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CA2 hippocampus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505127/variability-of-dna-methylation-within-schizophrenia-risk-loci-across-subregions-of-human-hippocampus
#1
W Brad Ruzicka, Sivan Subburaju, Francine M Benes
Identification of 108 genomic regions significantly associated with schizophrenia risk by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium was a milestone for the field, and much work is now focused on determining the mechanism of risk associated with each locus. Within these regions, we investigated variability of DNA methylation, a low-level cellular phenotype closely linked to genotype, in two highly similar cellular populations sampled from the human hippocampus, to draw inferences about the elaboration of genotype to phenotype within these loci enriched for schizophrenia risk...
May 15, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493345/il-10-expression-in-pyramidal-neurons-after-neuropathogenic-coronaviral-infection
#2
Masatoshi Kakizaki, Rihito Watanabe
The apoptosis of pyramidal neurons in CA2 and CA3 subregions of the hippocampus is induced after infection with Mu-3 virus (Mu-3), a neuropathogenic strain of the JHM virus (JHMV), at 4-5 days post-inoculation (dpi). The viral antigens in the hippocampus are mainly found in the CD11b-positive cells distributed in the stratum oriens located outside the pyramidal layer, and only a few pyramidal neurons are infected. Furthermore, the apoptotic cells, indicated as showing caspase 3 (Cas3) activation, consist of a high number of uninfected cells...
May 11, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487938/age-associated-alterations-in-constitutively-expressed-cyclooxygenase-2-immunoreactivity-and-protein-levels-in-the-hippocampus
#3
Hyo Young Jung, Dae Young Yoo, Jong Whi Kim, Hyun Jung Kwon, Kwon Young Lee, Jung Hoon Choi, Dae Won Kim, Jin Young Chung, Yeo Sung Yoon, In Koo Hwang
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a known inducible inflammatory mediator. COX-2 is constitutively expressed in the hippocampus and may regulate synaptic plasticity. The present study investigated the age‑associated alterations in white blood cell counts and hippocampal COX‑2 expression in healthy mice using immunohistochemical and western blot analyses at 1 month postnatal (PM1), PM3, PM6, PM12 and PM24. White blood cell counts were significantly decreased in the PM24 group when compared with the PM1 group...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472661/chronic-loss-of-ca2-transmission-leads-to-hippocampal-hyperexcitability
#4
Roman Boehringer, Denis Polygalov, Arthur J Y Huang, Steven J Middleton, Vincent Robert, Marie E Wintzer, Rebecca A Piskorowski, Vivien Chevaleyre, Thomas J McHugh
Hippocampal CA2 pyramidal cells project into both the neighboring CA1 and CA3 subfields, leaving them well positioned to influence network physiology and information processing for memory and space. While recent work has suggested unique roles for CA2, including encoding position during immobility and generating ripple oscillations, an interventional examination of the integrative functions of these connections has yet to be reported. Here we demonstrate that CA2 recruits feedforward inhibition in CA3 and that chronic genetically engineered shutdown of CA2-pyramidal-cell synaptic transmission consequently results in increased excitability of the recurrent CA3 network...
May 3, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460319/altered-mt1-and-mt2-melatonin-receptors-expression-in-the-hippocampus-of-pilocarpine-induced-epileptic-rats
#5
Anna Karynna Alves de Alencar Rocha, Eliangela de Lima, Fernanda Amaral, Rafael Peres, José Cipolla-Neto, Débora Amado
Clinical and experimental findings show that melatonin may be used as an adjuvant to the treatment of epilepsy-related complications by alleviates sleep disturbances, circadian alterations and attenuates seizures alone or in combination with AEDs. In addition, it has been observed that there is a circadian component on seizures, which cause changes in circadian system and in melatonin production. Nevertheless, the dynamic changes of the melatoninergic system, especially with regard to its membrane receptors (MT1 and MT2) in the natural course of TLE remain largely unknown...
April 28, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440093/turmeric-curcuma-longa-l-extract-may-prevent-the-deterioration-of-spatial-memory-and-the-deficit-of-estimated-total-number-of-hippocampal-pyramidal-cells-of-trimethyltin-exposed-rats
#6
Sapto Yuliani, Mustofa, Ginus Partadiredja
CONTEXT: Protection of neurons from degeneration is an important preventive strategy for dementia. Much of the dementia pathology implicates oxidative stress pathways. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) contains curcuminoids which has anti-oxidative and neuro-protective effects. These effects are considered to be similar to those of citicoline which has been regularly used as one of standard medications for dementia. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at investigating the effects of turmeric rhizome extract on the hippocampus of trimethyltin (TMT)-treated Sprague-Dawley rats...
April 25, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438504/agomelatine-protects-against-neuronal-damage-without-preventing-epileptogenesis-in-the-kainate-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
Jana Tchekalarova, Dimitrinka Atanasova, Zlatina Nenchovska, Milena Atanasova, Lidia Kortenska, Rumyana Gesheva, Nikolai Lazarov
Recent studies about the novel antidepressant agomelatine, which is a mixed MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptor agonist and 5HT2C serotonin receptor antagonist possessing an anticonvulsant and neuroprotective action, suggest that it may have potential to contribute against epileptogenesis and epilepsy-induced memory impairment. In order to ascertain whether protection of some brain structures could suppress epileptogenesis, in the present study, we evaluated the effect of chronic post-status treatment with agomelatine on epileptogenesis, behavioral and neuronal damage induced by kainate acid (KA) status epilepticus (SE)...
April 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430606/ketamine-administered-pregnant-rats-impair-learning-and-memory-in-offspring-via-the-creb-pathway
#8
Xinran Li, Cen Guo, Yanan Li, Lina Li, Yuxin Wang, Yiming Zhang, Yue Li, Yu Chen, Wenhan Liu, Li Gao
Ketamine has been reported to impair the capacity for learning and memory. This study examined whether these capacities were also altered in the offspring and investigated the role of the CREB signaling pathway in pregnant rats, subjected to ketamine-induced anesthesia. On the 14th day of gestation (P14), female rats were anesthetized for 3 h via intravenous ketamine injection (200 mg/Kg). Morris water maze task, contextual and cued fear conditioning, and olfactory tasks were executed between the 25th to 30th day after birth (B25-30) on rat pups, and rats were sacrificed on B30...
May 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424833/cannabis-related-hippocampal-volumetric-abnormalities-specific-to-subregions-in-dependent-users
#9
Yann Chye, Chao Suo, Murat Yücel, Lauren den Ouden, Nadia Solowij, Valentina Lorenzetti
RATIONALE: Cannabis use is associated with neuroanatomical alterations in the hippocampus. While the hippocampus is composed of multiple subregions, their differential vulnerability to cannabis dependence remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to investigate gray matter alteration in each of the hippocampal subregions (presubiculum, subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) subfields CA1-4, and dentate gyrus (DG)) as associated with cannabis use and dependence...
April 19, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401402/ischemia-reperfusion-induced-translocation-of-pkc%C3%AE-ii-to-mitochondria-as-an-important-mediator-of-a-protective-signaling-mechanism-in-an-ischemia-resistant-region-of-the-hippocampus
#10
Olga Krupska, Anna Sarnowska, Bartlomiej Fedorczyk, Magdalena Gewartowska, Aleksandra Misicka, Barbara Zablocka, Malgorzata Beresewicz
Emerging reports indicate that activated PKC isoforms that translocate to the mitochondria are pro- or anti-apoptotic to mitochondrial function. Here, we concentrate on the role of PKCβ translocated to mitochondria in relation to the fate of neurons following cerebral ischemia. As we have demonstrated previously ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) results in translocation of PKCβ from cytoplasm to mitochondria, but only in ischemia-resistant regions of the hippocampus (CA2-4, DG), we hypothesize that this translocation may be a mediator of a protective signaling mechanism in this region...
April 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394273/hippocampal-neuronal-loss-in-infant-macaques-orally-infected-with-virulent-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-siv
#11
Heather Carryl, Koen K A Van Rompay, Kristina De Paris, Mark W Burke
The neurological impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) on children includes loss of brain growth, motor abnormalities and cognitive dysfunction. Despite early antiretroviral treatment (ART) intervention to suppress viral load, neurological consequences of perinatal HIV-1 infection persist. Utilizing the pediatric simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection model, we tested the hypothesis that early-life SIV infection depletes neuronal population in the hippocampus. A total of 22 ART-naïve infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) from previous studies were retrospectively analyzed...
April 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385633/impaired-expression-of-gaba-transporters-in-the-human-alzheimer-s-disease-hippocampus-subiculum-entorhinal-cortex-and-superior-temporal-gyrus
#12
Tessa E Fuhrer, Thulani H Palpagama, Henry J Waldvogel, Beth J L Synek, Clinton Turner, Richard L Faull, Andrea Kwakowsky
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and plays an important role in regulating neuronal excitability. GABA reuptake from the synapse is dependent on specific transporters - mainly GAT-1, GAT-3 and BGT-1 (GATs). This study is the first to show alterations in the expression of the GATs in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus. We found a significant increase in BGT-1 expression associated with AD in all layers of the dentate gyrus, in the stratum oriens of the CA2 and CA3 and the superior temporal gyrus...
April 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379217/comparison-of-the-influence-of-two-models-of-mild-stress-on-hippocampal-brain-derived-neurotrophin-factor-bdnf-immunoreactivity-in-old-age-rats
#13
Ewa Badowska-Szalewska, Beata Ludkiewicz, Rafał Krawczyk, Natalia Melka, Janusz Moryś
The way hippocampal neurons function during stress in old age (critical times of life) is dependent on brain derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF). This study examined the influence of acute and chronic forced swim (FS) or high-light open field (HL‑OF) stimulation on the density of BDNF immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the hippocampal pyramidal layers of CA1, CA2, CA3 regions and the granular layer of dentate gyrus (DG) in old (postnatal day 720; P720) Wistar Han rats. Our data showed that in comparison with non-stressed rats, acute FS caused a significant increase in the density of BDNF-ir neurons in CA2 and CA3, while acute HL-OF led to an increase in this factor in all hippocampal subfields with the exception of DG...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377147/lmd-proteomics-provides-evidence-for-hippocampus-field-specific-motor-protein-abundance-changes-with-relevance-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Andreas Schrötter, Andrea Oberhaus, Katharina Kolbe, Svenja Seger, Thomas Mastalski, Fouzi El Magraoui, Edeltraut Hoffmann-Posorske, Michael Bohnert, Jürgen Deckert, Christian Braun, Matthias Graw, Christoph Schmitz, Thomas Arzberger, Christina Loosse, Helmut Heinsen, Helmut E Meyer, Thorsten Müller
BACKGROUND: Human hippocampal area Cornu Ammonis (CA) 1 is one of the first fields in the human telencephalon showing Alzheimer disease (AD)-specific neuropathological changes. In contrast, CA2 and CA3 are far later affected pointing to functional differences, which may be accompanied by differences in proteome endowment and changes. METHODS: Human pyramidal cell layers of hippocampal areas CA1, CA2, and CA3 from neurologically unaffected individuals were excised using laser microdissection...
June 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367136/reduced-ca2-ca3-hippocampal-subfield-volume-is-related-to-depression-and-normalized-by-l-dopa-in-newly-diagnosed-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Orsolya Györfi, Helga Nagy, Magdolna Bokor, Ahmed A Moustafa, Ivana Rosenzweig, Oguz Kelemen, Szabolcs Kéri
Hippocampal dysfunctions may play an important role in the non-motor aspects of Parkinson's disease (PD), including depressive and cognitive symptoms. Fine structural alterations of the hippocampus and their relationship with symptoms and medication effects are unknown in newly diagnosed PD. We measured the volume of hippocampal subfields in 35 drug-naïve, newly diagnosed PD patients without cognitive impairment and 30 matched healthy control individuals. Assessments were performed when the patients did not receive medications and after a 24-week period of l-DOPA treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365362/the-precuneus-and-hippocampus-contribute-to-individual-differences-in-the-unfolding-of-spatial-representations-during-episodic-autobiographical-memory
#16
Melissa Hebscher, Brian Levine, Asaf Gilboa
Spatial information is a central aspect of episodic autobiographical memory (EAM). Space-based theories of memory, including cognitive map and scene construction models, posit that spatial reinstatement is a required process during early event recall. Spatial information can be represented from both allocentric (third-person) and egocentric (first-person) perspectives during EAM, with egocentric perspectives being important for mental imagery and supported by the precuneus. Individuals differ in their tendency to rely on allocentric or egocentric information, and in general, the subjective experience of remembering in EAM differs greatly across individuals...
March 29, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326151/chronic-porphyromonas-gingivalis-infection-accelerates-the-occurrence-of-age-related-granules-in-apoe-mice-brains
#17
Sim K Singhrao, Sasanka Chukkapalli, Sophie Poole, Irina Velsko, St John Crean, Lakshmyya Kesavalu
This study explored the origin of age-related granules in the apolipoprotein E gene knockout (ApoE(-/-)) B6 background mice brains following chronic gingival infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis for 24 weeks. Intracerebral localization of P. gingivalis was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and its protease by immunohistochemistry. The age-related granules were observed by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), silver impregnation, and immunostaining. FISH showed intracerebral dissemination of P...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319408/turmeric-extract-inhibits-apoptosis-of-hippocampal-neurons-of-trimethyltin-exposed-rats
#18
S Yuliani, S Widyarini, Mustofa, G Partadiredja
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to reveal the possible antiapoptotic effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) on the hippocampal neurons of rats exposed to trimethyltin (TMT). BACKGROUND: Oxidative damage in the hippocampus can induce the apoptosis of neurons associated with the pathogenesis of dementiaMETHODS. The ethanolic turmeric extract and a citicoline (as positive control) solution were administered to the TMT-exposed rats for 28 days. The body weights of rats were recorded once a week...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267787/wfs1-is-expressed-in-dopaminoceptive-regions-of-the-amniote-brain-and-modulates-levels-of-d1-like-receptors
#19
Triin Tekko, Triin Lakspere, Anni Allikalt, Jaanus End, Karl Rene Kõlvart, Toomas Jagomäe, Anton Terasmaa, Mari-Anne Philips, Tanel Visnapuu, Fred Väärtnõu, Scott F Gilbert, Ago Rinken, Eero Vasar, Kersti Lilleväli
During amniote evolution, the construction of the forebrain has diverged across different lineages, and accompanying the structural changes, functional diversification of the homologous brain regions has occurred. This can be assessed by studying the expression patterns of marker genes that are relevant in particular functional circuits. In all vertebrates, the dopaminergic system is responsible for the behavioral responses to environmental stimuli. Here we show that the brain regions that receive dopaminergic input through dopamine receptor D1 are relatively conserved, but with some important variations between three evolutionarily distant vertebrate lines-house mouse (Mus musculus), domestic chick (Gallus gallus domesticus) / common quail (Coturnix coturnix) and red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235547/intermittent-hypercapnic-hypoxia-effects-on-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-the-developing-piglet-hippocampus-and-brainstem
#20
Arunnjah Vivekanandarajah, Atqiya Aishah, Karen A Waters, Rita Machaalani
This study investigated the effects of acute (1 day) vs repeated (4 days) exposure to intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia (IHH) on the immunohistochemical expression of α2, α3, α5, α7, α9 and β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in the developing piglet hippocampus and brainstem medulla, and how prior nicotine exposure alters the response to acute IHH. Five piglet groups included: 1day IHH (1D IHH, n=9), 4days IHH (4D IHH, n=8), controls exposed only to air cycles for 1day (1D Air, n=6) or 4days (4D Air, n=5), and pre-exposed to nicotine for 13days prior to 1day IHH (Nic+1D IHH, n=7)...
February 22, 2017: Neurotoxicology
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