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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225041/syringaresinol-suppresses-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-and-picrotoxin-induced-epileptic-activity-in-the-hippocampus-through-presynaptic-mechanisms
#1
Young Seon Cho, Woo Seok Song, Sang Ho Yoon, Kyeong-Yeol Park, Myoung-Hwan Kim
Many neuromodulating drugs acting on the nervous system originate from botanical sources. These plant-derived substances modulate the activity of receptors, ion channels, or transporters in neurons. Their properties make the substances useful for medicine and research. Here, we show that the plant lignan (+)-syringaresinol (SYR) suppresses excitatory synaptic transmission via presynaptic modulation. Bath application of SYR rapidly reduced the slopes of the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) at the hippocampal Schaffer collateral (SC)-CA1 synapse in a dose-dependent manner...
December 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222469/hippocampal-oxytocin-receptors-are-necessary-for-discrimination-of-social-stimuli
#2
Tara Raam, Kathleen M McAvoy, Antoine Besnard, Alexa Veenema, Amar Sahay
Oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) signaling in neural circuits mediating discrimination of social stimuli and affiliation or avoidance behavior is thought to guide social recognition. Remarkably, the physiological functions of Oxtrs in the hippocampus are not known. Here we demonstrate using genetic and pharmacological approaches that Oxtrs in the anterior dentate gyrus (aDG) and anterior CA2/CA3 (aCA2/CA3) of mice are necessary for discrimination of social, but not non-social, stimuli. Further, Oxtrs in aCA2/CA3 neurons recruit a population-based coding mechanism to mediate social stimuli discrimination...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216949/-effects-of-n-butylphthalide-on-the-expressions-of-calpain-1-and-camk-ii-in-hippocampus-in-rats-with-acute-severe-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#3
Qin Li, Xiaoyu Ding, Weikang Bi, Jinglin Wang, Yong Zou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of N-butylphthalide (NBP) on cognitive function in acute severe carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning rats and its mechanism. METHODS: 120 health Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 40): normal control group (NC group), CO poisoning group (CO group) and NBP treatment group (NBP group). The acute severe CO poisoning model was established in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber by intoxicated with 1 000 ×10-6 CO for 40 minutes, followed with 3 000 ×10-6 CO for another 20 minutes, and then received hyperbaric oxygen therapy 1...
December 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214423/comparative-analysis-of-gene-expression-profiles-involved-in-calcium-signaling-pathways-using-the-nlvh-animal-model-of-schizophrenia
#4
Alma Genis-Mendoza, Ileana Gallegos-Silva, Carlos Alfonso Tovilla-Zarate, Lilia López-Narvaez, Thelma Beatriz González-Castro, Yazmín Hernández-Díaz, Mavil López-Casamichana, Humberto Nicolini, Sandra Morales-Mulia
In this study, we evaluated the expression profile changes of genes that intervene in the calcium signaling pathway, in young and adult Wistar rats, using the animal model of neonatal lesion in ventral hippocampus (NLVH) (a recognized animal model for schizophrenia) and compared to the group of control animals (Sham). Through microarray technology, gene expression profiles were obtained from the three brain areas (nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus) of young male Wistar rats (45 days) and adults (90 days) whether or not subjected to NLVH...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204745/heterogeneity-and-function-of-hippocampal-macroglia
#5
REVIEW
Gerald Seifert, Christian Steinhäuser
The contribution of glial cells to normal and impaired hippocampal function is increasingly being recognized, although important questions as to the mechanisms that these cells use for their crosstalk with neurons and capillaries are still unanswered or lead to controversy. Astrocytes in the hippocampus are morphologically variable and a single cell contacts with its processes more than 100,000 synapses. They predominantly express inward rectifier K+ channels and transporters serving homeostatic function but may also release gliotransmitters to modify neuronal signaling and brain circulation...
December 4, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185193/physical-exercise-promotes-memory-capability-by-enhancing-hippocampal-mitochondrial-functions-and-inhibiting-apoptosis-in-obesity-induced-insulin-resistance-by-high-fat-diet
#6
Hye-Sang Park, Han-Sam Cho, Tae-Woon Kim
A high-fat diet induces obesity in mice, leading to insulin resistance, decreased mitochondrial function, and increased apoptosis in the hippocampus, which eventually result in memory loss. The present study investigated the effect of physical exercise on memory, hippocampal mitochondrial function, and apoptosis in mice with in insulin resistance caused by obesity due to high-fat diet. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: control (CON), control and exercise (CON + EX), high fat diet (HFD), and high fat diet and exercise (HFD + EX)...
November 29, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175155/neuroanatomical-distribution-of-dek-protein-in-corticolimbic-circuits-associated-with-learning-and-memory-in-adult-male-and-female-mice
#7
Valentina Ghisays, Elizabeth T Nguyen, Joshua Streicher, Nicholas A Pease, Maureen Fitzgerald, Christina M Estrada, Ana Franco-Villanueva, Lisa Privette Vinnedge, Matia B Solomon
DEK, a chromatin-remodeling gene expressed in most human tissues, is known for its role in cancer biology and autoimmune diseases. DEK depletion in vitro reduces cellular proliferation, induces DNA damage subsequently leading to apoptosis, and down-regulates canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling, a molecular pathway essential for learning and memory. Despite a recognized role in cancer (non-neuronal) cells, DEK expression and function is not well characterized in the central nervous system. We conducted a gene ontology analysis (ToppGene), using a cancer database to identify genes associated with DEK deficiency, which pinpointed several genes associated with cognitive-related diseases (i...
November 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173480/changed-expressions-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors-in-the-brains-of-rats-and-primary-neurons-exposed-to-high-level-of-fluoride
#8
Na Wei, Yang-Ting Dong, Jie Deng, Ya Wang, Xiao-Lan Qi, Wen-Feng Yu, Yan Xiao, Jian-Jiang Zhou, Zhi-Zhong Guan
Expressions of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors (NMDARs) in the brains of rats and primary neurons exposed to high fluoride were investigated. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into a fluorosis group (50ppm fluoride in the drinking water for 6 months) and controls (<0.5ppm fluoride) and the offspring from these rats sacrificed on postnatal days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28. The primary cultured neurons from the hippocampus of neonatal rats were treated with 5 and 50ppm fluoride for 48h. NMDAR subunits at protein or mRNA levels were quantified by Western blotting or real-time PCR...
January 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171994/hippocampal-stratum-radiatum-lacunosum-and-moleculare-sparing-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#9
Li Su, Lawrence Hayes, Soteris Soteriades, Guy Williams, Susannah A E Brain, Michael J Firbank, Giulia Longoni, Robert J Arnold, James B Rowe, John T O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with atrophy in entorhinal cortex (ERC), the hippocampus, and its subfields Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) and subiculum, which predict conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to clinical AD. The stratum radiatum, lacunosum, and moleculare (SRLM) are also important gateways involving ERC and CA1, which are affected by early AD pathology. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the SRLM is affected in MCI and AD. METHODS: In this proof-of-concept study, 27 controls, 13 subjects with AD, and 22 with MCI underwent 3T MRI...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163756/effect-of-chronic-administration-of-resveratrol-on-cognitive-performance-during-aging-process-in-rats
#10
A R Navarro-Cruz, R Ramírez Y Ayala, C Ochoa-Velasco, E Brambila, R Avila-Sosa, S Pérez-Fernández, J C Morales-Medina, P Aguilar-Alonso
The increase in the elderly population has generated concern to meet health demands. The research efforts to elucidate the mechanisms of damage associated with aging have also been significantly increased, especially in order to avoid the reduction of the cognitive abilities in geriatric patients, resulting from the damage generated mainly at the level of the hippocampus during old age. At present, many studies describe resveratrol as an antiaging component. There are reports that it can activate the Sirt1 gene related to antiaging, emulating the effects obtained by caloric restriction in rodents...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155265/neuroanatomical-distribution-and-function-of-the-vasopressin-v1b-receptor-in-the-rat-brain-deciphered-using-specific-fluorescent-ligands
#11
Maithé Corbani, Rafik Marir, Miguel Trueba, Magda Chafai, Anne Vincent, Amélie M Borie, Michel G Desarménien, Yoichi Ueta, Csaba Tomboly, Aleksandra Olma, Maurice Manning, Gilles Guillon
It is now accepted that vasopressin, through V1A/V1B receptors, centrally regulates cognitive functions such as memory, affiliation, stress, fear and depression. However, the respective roles of these receptor isoforms and their contribution to stress-related pathologies remain uncertain. The development of new therapeutic treatments requires a precise knowledge of the distribution of these receptors within the brain, which has been so far hampered by the lack of selective V1B markers. In the present study, we have determined the pharmacological properties of three new potent rat V1B fluorescent ligands and demonstrated that they constitute valuable tools for simultaneous visualization and activation of native V1B receptors in living rat brain tissue...
November 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138698/soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-inhibitor-and-14-15-epoxyeicosatrienoic-acid-facilitated-long-term-potentiation-through-camp-and-camkii-in-the-hippocampus
#12
Han-Fang Wu, Yi-Ju Chen, Su-Zhen Wu, Chi-Wei Lee, I-Tuan Chen, Yi-Chao Lee, Chi-Chen Huang, Chung-Hsi Hsing, Chih-Wei Tang, Hui-Ching Lin
Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are derived from arachidonic acid and metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). The role of EETs in synaptic function in the central nervous system is still largely unknown. We found that pharmacological inhibition of sEH to stabilize endogenous EETs and exogenous 14,15-EET significantly increased the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) response in the CA1 area of the hippocampus, while additionally enhancing high-frequency stimulation- (HFS-) induced long-term potentiation (LTP) and forskolin- (FSK-) induced LTP...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107707/time-of-day-but-not-aging-regulates-5-ht7-receptor-binding-sites-in-the-hamster-hippocampus
#13
Marilyn J Duncan, J Tyler Smith, Kathleen M Franklin
Activation of 5-HT7 receptors influences memory as well as circadian rhythms and other processes. This study investigated the regulation of the 5-HT7 receptors in the hippocampus, a likely substrate for the effects of 5-HT7 receptor compounds on memory. Because endogenous serotonin release is higher during the active phase, and chronic treatment with a serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor down-regulates 5-HT7 receptors, we hypothesized that 5-HT7 receptors exhibit 24-h variations. We also hypothesized that aging decreases 5-HT7 receptors in the hippocampus, as it does in the dorsal raphe nucleus, a brain site for serotonergic resetting of circadian rhythms...
October 28, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072793/cytoarchitectonically-driven-mri-atlas-of-nonhuman-primate-hippocampus-preservation-of-subfield-volumes-in-aging
#14
Colin T Kyle, Jared Stokes, Jeffrey Bennett, Jeri Meltzer, Michele R Permenter, Julie A Vogt, Arne Ekstrom, Carol A Barnes
Identification of primate hippocampal subfields in vivo using structural MRI imaging relies on variable anatomical guidelines, signal intensity differences, and heuristics to differentiate between regions (Yushkevich et al., ). Thus, a clear anatomically-driven basis for subfield demarcation is lacking. Recent work, however, has begun to develop methods to use ex vivo histology or ex vivo MRI (Adler et al., 2014; Iglesias et al., 2015) that have the potential to inform subfield demarcations of in vivo images...
October 26, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070854/altered-norbin-expression-in-patients-with-epilepsy-and-a-rat-model
#15
Yali Xu, Zengyou Li, Li Yao, Xingping Zhang, Dan Gan, Manchun Jiang, Na Wang, Guojun Chen, Xuefeng Wang
Norbin is widely distributed in neuronal tissues, is a regulator of Ca2(+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylation. Norbin is also an important endogenous modulator of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) signaling, and nervous system-specific homozygous gene disruptions, result in epileptic seizures. In this study, we aimed to investigate norbin expression patterns in epilepsy and to elucidate the relationships between norbin and mGluR5 and p-CaMKII in epilepsy. Double-immunolabeling, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting studies showed that norbin was downregulated in the temporal neocortex of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) compared with control subjects...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066953/disturbances-in-the-fgfr1-5-ht1a-heteroreceptor-complexes-in-the-raphe-hippocampal-5-ht-system-develop-in-a-genetic-rat-model-of-depression
#16
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Caitlin M DuPont, Xiang Li, David Savelli, Davide Lattanzi, Ipsit Srivastava, Manuel Narváez, Michael Di Palma, Elisa Barbieri, Yuniesky Andrade-Talavera, Riccardo Cuppini, Yuji Odagaki, Miklos Palkovits, Patrizia Ambrogini, Maria Lindskog, Kjell Fuxe
The FGFR1-5-HT1A heteroreceptor complexes are involved in neuroplasticity in the rat hippocampus and in the mesencephalic raphe 5-HT nerve cells. There exists a 5-HT1A protomer enhancement of FGFR1 protomer signaling. Acute and 10 day treatment with intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) FGF-2 and the 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT produced enhanced antidepressant effects in the forced swim test (FST). We studied in the current work the disturbances in the FGFR1-5-HT1A heterocomplexes in a genetic rat model of depression, the Flinders sensitive line (FSL) rats of Sprague-Dawley (SD) origin, by means of neurochemical, neurophysiological and behavioral techniques...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056362/critical-appraisal-of-pathology-transmission-in-the-%C3%AE-synuclein-fibril-model-of-lewy-body-disorders
#17
Negin Nouraei, Daniel M Mason, Kristin M Miner, Michael A Carcella, Tarun N Bhatia, Benjamin K Dumm, Dishaben Soni, David A Johnson, Kelvin C Luk, Rehana K Leak
Lewy body disorders are characterized by the emergence of α-synucleinopathy in many parts of the central and peripheral nervous systems, including in the telencephalon. Dense α-synuclein(+) pathology appears in regio inferior of the hippocampus in both Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies and may disturb cognitive function. The preformed α-synuclein fibril model of Parkinson's disease is growing in use, given its potential for seeding the self-propagating spread of α-synucleinopathy throughout the mammalian brain...
October 19, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046699/age-dependent-differences-in-myelin-basic-protein-expression-in-the-hippocampus-of-young-adult-and-aged-gerbils
#18
Ji Hyeon Ahn, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Joon Ha Park, Jeong Hwi Cho, In Hye Kim, Jae Chul Lee, Seongkweon Hong, Yong Hwan Jeon, Il Jun Kang, Young Joo Lee, Moo-Ho Won, Choong-Hyun Lee
Myelin degeneration is one of the characteristics of aging and degenerative diseases. This study investigated age-related alterations in expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the hippocampal subregions (dentate gyrus, CA2/3 and CA1 areas) of gerbils of various ages; young (1 month), adult (6 months) and aged (24 months), using western blot and immunohistochemistry. Western blot results showed tendencies of age-related reductions of MBP levels. MBP immunoreactivity was significantly decreased with age in synaptic sites of trisynaptic loops, perforant paths, mossy fibers, and Schaffer collaterals...
September 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044416/disease-and-region-specificity-of-granulin-immunopositivities-in-alzheimer-disease-and-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration
#19
Qinwen Mao, Dongyang Wang, Yanqing Li, Missia Kohler, Jayson Wilson, Zachary Parton, Bella Shmaltsuyeva, Demirkan Gursel, Rosa Rademakers, Sandra Weintraub, Marek-Marsel Mesulam, Haibin Xia, Eileen H Bigio
Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in GRN, the progranulin gene, which result in progranulin (PGRN) protein haploinsufficiency, are a major cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy (FTLD-TDP). PGRN is composed of seven and a half repeats of a highly conserved granulin motif that is cleaved to produce the granulin peptides A-G and paragranulin. To better understand the role of PGRN and granulin (Grn) peptides in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration, we evaluated PGRN/Grn in brains of patients with Alzheimer disease, FTLD-TDP type A with or without GRN mutations, and normal individuals, using a panel of monoclonal antibodies against Grn peptides A-G...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021779/xenon-reduces-neuronal-hippocampal-damage-and-alters-the-pattern-of-microglial-activation-after-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-randomized-controlled-animal-trial
#20
Michael Veldeman, Mark Coburn, Rolf Rossaint, Hans Clusmann, Kay Nolte, Benedikt Kremer, Anke Höllig
OBJECTIVE: The neuroprotective properties of the noble gas xenon have already been demonstrated using a variety of injury models. Here, we examine for the first time xenon's possible effect in attenuating early brain injury (EBI) and its influence on posthemorrhagic microglial neuroinflammation in an in vivo rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 22) were randomly assigned to receive either Sham surgery (n = 9; divided into two groups) or SAH induction via endovascular perforation (n = 13, divided into two groups)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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