang Wang, Chao Wang, Lingzhan Miao, Yanhui Ao, Xun Wang, Bowen Lv, Guoxiang You, Zhilin Liu, Yongxu Shao
The behaviors of nanoparticles rely on the aqueous condition such as natural organic matter (NOM). Therefore the presence of NOM would influence the interaction of nanoparticles with other substances possibly. Here, microcystin-LR (MC-LR) adsorption on iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) was studied in an aqueous solution with different types of NOM, including extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from cyanobacteria and alginic acid sodium salt (AASS) from brown algae. Results revealed that EPS played an important role in stabilizing IONPs and in the toxin adsorption efficiency...
October 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031874/an-update-on-the-physiopathology-and-therapeutic-management-of-cholestatic-pruritus-in-children
#14
A Thébaut, D Debray, E Gonzales
Pruritus is a disabling symptom accompanying chronic cholestasis. In extreme cases, the refractory nature of pruritus can result in a need for invasive therapies including liver transplantation. The pathogenesis of pruritus in cholestatic disease is poorly understood. It may involve a specific neural pathway (similar to that associated with pain) regulated by several pruritogenic substances such as bile acids, opioids, serotonin, and the more recently identified lysophosphatidic acid. While the therapeutic management of cholestatic pruritus is well established in adults, there is no consensus in children, in light of the difficulty of conducting controlled clinical studies...
October 11, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031578/short-term-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-affects-water-and-salt-intakes-differently-in-male-and-ovariectomised-female-rats
#15
Paula Nuñez, Juan Arguelles, Carmen Perillan
Thirst and sodium appetite are motivational states that lead to the search for and ingestion of water and sodium, thus contributing to maintenance of hydromineral balance. Oestrogens affect fluid intake and sodium preference. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine-disrupting substance with oestrogenic activity. Whether there are sex differences in the ingestive effects of BPA is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to determine the effect of short-term treatment of low doses of BPA on thirst and sodium appetite in adult male and ovariectomised Wistar rats...
October 12, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031253/controlling-the-crystal-polymorph-by-exploiting-the-time-dependence-of-nucleation-rates
#16
Laurie J Little, Alice A K King, Richard P Sear, Joseph L Keddie
Most substances can crystallise into two or more different crystal lattices called polymorphs. Despite this, there are no systems in which we can quantitatively predict the probability of one competing polymorph forming instead of the other. We address this problem using large scale (hundreds of events) studies of the competing nucleation of the alpha and gamma polymorphs of glycine. In situ Raman spectroscopy is used to identify the polymorph of each crystal. We find that the nucleation kinetics of the two polymorphs is very different...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030591/enhanced-terahertz-fingerprint-detection-with-ultrahigh-sensitivity-using-the-cavity%C3%A2-defect-modes
#17
Xiaomei Shi, Zhanghua Han
We report a new scheme of realizing terahertz fingerprint detection with ultrahigh sensitivity. Instead of using the direct absorption of terahertz through a bare sample in the regular transmission scheme, a cavity mode resonating at the characteristic frequency of the sample is used and due to the high dependence of the cavity mode transmission on the material loss, an amplified transmission decaying is observed when the sample is loaded into the cavity. Furthermore, this scheme retains the feature of substance identification...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030166/mdpv-and-%C3%AE-pvp-use-in-humans-the-twisted-sisters
#18
REVIEW
Laurent Karila, Geneviève Lafaye, Amandine Scocard, Olivier Cottencin, Amine Benyamina
The new psychoactive substances phenomenon continues to represent a considerable public health challenge. Synthetic cathinones are β-keto amphetamine analogues, also known as legal highs, research chemicals, bath salts. These drugs have surfaced as a popular alternative to other illicit drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, MDMA, and methamphetamine, due to their potent psychostimulant and empathogenic effects. Pyrovalerone cathinones (a-pyrrolidinophenones) form a distinct group of designer cathinones, such as MDPV...
October 10, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030126/the-pesticide-lindane-induces-dose-dependent-damage-to-granulosa-cells-in-an-in-vitro-culture
#19
Maria Grazia Palmerini, Gulmira Zhurabekova, Aru Balmagambetova, Stefania Annarita Nottola, Selenia Miglietta, Manuel Belli, Serena Bianchi, Sandra Cecconi, Valentina Di Nisio, Giuseppe Familiari, Guido Macchiarelli
Lindane, which is one of the most persistent organochlorine pesticide contaminating the Aral Sea region, is associated with numerous pathologies of the female reproductive system, including infertility, due to its gap junction blocker activity. By using an in vitro model of reproductive toxicity consisting of mouse parietal granulosa cells (GCs) exposed to increasing concentrations of Lindane ranging from 1 to 100μM (L1; L10; L100), we aimed to ascertain the Lindane toxicity by evaluating the ultrastructure and expression of the cell death protein p53...
October 10, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027347/a-two-step-evolutionary-process-establishes-a-non-native-vitamin-b6-pathway-in-bacillus-subtilis
#20
Jonathan Rosenberg, KahYen C Yeak, Fabian M Commichau
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the most important form of vitamin B6 serves as a cofactor for many proteins. Two alternative pathways for de novo PLP biosynthesis are known: the short deoxy-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP)-independent pathway, which is present in the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis and the longer DXP-dependent pathway, which has been intensively studied in the Gram-negative model bacterium Escherichia coli. Previous studies revealed that bacteria contain many promiscuous enzymes causing a so-called "underground metabolism", which can be important for the evolution of novel pathways...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
keyword
keyword
83533
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"