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CA2 hippocampus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436670/hypothyroidism-increases-cyclooxygenase-2-levels-and-pro-inflammatory-response-and-decreases-cell-proliferation-and-neuroblast-differentiation-in-the-hippocampus
#1
Sung Min Nam, Jong Whi Kim, Dae Young Yoo, Hyo Young Jung, Jin Young Chung, Dae Won Kim, In Koo Hwang, Yeo Sung Yoon
The present study investigated the effects of hypothyroidism on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and pro‑inflammatory cytokines in the dentate gyrus to elucidate the roles of COX‑2 in the hypothyroid hippocampus. Hypothyroidism was induced in rats by treating with 0.03% 2‑mercapto‑1‑methyl‑imidazole dissolved in drinking water for 5 weeks. The animals were sacrificed at 12 weeks of age. Hypothyroidism rats exhibited decreased triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels in the serum, while the levels of thyroid‑stimulating hormone and the weight of thyroid glands were significantly higher in the hypothyroid rats compared with those in the vehicle‑treated group...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425964/alterations-of-l-type-voltage-dependent-calcium-channel-alpha-1-subunit-in-the-hippocampal-ca3-region-during-and-after-pilocarpine-induced-epilepsy
#2
Jie Hua Xu, Hui Wang, Wen Zhang, Feng Ru Tang
Voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) have been shown to regulate neuronal excitability and their antagonists have been used clinically for the control of seizures. While functional studies of VDCC in epileptogenesis in the CA1 area of hippocampus or the dentate gyrus have been done, few studies were carried out in the CA3 area. Given the bursting characteristics of the CA3 neurons, we speculated that VDCC in the CA3 area might play an important role in the epileptogenesis. In the present study in the mouse pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy, we investigated the alterations of alpha 1 subunits of L-type VDCC in the CA3 area of the hippocampus at different stages of epileptogenesis, i...
February 7, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406269/hippocampus-and-hypothalamus-rna-sequencing-of-wfs1-deficient-mice
#3
Marilin Ivask, Sander Pajusalu, Ene Reimann, Sulev Kõks
Wolfram syndrome is caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene. WFS1 protein dysfunction results in a range of neuroendocrine syndromes and is mostly characterized by juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy. WFS1 has been shown to participate in membrane trafficking, protein processing and Ca2+ homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum. Aim of the present study was to find the transcriptomic changes influenced by WFS1 in the hypothalamus and hippocampus using RNA-sequencing. The WFS1-deficient mice were used as a model system to analyze the changes in transcriptional networks...
February 3, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404409/the-influence-of-dat1-comt-and-bdnf-genetic-polymorphisms-on-total-and-subregional-hippocampal-volumes-in-early-onset-heavy-cannabis-users
#4
Albert Batalla, Valentina Lorenzetti, Yann Chye, Murat Yücel, Carles Soriano-Mas, Sagnik Bhattacharyya, Marta Torrens, José A S Crippa, Rocío Martín-Santos
Introduction: Hippocampal neuroanatomy is affected by genetic variations in dopaminergic candidate genes and environmental insults, such as early onset of chronic cannabis exposure. Here, we examine how hippocampal total and subregional volumes are affected by cannabis use and functional polymorphisms of dopamine-relevant genes, including the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), dopamine transporter (DAT1), and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genes. Material and Methods: We manually traced total hippocampal volumes and automatically segmented hippocampal subregions using high-resolution MRI images, and performed COMT, DAT1, and BDNF genotyping in 59 male Caucasian young adults aged 18-30 years...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387909/hippocampal-area-ca2-an-emerging-modulatory-gateway-in-the-hippocampal-circuit
#5
REVIEW
Amrita Benoy, Ananya Dasgupta, Sreedharan Sajikumar
The hippocampus is a critical brain region for the formation of declarative memories. While social memory had long been attributed to be a function of the hippocampus, it is only of late that the area CA2 of the hippocampus was demarcated as essential for social memory formation. In addition to this distinct role, CA2 possesses unique molecular, structural and physiological characteristics compared to the other CA regions-CA1 and CA3, and the dentate gyrus (DG). CA2 pyramidal neurons are positioned at a location between CA1 and CA3, receiving inputs from CA3 and DG, in addition to forming a powerful disynaptic circuit with direct input from the entorhinal cortical layer II neurons...
January 31, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355673/a-role-for-ca3-in-social-recognition-memory
#6
Ming-Ching Chiang, Arthur J Y Huang, Marie E Wintzer, Toshio Ohshima, Thomas J McHugh
Social recognition memory is crucial for survival across species, underlying the need to correctly identify conspecifics, mates and potential enemies. In humans the hippocampus is engaged in social and episodic memory, however the circuit mechanisms of social memory in rodent models has only recently come under scrutiny. Work in mice has established that the dorsal CA2 and ventral CA1 regions play critical roles, however a more comprehensive comparative analyses of the circuits and mechanisms required has not been reported...
January 17, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339150/altered-function-of-neuronal-l-type-calcium-channels-in-ageing-and-neuroinflammation-implications-in-age-related-synaptic-dysfunction-and-cognitive-decline
#7
REVIEW
Sheeja Navakkode, Chao Liu, Tuck Wah Soong
The rapid developments in science have led to an increase in human life expectancy and thus, ageing and age-related disorders/diseases have become one of the greatest concerns in the 21st century. Cognitive abilities tend to decline as we get older. This age-related cognitive decline is mainly attributed to aberrant changes in synaptic plasticity and neuronal connections. Recent studies show that alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis underlie the increased vulnerability of neurons to age-related processes like cognitive decline and synaptic dysfunctions...
January 12, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337116/impact-of-swiprosin-1-efhd2-on-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#8
Martin Regensburger, Iryna Prots, Dorothea Reimer, Sebastian Brachs, Sandra Loskarn, Dieter Chichung Lie, Dirk Mielenz, Beate Winner
Swiprosin-1/Efhd2 (Efhd2) is highly expressed in the CNS during development and in the adult. EFHD2 is regulated by Ca2+ binding, stabilizes F-actin, and promotes neurite extension. Previous studies indicated a dysregulation of EFHD2 in human Alzheimer's disease brains. We hypothesized a detrimental effect of genetic ablation of Efhd2 on hippocampal integrity and specifically investigated adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Efhd2 was expressed throughout adult neuronal development and in mature neurons. We observed a severe reduction of the survival of adult newborn neurons in Efhd2 knockouts, starting at the early neuroblast stage...
January 9, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335778/hippocampal-area-ca2-properties-and-contribution-to-hippocampal-function
#9
REVIEW
Vincent Robert, Sadiyah Cassim, Vivien Chevaleyre, Rebecca A Piskorowski
This review focuses on area CA2 of the hippocampus, as recent results have revealed the unique properties and surprising role of this region in encoding social, temporal and contextual aspects of memory. Originally identified and described by Lorente de No, in 1934, this region of the hippocampus has unique intra-and extra-hippocampal connectivity, sending and receiving input to septal and hypothalamic regions. Recent in vivo studies have indicated that CA2 pyramidal neurons encode spatial information during immobility and play an important role in the generation of sharp-wave ripples...
January 15, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332300/long-term-exposure-to-cell-phone-frequencies-900-and-1800%C3%A2-mhz-induces-apoptosis-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-and-trpv1-channel-activation-in-the-hippocampus-and-dorsal-root-ganglion-of-rats
#10
Kemal Ertilav, Fuat Uslusoy, Serdar Ataizi, Mustafa Nazıroğlu
Mobile phone providers use electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with frequencies ranging from 900 to 1800 MHz. The increasing use of mobile phones has been accompanied by several potentially pathological consequences, such as neurological diseases related to hippocampal (HIPPON) and dorsal root ganglion neuron (DRGN). The TRPV1 channel is activated different stimuli, including CapN, high temperature and oxidative stress. We investigated the contribution TRPV1 to mitochondrial oxidative stress and apoptosis in HIPPON and DRGN following long term exposure to 900 and 1800 MHz in a rat model...
January 13, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319803/down-regulation-of-glutamate-release-from-hippocampal-neurons-by-sialidase
#11
Minami Akira, Ami Ishii, Sumika Shimba, Takahiro Kano, Eri Fujioka, Saki Sai, Nagisa Oshio, Sayaka Ishibashi, Tadanobu Takahashi, Yuuki Kurebayashi, Hiroaki Kanazawa, Nobuhiro Yuki, Tadamune Otsubo, Kiyoshi Ikeda, Takashi Suzuki
Sialidase, which removes sialic acid residues in sialylglycoconjugates, is essential for hippocampal memory and synaptic plasticity. Enzyme activity of sialidase is rapidly increased in response to neural excitation. Because sialic acid bound to gangliosides such as the tetra-sialoganglioside GQ1b is crucial for calcium signaling and neurotransmitter release, neural activity-dependent removal of sialic acid may affect hippocampal neurotransmission. In the present study, we found that 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid (DANA), a sialidase inhibitor, increased expression of ganglioside GQ1b/GT1a in hippocampal acute slices...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275206/chronic-treatment-with-fluoxetine-or-clozapine-of-socially-isolated-rats-prevents-subsector-specific-reduction-of-parvalbumin-immunoreactive-cells-in-the-hippocampus
#12
Dragana Filipović, Andrijana Stanisavljević, Nebojša Jasnić, Rick E Bernardi, Dragos Inta, Ivana Perić, Peter Gass
The dysfunction of parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons, the most abundant type of hippocampal GABAergic inhibitory interneuron, has been implicated in mood disorders. We recently reported that adult male Wistar rats exposed to three weeks of social isolation show depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and a reduced number of PV+ interneurons in all hippocampal subregions. As GABA neurotransmission has been proposed as a potential therapeutic target of antidepressant and antipsychotic medications, we examined whether treatment with the antidepressant fluoxetine (15 mg/kg/day) or the antipsychotic clozapine (20 mg/kg/day) during three weeks of social isolation in rats offered protection from the isolation stress-induced reduction in the number of PV+ interneurons in hippocampal subregions...
December 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274882/neurodevelopment-and-behavior-in-neonatal-oxys-rats-with-genetically-determined-accelerated-senescence
#13
Tatyana N Igonina, Diana S Ragaeva, Maria A Tikhonova, Olga M Petrova, Yuri E Herbeck, Irina N Rozhkova, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Sergey Ya Amstislavsky
Study of the developmental characteristics and mechanisms of senescence is an important field in brain aging research. The OXYS strain was selected from Wistar rats in Novosibirsk, and it serves as a rat model of accelerated aging. Previously, neurodegenerative processes and aberrant behavior were reported in experiments with adult OXYS rats. In our study, neurodevelopmental reflexes, neuronal density in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and global DNA methylation in the hippocampus are compared between OXYS and WAG (Wistar Albino Glaxo) neonatal pups...
December 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274751/reduced-expression-of-na-ca2-exchangers-is-associated-with-cognitive-deficits-seen-in-alzheimer-s-disease-model-mice
#14
Shigeki Moriguchi, Satomi Kita, Masahiro Fukaya, Makoto Osanai, Ryo Inagaki, Yuzuru Sasaki, Hisanao Izumi, Kyoji Horie, Junji Takeda, Takashi Saito, Hiroyuki Sakagami, Takaomi C Saido, Takahiro Iwamoto, Kohji Fukunaga
Na+/Ca2+ exchangers (NCXs) are expressed primarily in the plasma membrane of most cell types, where they mediate electrogenic exchange of one Ca2+ for three Na+ ions, depending on Ca2+ and Na+ electrochemical gradients across the membrane. Three mammalian NCX isoforms (NCX1, NCX2, and NCX3) are each encoded by a distinct gene. Here, we report that NCX2 and NCX3 protein and mRNA levels are relatively reduced in hippocampal CA1 of APP23 and APP-KI mice. Likewise, NCX2+/- or NCX3+/- mice exhibited impaired hippocampal LTP and memory-related behaviors...
December 22, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258870/delayed-neurochemical-effects-of-prenatal-exposure-to-mehg-in-the-cerebellum-of-developing-rats
#15
Luana Heimfarth, Jeferson Delgado, Moara Rodrigues Mingori, Karla Suzana Moresco, Regina Pessoa Pureur, Daniel Pens Gelain, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira
Human fetuses and neonates are particularly vulnerable to methylmercury (MeHg)-induced brain damage and are sensitive even to low exposure levels. Previous work of our group evidence that prenatal exposure to MeHg causes cognitive and behavioral alterations and disrupt hippocampus signaling. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of gestational exposure of rats to MeHg at low doses (1 or 2 mg/Kg) on parameters of redox imbalance and key signaling pathways in the cerebellum of their offspring. Pregnant females received MeHg (treated group) or 0...
December 16, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258546/hippocampal-calpain-is-required-for-the-consolidation-and-reconsolidation-but-not-extinction-of-contextual-fear-memory
#16
Taikai Nagayoshi, Kiichiro Isoda, Nori Mamiya, Satoshi Kida
Memory consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction have been shown to share similar molecular signatures, including new gene expression. Calpain is a Ca2+-dependent protease that exerts its effects through the proteolytic cleavage of target proteins. Neuron-specific conditional deletions of calpain 1 and 2 impair long-term potentiation in the hippocampus and spatial learning. Moreover, recent studies have suggested distinct roles of calpain 1 and 2 in synaptic plasticity. However, the role of hippocampal calpain in memory processes, especially memory consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction, is still unclear...
December 19, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237555/real-world-navigation-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-the-relation-to-visuospatial-memory-and-volume-of-hippocampal-subregions
#17
Jessica Peter, Richard Sandkamp, Lora Minkova, Lena V Schumacher, Christoph P Kaller, Ahmed Abdulkadir, Stefan Klöppel
Spatial disorientation is a frequent symptom in Alzheimer's disease and in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In the clinical routine, spatial orientation is less often tested with real-world navigation but rather with 2D visuoconstructive tasks. However, reports about the association between the two types of tasks are sparse. Additionally, spatial disorientation has been linked to volume of the right hippocampus but it remains unclear whether right hippocampal subregions have differential involvement in real-world navigation...
December 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225041/syringaresinol-suppresses-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-and-picrotoxin-induced-epileptic-activity-in-the-hippocampus-through-presynaptic-mechanisms
#18
Young Seon Cho, Woo Seok Song, Sang Ho Yoon, Kyeong-Yeol Park, Myoung-Hwan Kim
Many neuromodulating drugs acting on the nervous system originate from botanical sources. These plant-derived substances modulate the activity of receptors, ion channels, or transporters in neurons. Their properties make the substances useful for medicine and research. Here, we show that the plant lignan (+)-syringaresinol (SYR) suppresses excitatory synaptic transmission via presynaptic modulation. Bath application of SYR rapidly reduced the slopes of the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) at the hippocampal Schaffer collateral (SC)-CA1 synapse in a dose-dependent manner...
December 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222469/hippocampal-oxytocin-receptors-are-necessary-for-discrimination-of-social-stimuli
#19
Tara Raam, Kathleen M McAvoy, Antoine Besnard, Alexa Veenema, Amar Sahay
Oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) signaling in neural circuits mediating discrimination of social stimuli and affiliation or avoidance behavior is thought to guide social recognition. Remarkably, the physiological functions of Oxtrs in the hippocampus are not known. Here we demonstrate using genetic and pharmacological approaches that Oxtrs in the anterior dentate gyrus (aDG) and anterior CA2/CA3 (aCA2/CA3) of mice are necessary for discrimination of social, but not non-social, stimuli. Further, Oxtrs in aCA2/CA3 neurons recruit a population-based coding mechanism to mediate social stimuli discrimination...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216949/-effects-of-n-butylphthalide-on-the-expressions-of-calpain-1-and-camk-ii-in-hippocampus-in-rats-with-acute-severe-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#20
Qin Li, Xiaoyu Ding, Weikang Bi, Jinglin Wang, Yong Zou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of N-butylphthalide (NBP) on cognitive function in acute severe carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning rats and its mechanism. METHODS: 120 health Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 40): normal control group (NC group), CO poisoning group (CO group) and NBP treatment group (NBP group). The acute severe CO poisoning model was established in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber by intoxicated with 1 000 ×10-6 CO for 40 minutes, followed with 3 000 ×10-6 CO for another 20 minutes, and then received hyperbaric oxygen therapy 1...
December 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
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