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Diabetes oral

Ye Seul Yang, Min Hyuk Lim, Seong Ok Lee, Eun Roh, Chang Ho Ahn, Soo Heon Kwak, Young Min Cho, Sungwan Kim, Andrea Mari, Kyong Soo Park, Hye Seung Jung
AIMS: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are anti-hypertensive drugs with renal protective effect. Additionally, they have been associated with the delayed onset of type 2 diabetes in high-risk populations, and some ARB were reported to increase insulin secretion and sensitivity in patients with prediabetes. Therefore, we studied the effects of ARB on insulin secretion in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-one patients were enrolled in this open-labeled, active comparator-controlled and crossover study...
March 15, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Yulin Chen, Jie Wu, Jiajia Wang, Wenjing Zhang, Bohui Xu, Xiaojun Xu, Li Zong
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The intestinal immune system is an ideal target to induce immune tolerance physiologically. However, the efficiency of oral protein antigen delivery is limited by degradation of the antigen in the gastrointestinal tract and poor uptake by antigen-presenting cells. Gut dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that are prone to inducing antigen-specific immune tolerance. In this study, we delivered the antigen heat shock protein 65-6×P277 (H6P) directly to the gut DCs of NOD mice through oral vaccination with H6P-loaded targeting nanoparticles (NPs), and investigated the ability of this antigen to induce immune tolerance to prevent autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice...
March 15, 2018: Diabetologia
Jesús Emilo Quintero Ojeda, Maribel Aguilar-Medina, Vicente Olimón-Andalón, Rosa Alicia García Jau, Alfredo Ayala Ham, José Geovanni Romero Quintana, Erika de Lourdes Silva-Benítez, Guzmán Sanchez-Schmitz, Rosalío Ramos-Payán
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by persistent high levels of glucose in plasma. Chronic hyperglycemia is thought to increase oxidative stress and the formation of free radicals that in turn damage cells. Thus, we decided to determine the frequency of nuclear abnormalities in epithelial cells from cheek and tongue mucosa of DM patients with type 1 (DM1, treated only with insulin) and type 2 (DM2, treated with metformin) using the buccal micronucleus cytome (BMCyt) assay. Micronuclei frequency in cheek epithelial cells was higher in both DM1 (0...
2018: BioMed Research International
Mukesh M Agarwal, John Punnose, Komal Sukhija, Asha Sharma, Naimaa K Choudhary
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the value of the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level for simplifying the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) diagnostic algorithm of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a South Asian population. METHODS: In 6,520 pregnant women undergoing universal screening with the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), the area under receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the overall FPG performance to detect GDM (IADPSG criteria)...
December 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
Shan Xing, Gregory S Calip, Alex D Leow, Shiyun Kim, Glen T Schumock, Daniel R Touchette, Todd A Lee
AIMS: To compare adherence and persistence to oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD) between patients who are new users of second generation antipsychotics (SGA) versus new users of other depression therapies in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Adults 18-64 years with previously-treated T2DM and MDD (past OAD and SSRI/SNRI use) who are new users of SGA or non-SGA therapies (bupropion, lithium, mirtazapine, thyroid hormone, tricyclic antidepressant) were identified in the 2009-2015 MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters database...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Hyo Kyoung Nam, Won Kyoung Cho, Jae Hyun Kim, Young Jun Rhie, Sochung Chung, Kee Hyoung Lee, Byung Kyu Suh
BACKGROUND: Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a traditional diagnostic tool for diabetes. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is an alternative method used in adults; however, its application in youths has been controversial. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of HbA1c and determined optimal cutoff points for detecting prediabetes and diabetes in youth. METHODS: This retrospective study included 389 obese children (217 boys, 55.8%) who had undergone simultaneous OGTT and HbA1c testing at six hospitals, Korea, between 2010 and 2016...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Kui Wu, Yan Cheng, Tingting Li, Ziwen Ma, Junxiu Liu, Qingying Zhang, Haidong Cheng
Aims: To evaluate the utility of glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) alone and in combination with haematocrit (HCT) for screening gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) between 12-16 gestational weeks. Methods: This prospective study was carried out in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Hospital of Fudan University from November 2014 to February 2015. In total, 690 pregnant women between 20 and 35 years old were included in this study. All subjects received a routine blood examination for HbA1c and HCT at 12-16 gestational weeks (gw) and a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 gw...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Roopa Jewel, Jubbin Jagan Jacob
Management of hyperglycaemia is crucial during labour to improve outcomes both in the newborn and in the mother. This is particularly crucial in mothers with pregestational type 1 diabetes and in all mothers requiring insulin treatment during pregnancy. The use of antenatal steroids in mothers at risk of preterm delivery complicates management of hyperglycaemia in the immediate antepartum period and requires appropriate dosing adjustments of insulin therapy. Mothers are generally asked to be nil per orum during active labour...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Eduardo José Pereira Oliveira, Vinício Felipe Brasil Rocha, Denismar Alves Nogueira, Alessandro Aparecido Pereira
This research aimed to assess the oral health related to quality of life among hypertensive and diabetic patients in the city of Alfenas, Brazil. This was a domiciliary-based, descriptive-analytical, cross-sectional research with a random, systematic sample stratified by the Family Health Team, consisting of 218 individuals. The following indexes were applied: DMFT, T-Health, FS-T, SiC index, use and need of prosthesis and OHIP-14. Most of the patients (56.42%) had only high blood pressure, were females (67...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Nely Cristina Medeiros Caires, Luciana Carla Neves de Brito, Leda Quercia Vieira, Antônio Paulino Ribeiro Sobrinho
The objective of this study was to analyze the epidemiological profile of oral health of Sateré-Mawé indigenous people living in Barreirinha, Amazonas (AM), Brazil, and the Tikuna indigenous people living in the urban area of Manaus (AM), in addition to characterizing the need for endodontic treatment between the two ethnic groups. A total of 138 individuals participated in the study, of whom 98 were Tikuna and 40 were Sateré-Mawé; they were distributed in age groups ranging from seven to 75 years. A very high prevalence of caries was observed in both ethnic groups...
March 8, 2018: Brazilian Oral Research
Ronaldo Lira-Junior, Sigvard Åkerman, Björn Klinge, Elisabeth A Boström, Anders Gustafsson
BACKGROUND: Analysis of saliva is emerging as a promising tool to diagnose and monitor diseases which makes determination of the salivary microbial profile in different scenarios essential. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of age, periodontal disease, sex, smoking, and medical conditions on the salivary microbial profile. DESIGN: A randomly selected sample of 441 individuals was enrolled (51% women; mean age 48.5±16.8). Participants answered a health questionnaire and underwent an oral examination...
2018: PloS One
Xinlei Wang, Xiaoqin Zhao, Ranran Zhou, Yunjuan Gu, Xiaohui Zhu, Zhuqi Tang, Xinlu Yuan, Wei Chen, Rongping Zhang, Chen Qian, Shiwei Cui
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that glucose peak time during oral glucose tolerance test varies in type 2 diabetes; however, characteristics of this heterogeneity remain unclear. This research aimed to investigate the characteristics of delayed glucose peak time in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 178 subjects who underwent oral glucose tolerance test were divided into five groups according to glucose peak time. RESULTS: Twenty-five subjects with normal glucose tolerance had a glucose peak at 30 min...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Rajesh Kumari, Venus Dalal, Garima Kachhawa, Ipshita Sahoo, Rajesh Khadgawat, Reeta Mahey, Vidushi Kulshrestha, Perumal Vanamail, J B Sharma, Neerja Bhatla, Alka Kriplani
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a carbohydrate intolerance first diagnosed in pregnancy and may be associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcome. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the maternal and perinatal outcome in GDM during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective analysis of women diagnosed with GDM who got antenatal care and delivered in our hospital in previous 5 years...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Pedapati Radhakrishna, Kolar Vishwanath Vinod, Akkilagunta Sujiv, Rathinam Palamalai Swaminathan
Background: Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) has not been evaluated extensively for diabetes and prediabetes diagnosis and short-term variability of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h PG post-75 g glucose load (2 hPG) and HbA1c has not been studied among Indians. Objectives: The study aimed to compare the sensitivity of HbA1c, FPG and 2 hPG for diabetes and prediabetes diagnosis as per the American Diabetes Association criteria, assess short-term variability of three tests and determine optimal HbA1c cutoffs for diabetes and prediabetes diagnosis among high-risk south Indians...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Eunyoung Bang, Boyoung Lee, Joon-Oh Park, Yooncheol Jang, Aekyong Kim, Sungwuk Kim, Hee-Sup Shin
In recent years, as the aging population grows, aging-induced cognitive impairments including dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have become the biggest challenges for global public health and social care. Therefore, the development of potential therapeutic drugs for aging-associated cognitive impairment is essential. Metabolic dysregulation has been considered to be a key factor that affects aging and dementia. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a primary sensor of cellular energy states and regulates cellular energy metabolism...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Zeev Ormianer, Jonathan Block, Shlomo Matalon, Jerry Kohen
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to assess whether long-term implant survival rates and bone loss in patients with moderately controlled type 2 diabetes is similar to the rates reported in the nondiabetic population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective observational study utilized patient medical records from a general practitioner's dental office. The records of patients who had moderately controlled type 2 diabetes with hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) up to 8% and glucose level below 150 mg/dL were reviewed, as patients with HbA1c up to 7% are considered to be well-controlled type 2 diabetes...
March 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Barbara Guerard, Vincent Omachonu, Blake Perez, Bisakha Sen
The issue of medication nonadherence has generated significant interest because of its complexity from both cost and outcomes perspectives. Of the 3.2 billion prescriptions written annually in the United States, estimates indicate that half are not taken as prescribed, especially among patients with asymptomatic chronic conditions. The objective of this study was to assess whether a comprehensive wellness assessment (CWA) program helps improve medication adherence for oral diabetic medications, statins, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ACE/ARBs) in a Medicare Advantage (MA) plan diabetic population...
March 2018: Journal of Healthcare Management / American College of Healthcare Executives
Yasutake Tanaka, Kiyomi Takahashi, Jun-Ichi Kato, Ai Sawazaki, Taiki Akasaka, Naoko Fujita, Toshihide Kumamaru, Yuhi Saito, Bungo Shirouchi, Masao Sato
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease spreading worldwide that has been reported to worsen the development and progression of other diseases (cancer, vascular diseases and dementia). To establish functional rice lines with anti-postprandial hyperglycaemic effects, we developed mutant rice lines, which lack one or two gene(s) related to starch synthesis, and evaluated their effects. Powder of mutant rice lines or other grains was loaded to rats fasted overnight (oral grain powder loading test). Incremental area under time-concentration curves (iAUC) were calculated with monitored blood glucose levels...
March 13, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Pengli Li, Jiejie Hao, Haihua Li, Huashi Guan, Chunxia Li
OBJECTIVES: Propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS) is poorly absorbed by oral administration due to its large molecular weight and slightly degradability in stomach acidic environment. Here, a novel enteric-coated nano formulation of PSS (enteric PSS-NP) was prepared to improve its bioavailability and efficacy. METHODS: The enteric PSS-NP was prepared by double (W1 /O/W2 ) emulsion and solvent evaporation method. The drug release characteristics in vitro were studied in artificial gastrointestinal fluid...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Lana Yin Hui Lai, Emma Harris, Robert M West, Sarah Louise Mackie
Background: Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and giant cell arteritis (GCA) are almost always treated with glucocorticoids (GCs), but long-term GC use is associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). The absolute incidence of this complication in this patient group remains unclear. Objective: To quantify the absolute risk of GC-induced DM in PMR and GCA from published literature. Methods: We identified literature from inception to February 2017 reporting diabetes following exposure to oral GC in patients with PMR and/or GCA without pre-existing diabetes...
2018: RMD Open
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