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CA2 hippocampus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676856/age-related-changes-in-cortical-and-subcortical-structures-of-healthy-adult-brains-a-surface-based-morphometry-study
#1
Fenglian Zheng, Yulin Liu, Zilong Yuan, Xiaodong Gao, Yaoyao He, Xiaojing Liu, Dong Cui, Rui Qi, Tiao Chen, Jianfeng Qiu
BACKGROUND: Cerebral structures in both cortical and subcortical regions change with aging. More specific and comprehensive studies are needed to better elucidate these changes. PURPOSE: To investigate the relationships between age and cerebral structures regarding cortical and subcortical changes. STUDY TYPE: Cross-cohort research. POPULATION: 54 healthy adults (28 females) aged 21-71 years. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: T1 -weighted imaging was performed at 1...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668721/ultra-high-field-mri-of-human-hippocampi-morphological-and-multiparametric-differentiation-of-hippocampal-sclerosis-subtypes
#2
Clarissa Gillmann, Roland Coras, Karl Rössler, Arnd Doerfler, Michael Uder, Ingmar Blümcke, Tobias Bäuerle
The aim of the present study is to differentiate subtypes of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) using ex vivo ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Included were 14 surgically resected hippocampi of patients with medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. The resected hippocampi were histologically categorized into subtypes of hippocampal sclerosis (HS type 1 (n = 10), HS type 2 (n = 2) and no-HS (n = 2)) and subsequently scanned on a preclinical 7T MRI acquiring T2-weighted morphology, relaxometry and diffusion tensor imaging...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660444/ca-2-binding-protein-1-regulates-hippocampal-dependent-memory-and-synaptic-plasticity
#3
Tian Yang, Jeremiah K Britt, Coral J Cintrón-Pérez, Edwin Vázquez-Rosa, Kevin V Tobin, Grant Stalker, Jason Hardie, Rebecca J Taugher, John Wemmie, Andrew A Pieper, Amy Lee
Ca2+ binding protein 1 (CaBP1) is a Ca2+ sensing protein similar to calmodulin that potently regulates voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Unlike calmodulin, however, CaBP1 is mainly expressed in neuronal cell-types and enriched in the hippocampus, where its function is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of CaBP1 in hippocampal-dependent behaviors using mice lacking expression of CaBP1 (C-KO). By western blot, the largest CaBP1 splice variant, caldendrin, was detected in hippocampal lysates from wild-type (WT) but not C-KO mice...
April 13, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655945/long-term-westernized-diet-leads-to-region-specific-changes-in-brain-signaling-mechanisms
#4
Stine Normann Hansen, David Højland Ipsen, Anne Marie Schou-Pedersen, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Pernille Tveden-Nyborg
Western diets, high in fat and energy, are associated with cognitive deficits in humans and animal models, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. This includes whether diet-induced dyslipidemia per se negatively impacts brain signaling. Here we investigate the effects of dyslipidemia induced by two high fat diets with or without high sucrose on hippocampal and frontal cortical oxidative stress, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and down-stream markers of synaptic plasticity, as well as alterations in monoaminergic neurotransmitter levels...
April 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629628/neuroprotective-effect-of-polysaccharide-separated-from-perilla-frutescens-britton-var-acuta-kudo-against-h-2-o-2-induced-oxidative-stress-in-ht22-hippocampus-cells
#5
Eui-Baek Byun, Eun-Ji Cho, Yi-Eun Kim, Woo Sik Kim, Eui-Hong Byun
This study was carried out to evaluate the neuroprotective activity of polysaccharide extracts isolated from Perilla frutescens (PEPF) in H2 O2 -treated HT22 hippocampus cells. The PEPF treatment was found to increase the anti-oxidant activities of HT22 hippocampus cells. PEPF treatment resulted in a significant protection of HT22 hippocampus cells against H2 O2 -induced neurotoxicity, this protection ultimately occurred through an inhibition of ROS-mediated intracellular Ca2+ levels leading to MAPKs and NF-κB, as well as the accumulation of PI3K/AKT and Nrf2-mediated HO-1/NQO1 pathways...
April 8, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629524/glucose-hypometabolism-in-hippocampal-subdivisions-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-pilot-study-using-high-resolution-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-f-fdg-pet-and-7-0-t-mri
#6
Eun Jung Choi, Young Don Son, Young Noh, Hyon Lee, Young Bo Kim, Kee Hyung Park
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Atrophy of the hippocampus is an important clinical diagnostic marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and so assessments of hippocampal activity and its subdivisions might provide invaluable information. This study compared the glucose metabolism of hippocampal subdivisions in mild-AD patients and healthy controls. METHODS: High-resolution T2*-weighted gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images and ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET) images were acquired using 7...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628321/association-of-hippocampal-substructure-resting-state-functional-connectivity-with-memory-performance-in-older-adults
#7
Stephen F Smagula, Helmet T Karim, Anusha Rangarajan, Fernando Pasquini Santos, Sossena C Wood, Tales Santini, John M Jakicic, Charles F Reynolds, Judy L Cameron, Abbe N Vallejo, Meryl A Butters, Caterina Rosano, Tamer S Ibrahim, Kirk I Erickson, Howard J Aizenstein
OBJECTIVES: Hippocampal hyperactivation marks preclinical dementia pathophysiology, potentially due to differences in the connectivity of specific medial temporal lobe structures. Our aims were to characterize the resting-state functional connectivity of medial temporal lobe sub-structures in older adults, and evaluate whether specific substructural (rather than global) functional connectivity relates to memory function. METHODS: In 15 adults (mean age: 69 years), we evaluated the resting state functional connectivity of medial temporal lobe substructures: dentate/Cornu Ammonis (CA) 4, CA1, CA2/3, subiculum, the molecular layer, entorhinal cortex, and parahippocampus...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597156/longitudinal-development-of-hippocampal-subregions-from-childhood-to-adulthood
#8
Christian K Tamnes, Marieke G N Bos, Ferdi C van de Kamp, Sabine Peters, Eveline A Crone
Detailed descriptions of the development of the hippocampus promise to shed light on the neural foundation of development of memory and other cognitive functions, as well as the emergence of major mental disorders. Hippocampus is a heterogeneous structure with a well characterized internal complexity, but development of its distinct subregions in humans has remained poorly described. We analyzed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from a large longitudinal sample (270 participants, 678 scans) using an automated segmentation tool and mixed models to delineate the development of hippocampal subregion volumes from childhood to adulthood...
March 22, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594947/a-neuro-comparative-study-between-single-successive-thorium-dose-intoxication-and-alginate-treatment
#9
Mohamed M Rezk
The adult male albino rats were grouped into five groups (control group and four variably treated groups with thorium (Th) in single or successive with or without alginate treatment). The IP administration of thorium nitrate (13.6 mg/kg b.wt.) induced a regional distribution and accumulation ordered as cerebellum > cerebral cortex > brain stem > hippocampus > hypothalamus > striatum. Also, it induces a significant increase in Na+ , Ca2+ , and Fe3+ ion content and malondialdehyde (MDA) level while K+ ions and glutathione (GSH) level were significantly decreased...
March 29, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592955/characterizing-the-human-hippocampus-in-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease-using-a-computational-atlas-derived-from-ex-vivo-mri-and-histology
#10
Daniel H Adler, Laura E M Wisse, Ranjit Ittyerah, John B Pluta, Song-Lin Ding, Long Xie, Jiancong Wang, Salmon Kadivar, John L Robinson, Theresa Schuck, John Q Trojanowski, Murray Grossman, John A Detre, Mark A Elliott, Jon B Toledo, Weixia Liu, Stephen Pickup, Michael I Miller, Sandhitsu R Das, David A Wolk, Paul A Yushkevich
Although the hippocampus is one of the most studied structures in the human brain, limited quantitative data exist on its 3D organization, anatomical variability, and effects of disease on its subregions. Histological studies provide restricted reference information due to their 2D nature. In this paper, high-resolution (∼200 × 200 × 200 μm3 ) ex vivo MRI scans of 31 human hippocampal specimens are combined using a groupwise diffeomorphic registration approach into a 3D probabilistic atlas that captures average anatomy and anatomic variability of hippocampal subfields...
March 28, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571919/age-dependent-expression-pattern-in-the-mammalian-brain-of-a-novel-small-peptide-encoded-in-the-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-region
#11
Sabrina Kragness, Mark A A Harrison, Joby J Westmoreland, Adam Burstain, Laurie R Earls
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) carries increased risk for both physical and psychiatric symptoms, including a high risk for schizophrenia. Understanding the genetic elements within the deletion region therefore has the potential to unlock the mysteries of both diseases. While most of the protein-coding genes in this region have been characterized, novel elements, such as non-coding RNAs and small Open Reading Frames (sORFs) remain unstudied. We have identified a novel, highly-conserved mouse sORF in a region of the mouse genome that is orthologous to a portion of the 22q11 deletion...
March 20, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525685/involvement-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-cross-sensitization-between-chronic-unpredictable-stress-and-ethanol-in-adolescent-and-adult-mice
#12
Jaqueline Borges Santos-Rocha, Mariana Rae, Ana Maria Aristimunho Teixeira, Simone Aparecida Teixeira, Carolina Demarchi Munhoz, Marcelo Nicolas Muscará, Tania Marcourakis, Karen K Szumlinski, Rosana Camarini
The peculiar neurochemical profile of the adolescent brain renders it differently susceptible to several stimuli, including stress and/or drug exposure. Among several stress mediators, nitric oxide (NO) has a role in stress responses. We have demonstrated that adolescent mice are less sensitive to ethanol-induced sensitization than adult mice. The present study investigated whether chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) induces behavioral sensitization to ethanol in adolescent and adult Swiss mice, and investigated the influence of Ca2+ -dependent nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in the phenomenon...
October 31, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523177/inhibition-of-dream-atf6-interaction-delays-onset-of-cognition-deficit-in-a-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#13
Alejandro López-Hurtado, Daniel F Burgos, Paz González, Xose M Dopazo, Valentina González, Alberto Rábano, Britt Mellström, Jose R Naranjo
The transcriptional repressor DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator) is a multifunctional neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) that controls Ca2+ and protein homeostasis through gene regulation and protein-protein interactions. Downregulation of DREAM is part of an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism that improves ATF6 (activating transcription factor 6) processing, neuronal survival in the striatum, and motor coordination in R6/2 mice, a model of Huntington's disease (HD). Whether modulation of DREAM activity can also ameliorate cognition deficits in HD mice has not been studied...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518573/protracted-hippocampal-development-is-associated-with-age-related-improvements-in-memory-during-early-childhood
#14
Tracy Riggins, Fengji Geng, Morgan Botdorf, Kelsey Canada, Lisa Cox, Gregory R Hancock
The hippocampus is a structure that is critical for memory. Previous studies have shown that age-related differences in specialization along the longitudinal axis of this structure (i.e., subregions) and within its internal circuitry (i.e., subfields) relate to age-related improvements in memory in school-age children and adults. However, the influence of age on hippocampal development and its relations with memory ability earlier in life remains under-investigated. This study examined effects of age and sex on hippocampal subregion (i...
March 5, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518437/spatial-information-is-preferentially-processed-by-the-distal-part-of-ca3-implication-for-memory-retrieval
#15
Vera Flasbeck, Erika Atucha, Nozomu H Nakamura, Motoharu Yoshida, Magdalena M Sauvage
For the past decades, CA3 was considered as a single functional entity. However, strong differences between the proximal (close to the dentate gyrus) and the distal (close to CA2) parts of CA3 in terms of connectivity patterns, gene expression and electrophysiological properties suggest that it is not the case. We recently showed that proximal CA3 (together with distal CA1) preferentially deals with non-spatial information [1]. In contrast to proximal CA3, distal CA3 mainly receives and predominantly projects to spatially tuned areas...
March 5, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518331/interactome-analysis-reveals-regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-14-rgs14-is-a-novel-calcium-calmodulin-ca2-cam-and-cam-kinase-ii-camkii-binding-partner
#16
Paul R Evans, Kyle J Gerber, Eric B Dammer, Duc M Duong, Devrishi Goswami, Daniel J Lustberg, Juan Zou, Jenny J Yang, Serena M Dudek, Patrick R Griffin, Nicholas T Seyfried, John R Hepler
Regulator of G Protein Signaling 14 (RGS14) is a complex scaffolding protein that integrates G protein and MAPK signaling pathways. In the adult mouse brain, RGS14 is predominantly expressed in hippocampal CA2 neurons where it naturally inhibits synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. However, the signaling proteins that RGS14 natively engages to regulate plasticity are unknown. Here, we show that RGS14 exists in a high molecular weight protein complex in brain. To identify RGS14 neuronal interacting partners, endogenous RGS14 immunoprecipitated from mouse brain was subjected to mass spectrometry and proteomic analysis...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510187/rhynchophylline-suppresses-soluble-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-impairment-of-spatial-cognition-function-via-inhibiting-excessive-activation-of-extrasynaptic-nr2b-containing-nmda-receptors
#17
Yang Yang, Wei-Gang Ji, Zhi-Ru Zhu, Yu-Ling Wu, Zhi-Yang Zhang, Shao-Chen Qu
Rhynchophylline (RIN) is a significant active component isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Uncaria rhynchophylla. The overproduction of soluble amyloid β protein (Aβ) oligomers in the hippocampus is closely involved in impairments in cognitive function at the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Growing evidences show that RIN possesses neuroprotective effects against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. However, whether RIN can prevent soluble Aβ1-42 -induced impairments in spatial cognitive function and synaptic plasticity is still unclear...
March 3, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485232/gaba-a-receptor-subunit-expression-changes-in-the-human-alzheimer-s-disease-hippocampus-subiculum-entorhinal-cortex-and-superior-temporal-gyrus
#18
Andrea Kwakowsky, Beatriz Calvo-Flores Guzmán, Madhavi Pandya, Clinton Turner, Henry J Waldvogel, Richard L Faull
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. GABA type A receptors (GABAA Rs) are severely affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the distribution and subunit composition of GABAA Rs in the AD brain are not well understood. This is the first comprehensive study to show brain region- and cell layer-specific alterations in the expression of the GABAA R subunits α1-3, α5, β1-3 and γ2 in the human AD hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus (STG)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478916/caldendrin-directly-couples-postsynaptic-calcium-signals-to-actin-remodeling-in-dendritic-spines
#19
Marina Mikhaylova, Julia Bär, Bas van Bommel, Philipp Schätzle, PingAn YuanXiang, Rajeev Raman, Johannes Hradsky, Anja Konietzny, Egor Y Loktionov, Pasham Parameshwar Reddy, Jeffrey Lopez-Rojas, Christina Spilker, Oliver Kobler, Syed Ahsan Raza, Oliver Stork, Casper C Hoogenraad, Michael R Kreutz
Compartmentalization of calcium-dependent plasticity allows for rapid actin remodeling in dendritic spines. However, molecular mechanisms for the spatio-temporal regulation of filamentous actin (F-actin) dynamics by spinous Ca2+ -transients are still poorly defined. We show that the postsynaptic Ca2+ sensor caldendrin orchestrates nano-domain actin dynamics that are essential for actin remodeling in the early phase of long-term potentiation (LTP). Steep elevation in spinous [Ca2+ ]i disrupts an intramolecular interaction of caldendrin and allows cortactin binding...
February 20, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477301/physical-exercise-prevents-cognitive-impairment-by-enhancing-hippocampal-neuroplasticity-and-mitochondrial-function-in-doxorubicin-induced-chemobrain
#20
Hye-Sang Park, Chang-Ju Kim, Hyo-Bum Kwak, Mi-Hyun No, Jun-Won Heo, Tae-Woon Kim
Although chemotherapy increases the survival rate of patients with various cancers, such treatment can induce acute or long-term cognitive dysfunction a phenomenon known as post-chemotherapy cognitive impairment (PCCI) or "chemobrain." Exercise is known to positively affect brain function. Thus, the present study aimed to determine whether symptoms of chemobrain and disruptions in the neuroplasticity and functioning of hippocampal mitochondria can be prevented or relieved by exercise. Wistar rats were separated into the following groups: control, control plus exercise, chemobrain, and chemobrain plus exercise...
February 22, 2018: Neuropharmacology
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