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Personalized epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786549/pluripotent-stem-cells-induction-and-self-renewal
#1
REVIEW
R Abu-Dawud, N Graffmann, S Ferber, W Wruck, J Adjaye
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) lie at the heart of modern regenerative medicine due to their properties of unlimited self-renewal in vitro and their ability to differentiate into cell types representative of the three embryonic germ layers-mesoderm, ectoderm and endoderm. The derivation of induced PSCs bypasses ethical concerns associated with the use of human embryonic stem cells and also enables personalized cell-based therapies. To exploit their regenerative potential, it is essential to have a firm understanding of the molecular processes associated with their induction from somatic cells...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786110/multi%C3%A2-layered-prevention-and-treatment-of-chronic-inflammation-organ-fibrosis-and-cancer-associated-with-canonical-wnt-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-catenin-signaling-activation-review
#2
Masaru Katoh
β‑catenin/CTNNB1 is an intracellular scaffold protein that interacts with adhesion molecules (E‑cadherin/CDH1, N‑cadherin/CDH2, VE‑cadherin/CDH5 and α‑catenins), transmembrane‑type mucins (MUC1/CD227 and MUC16/CA125), signaling regulators (APC, AXIN1, AXIN2 and NHERF1/EBP50) and epigenetic or transcriptional regulators (BCL9, BCL9L, CREBBP/CBP, EP300/p300, FOXM1, MED12, SMARCA4/BRG1 and TCF/LEF). Gain‑of‑function CTTNB1 mutations are detected in bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer and uterine cancer, whereas loss‑of‑function CTNNB1 mutations are also detected in human cancer...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754704/genetic-advances-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#3
Hernan Felipe Guillén-Burgos, Karol Gutiérrez-Ruiz
Post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, is a condition that affects a subgroup of individuals that have suffered a previous traumatic event capable of generating changes at a psychological and behavioural level. These changes affect the personal, family, and social environment of those who suffer from this condition. Different genes have been identified as risk markers for development of this disorder. The population heterogeneity and individual differences (genetic and environmental) of each subject have made it difficult to identify valid markers in previous studies...
April 2018: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749858/tbc-update-personalized-epigenetic-management-of-diabetes
#4
Adriana Fodor, Angela Cozma, Eddy Karnieli
The novel genome-wide assays of epigenetic marks have resulted in a greater understanding of how genetics and the environment interact in the development and inheritance of diabetes. Chronic hyperglycemia induces epigenetic changes in multiple organs, contributing to diabetic complications. Specific epigenetic-modifying compounds have been developed to erase these modifications, possibly slowing down the onset of diabetes-related complications. The current review is an update of the previously published paper, describing the most recent advances in the epigenetics of diabetes...
November 2017: Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743726/dramatic-dysbalancing-of-the-wnt-pathway-in-breast-cancers
#5
Alexey Koval, Vladimir L Katanaev
Wnt signaling is important for breast development and remodeling during pregnancy and lactation. Epigenetic modifications change expression levels of components of the Wnt pathway, underlying oncogenic transformation. However, no clear Wnt component increasing expression universally across breast cancer (BC) or its most Wnt-dependent triple-negative BC (TNBC) subgroup has been identified, delaying development of targeted therapies. Here we perform network correlation analysis of expression of >100 Wnt pathway components in hundreds of healthy and cancerous breast tissues...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735917/cancer-immunotherapy-a-focus-on-the-regulation-of-immune-checkpoints
#6
REVIEW
Tao Shi, Yanyu Ma, Lingfeng Yu, Jiaxuan Jiang, Sunan Shen, Yayi Hou, Tingting Wang
In recent years, the role of cancer immunotherapy has become increasingly important compared to traditional cancer treatments, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Of note, the clinical successes of immune checkpoint blockade, such as PD-1 and CTLA-4, represent a landmark event in cancer immunotherapy development. Therefore, further exploration of how immune checkpoints are regulated in the tumor microenvironment will provide key insights into checkpoint blockade therapy. In this review, we discuss in details about the regulation of immune checkpoints mediated by immune cells, oncolytic viruses, epigenetics, and gut microbiota and mutual regulation by co-expressed checkpoints...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718737/current-knowledge-of-microrna-mediated-regulation-of-drug-metabolism-in-humans
#7
Masataka Nakano, Miki Nakajima
Understanding the factors causing inter- and intra-individual differences in drug metabolism potencies is required for the practice of personalized or precision medicine, as well as for the promotion of efficient drug development. The expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes is controlled by transcriptional regulation by nuclear receptors and transcriptional factors, epigenetic regulation, such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation, and post-translational modification. In addition to such regulation mechanisms, recent studies revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous ~22-nucleotide non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression through the translational repression and degradation of mRNAs, significantly contribute to post-transcriptional regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes...
May 2, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707116/the-role-of-particulate-matters-on-methylation-of-ifn-%C3%AE-and-il-4-promoter-genes-in-pediatric-allergic-rhinitis
#8
Youjin Li, Zhe Mu, Hongyang Wang, Jinfen Liu, Fan Jiang
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic inflammatory disorder driven by T cell activation. How particulate matter contributes to epigenetic changes that in turn influence cytokine gene expression in CD4+ T cells remains unclear. In this study, 105 children diagnosed with AR and 90 healthy controls were recruited to explore the possible mechanism of particulate matter (PM) on the epigenetic regulation of CD4+ T IFN-γ and IL-4 promoter genes. Daily average PM10 and PM2.5 were obtained from five state-controlled monitoring stations, and activity-based dynamic exposure and personal exposure data were collected...
April 3, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701114/blood-biomarkers-and-treatment-response-in-major-depression
#9
Cristina Mora, Valentina Zonca, Marco A Riva, Annamaria Cattaneo
Millions of people worldwide suffer from depression, but despite advances in pharmacological therapies, many patients do not experience symptomatic remission or treatment response, even after treatments with several medications. As such, there is an urgent need to identify biomarkers that can not only predict the treatment response, but also allow a rational selection of optimal therapy for each patient. Areas covered: This review examines the recent findings, coming from different "omic sciences", in human blood-based biomarkers associated with antidepressant treatment response with particular attention on genetic/epigenetic and biochemical biomarkers...
April 27, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693637/paltem-what-parameters-should-be-collected-in-disaster-settings-to-assess-the-long-term-outcomes-of-famine
#10
REVIEW
Alexandra Moraru, Maria Moitinho de Almeida, Jean-Marie Degryse
Evidence suggests that nutritional status during fetal development and early life leaves an imprint on the genome, which leads to health outcomes not only on a person as an adult but also on his offspring. The purpose of this study is to bring forth an overview of the relevant parameters that need to be collected to assess the long-term and transgenerational health outcomes of famine. A literature search was conducted for the most pertinent articles on the epigenetic effects of famine. The results were compiled, synthesized and discussed with an expert in genetics for critical input and validation...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690855/maternal-phthalate-and-personal-care-products-exposure-alters-extracellular-placental-mirna-profile-in-twin-pregnancies
#11
Jia Zhong, Andrea A Baccarelli, Abdallah Mansur, Michal Adir, Ravit Nahum, Russ Hauser, Valentina Bollati, Catherine Racowsky, Ronit Machtinger
Prenatal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exerts both short- and long-term adverse effects on the developing fetus. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects have yet to be uncovered. Maternal-fetal signaling is mediated in part by signaling molecules (eg, microRNAs [miRNAs]) contained in extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are released by the placenta into the maternal circulation. We investigated whether maternal exposure to the EDCs phthalates and personal care products alters the miRNA profile of placental-derived EVs circulating in maternal blood...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683921/effects-of-exercise-on-asc-methylation-and-il-1-cytokines-in-heart-failure
#12
Brittany Butts, Javed Butler, Sandra B Dunbar, Elizabeth Corwin, Rebecca A Gary
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Inflammation contributes to heart failure (HF) progression and the interleukin (IL)-1 cytokine IL-1β is implicated in this process. The adaptor protein ASC is necessary for inflammasome activation of IL-1β. Lower ASC methylation is associated with worse outcomes in HF. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise on changes in ASC methylation and activation of the interleukin-1 family cytokine IL-1β in persons with HF. METHODS: Participants (N=54) were randomized to receive exercise intervention (n=38) or attention control (n=16) for 3 months...
April 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677472/translating-immunology-into-therapeutic-concepts-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#13
Holm H Uhlig, Fiona Powrie
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) defines a spectrum of complex disorders. Understanding how environmental risk factors, alterations of the intestinal microbiota, and polygenetic and epigenetic susceptibility impact on immune pathways is key for developing targeted therapies. Mechanistic understanding of polygenic IBD is complemented by Mendelian disorders that present with IBD, pharmacological interventions that cause colitis, autoimmunity, and multiple animal models. Collectively, this multifactorial pathogenesis supports a concept of immune checkpoints that control microbial-host interactions in the gut by modulating innate and adaptive immunity, as well as epithelial and mesenchymal cell responses...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676232/pharmacoepigenetics-and-pharmacoepigenomics-an-overview
#14
Jacob Peedicayil
The rapid and major advances being made in epigenetics is impacting pharmacology, giving rise to new sub-disciplines in pharmacology, pharmacoepigenetics, the study of the epigenetic basis of variation in response to drugs; and pharmacoepigenomics, the application of pharmacoepigenetics on a genome-wide scale. This article gives an overview of the current state of knowledge of pharmacoepigenetics and pharmacoepigenomics. The article highlights the following areas: epigenetic therapy, the role of epigenetics in pharmacokinetics, the relevance of epigenetics to adverse drug reactions, personalized medicine, drug addiction, and drug resistance, and the use of epigenetic biomarkers in drug therapy...
April 19, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675884/specific-breast-cancer-prognosis-subtype-distinctions-based-on-dna-methylation-patterns
#15
Shumei Zhang, Yihan Wang, Yue Gu, Jiang Zhu, Ce Ci, Zhongfu Guo, Chuangeng Chen, Yanjun Wei, Wenhua Lv, Hongbo Liu, Dongwei Zhang, Yan Zhang
Tumor heterogeneity is an obstacle to effective breast cancer diagnosis and therapy. DNA methylation is an important regulator of gene expression, thus characterizing tumor heterogeneity by epigenetic features can be clinically informative. In this study, we explored specific prognosis-subtypes based on DNA methylation status using 669 breast cancers from TCGA database. Nine subgroups were distinguished by consensus clustering using 3869 CpGs that significantly influenced survival. The specific DNA methylation patterns were reflected by different races, ages, tumor stages, receptor status, histological types, metastasis status and prognosis...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667778/dna-methylation-biomarkers-for-the-occurrence-of-lung-adenocarcinoma-from-tcga-data-mining
#16
Xiao-Feng Zhu, Bi-Sheng Zhu, Fei-Ma Wu, Hai-Bo Hu
The development of lung cancer is a combination of multifactor, multistage, and multiple genetic alterations processes. DNA methylation is an important factor. Currently, the study on the genome-scale epigenetic modification for studying the pathogenesis of lung cancer is still lacking. Here, we aimed to identify the epigenetic modifications of lung cancer, thus to provide scientific basis for the personalized medicine, and research of classification screening for lung adenocarcinoma patients. The DNA methylation data, and the corresponding clinical information of lung adenocarcinoma samples were extracted from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662485/our-environment-shapes-us-the-importance-of-environment-and-sex-differences-in-regulation-of-autoantibody-production
#17
REVIEW
Michael Edwards, Rujuan Dai, S Ansar Ahmed
Consequential differences exist between the male and female immune systems' ability to respond to pathogens, environmental insults or self-antigens, and subsequent effects on immunoregulation. In general, females when compared with their male counterparts, respond to pathogenic stimuli and vaccines more robustly, with heightened production of antibodies, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. While the precise reasons for sex differences in immune response to different stimuli are not yet well understood, females are more resistant to infectious diseases and much more likely to develop autoimmune diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662077/pharmacodynamics-of-mutant-idh1-inhibitors-in-glioma-patients-probed-by-in-vivo-3d-mrs-imaging-of-2-hydroxyglutarate
#18
Ovidiu C Andronesi, Isabel C Arrillaga-Romany, K Ina Ly, Wolfgang Bogner, Eva M Ratai, Kara Reitz, A John Iafrate, Jorg Dietrich, Elizabeth R Gerstner, Andrew S Chi, Bruce R Rosen, Patrick Y Wen, Daniel P Cahill, Tracy T Batchelor
Inhibitors of the mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) entered recently in clinical trials for glioma treatment. Mutant IDH1 produces high levels of 2-hydroxyglurate (2HG), thought to initiate oncogenesis through epigenetic modifications of gene expression. In this study, we show the initial evidence of the pharmacodynamics of a new mutant IDH1 inhibitor in glioma patients, using non-invasive 3D MR spectroscopic imaging of 2HG. Our results from a Phase 1 clinical trial indicate a rapid decrease of 2HG levels by 70% (CI 13%, P = 0...
April 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628786/personalized-medicine-in-oncology-new-perspectives-in-management-of-gliomas
#19
REVIEW
Justyna Gil, Izabela Laczmanska, Karolina A Pesz, Maria M Sasiadek
Studies on genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of carcinogenesis have led to the discovery of crucial genetic events for many of particular malignancies. This was followed by invention of new therapeutic approaches based on molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression that bears the name of personalised medicine. In the case of gliomas, ascertainment of genetic/epigenetic markers was the basis for re-classification of tumours that until now depended on histopathological analysis. This article reviews recent advances in personalised medicine and the new World Health Organisation classification of gliomas...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628070/interactions-between-oxytocin-receptor-gene-methylation-and-callous-unemotional-traits-impact-socioaffective-brain-systems-in-conduct-disordered-offenders
#20
Moji Aghajani, Eduard T Klapwijk, Olivier F Colins, Christiane Ziegler, Katharina Domschke, Robert R J M Vermeiren, Nic J A van der Wee
BACKGROUND: The developmental trajectory of psychopathy seemingly begins early in life and includes the presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits (e.g., perturbed socioaffective reactivity and empathy, callousness) in youths with conduct disorder (CD). Whereas oxytocin receptor gene methylation (OXTRMeth ) and its downstream neuromodulatory effects are deemed relevant to CU traits, nothing is known of how OXTRMeth interacts with CU traits to impact socioaffective brain systems in youngsters with CD...
April 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
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