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CA2 hippocampus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326151/chronic-porphyromonas-gingivalis-infection-accelerates-the-occurrence-of-age-related-granules-in-apoe-mice-brains
#1
Sim K Singhrao, Sasanka Chukkapalli, Sophie Poole, Irina Velsko, St John Crean, Lakshmyya Kesavalu
This study explored the origin of age-related granules in the apolipoprotein E gene knockout (ApoE(-/-)) B6 background mice brains following chronic gingival infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis for 24 weeks. Intracerebral localization of P. gingivalis was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and its protease by immunohistochemistry. The age-related granules were observed by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), silver impregnation, and immunostaining. FISH showed intracerebral dissemination of P...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319408/turmeric-extract-inhibits-apoptosis-of-hippocampal-neurons-of-trimethyltin-exposed-rats
#2
S Yuliani, S Widyarini, Mustofa, G Partadiredja
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to reveal the possible antiapoptotic effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) on the hippocampal neurons of rats exposed to trimethyltin (TMT). BACKGROUND: Oxidative damage in the hippocampus can induce the apoptosis of neurons associated with the pathogenesis of dementiaMETHODS. The ethanolic turmeric extract and a citicoline (as positive control) solution were administered to the TMT-exposed rats for 28 days. The body weights of rats were recorded once a week...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267787/wfs1-is-expressed-in-dopaminoceptive-regions-of-the-amniote-brain-and-modulates-levels-of-d1-like-receptors
#3
Triin Tekko, Triin Lakspere, Anni Allikalt, Jaanus End, Karl Rene Kõlvart, Toomas Jagomäe, Anton Terasmaa, Mari-Anne Philips, Tanel Visnapuu, Fred Väärtnõu, Scott F Gilbert, Ago Rinken, Eero Vasar, Kersti Lilleväli
During amniote evolution, the construction of the forebrain has diverged across different lineages, and accompanying the structural changes, functional diversification of the homologous brain regions has occurred. This can be assessed by studying the expression patterns of marker genes that are relevant in particular functional circuits. In all vertebrates, the dopaminergic system is responsible for the behavioral responses to environmental stimuli. Here we show that the brain regions that receive dopaminergic input through dopamine receptor D1 are relatively conserved, but with some important variations between three evolutionarily distant vertebrate lines-house mouse (Mus musculus), domestic chick (Gallus gallus domesticus) / common quail (Coturnix coturnix) and red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235547/intermittent-hypercapnic-hypoxia-effects-on-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-the-developing-piglet-hippocampus-and-brainstem
#4
Arunnjah Vivekanandarajah, Atqiya Aishah, Karen A Waters, Rita Machaalani
This study investigated the effects of acute (1 day) vs repeated (4 days) exposure to intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia (IHH) on the immunohistochemical expression of α2, α3, α5, α7, α9 and β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in the developing piglet hippocampus and brainstem medulla, and how prior nicotine exposure alters the response to acute IHH. Five piglet groups included: 1day IHH (1D IHH, n=9), 4days IHH (4D IHH, n=8), controls exposed only to air cycles for 1day (1D Air, n=6) or 4days (4D Air, n=5), and pre-exposed to nicotine for 13days prior to 1day IHH (Nic+1D IHH, n=7)...
February 22, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213444/the-dendrites-of-ca2-and-ca1-pyramidal-neurons-differentially-regulate-information-flow-in-the-cortico-hippocampal-circuit
#5
Kalyan V Srinivas, Eric W Buss, Qian Sun, Bina Santoro, Hiroto Takahashi, Daniel A Nicholson, Steven A Siegelbaum
The impact of a given neuronal pathway depends on the number of synapses it makes with its postsynaptic target, the strength of each individual synapse and the integrative properties of the postsynaptic dendrites. Here we explore the cellular and synaptic mechanisms responsible for the differential excitatory drive from the entorhinal cortical pathway onto mouse CA2 compared to CA1 pyramidal neurons (PNs). Although both types of neurons receive direct input from entorhinal cortex onto their distal dendrites, these inputs produce a 5-6 fold larger excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) at the soma of CA2 compared to CA1 PNs, which is sufficient to drive action potential output from CA2 but not CA1...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176504/morphological-and-microstructural-changes-of-the-hippocampus-in-early-mci-a-study-utilizing-the-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative-database
#6
Peter Lee, Hojin Ryoo, Jinah Park, Yong Jeong
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: With the aim of facilitating the early detection of Alzheimer's disease, the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative proposed two stages based on the memory performance: early mild cognitive impairment (EMCI) and late mild cognitive impairment (LMCI). The current study was designed to investigate structural differences in terms of surface atrophy and microstructural changes of the hippocampus in EMCI and LMCI. METHODS: Hippocampal shape modeling based on progressive template surface deformation was performed on T1-weighted MRI images obtained from 20 cognitive normal (CN) subjects, 17 EMCI patients, and 20 LMCI patients...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161158/fingolimod-fty720-attenuates-social-deficits-learning-and-memory-impairments-neuronal-loss-and-neuroinflammation-in-the-rat-model-of-autism
#7
Hongmei Wu, Xuelai Wang, Jingquan Gao, Shuang Liang, Yanqiu Hao, Caihong Sun, Wei Xia, Yonggang Cao, Lijie Wu
AIMS: To investigate the effect of FTY720 on the valproic acid (VPA) rat model of autism. MAIN METHODS: As an animal model of autism, we used intraperitoneal injection of VPA on embryonic day 12.5 in Wistar rats. The pups were given FTY720 orally at doses of 0.25, 0.5 and 1mg/kg daily from postnatal day 15 to 35. Social behavior, spatial learning and memory were assessed at the end of FTY720 treatment. The histological change, oxidative stress, neuroinflammatory responses, and apoptosis-related proteins in the hippocampus were evaluated...
March 15, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122057/possible-signaling-pathways-mediating-neuronal-calcium-sensor-1-dependent-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-mice
#8
Tomoe Y Nakamura, Shu Nakao, Yukako Nakajo, Jun C Takahashi, Shigeo Wakabayashi, Hiroji Yanamoto
Intracellular Ca2+ signaling regulates diverse functions of the nervous system. Many of these neuronal functions, including learning and memory, are regulated by neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1). However, the pathways by which NCS-1 regulates these functions remain poorly understood. Consistent with the findings of previous reports, we revealed that NCS-1 deficient (Ncs1-/-) mice exhibit impaired spatial learning and memory function in the Morris water maze test, although there was little change in their exercise activity, as determined via treadmill-analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116240/associations-of-hippocampal-subfields-in-the-progression-of-cognitive-decline-related-to-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Heidi Foo, Elijah Mak, Russell Jude Chander, Aloysius Ng, Wing Lok Au, Yih Yian Sitoh, Louis C S Tan, Nagaendran Kandiah
OBJECTIVE: Hippocampal atrophy has been associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, literature on how hippocampal atrophy affects the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in PD has been limited. Previous studies assessed the hippocampus as an entire entity instead of their individual subregions. We studied the progression of cognitive status in PD subjects over 18 in relation to hippocampal subfields atrophy. METHODS: 65 PD subjects were included...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115740/hippocampal-subfield-volumes-in-mood-disorders
#10
B Cao, I C Passos, B Mwangi, H Amaral-Silva, J Tannous, M-J Wu, G B Zunta-Soares, J C Soares
Volume reduction and shape abnormality of the hippocampus have been associated with mood disorders. However, the hippocampus is not a uniform structure and consists of several subfields, such as the cornu ammonis (CA) subfields CA1-4, the dentate gyrus (DG) including a granule cell layer (GCL) and a molecular layer (ML) that continuously crosses adjacent subiculum (Sub) and CA fields. It is known that cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with mood disorders may be localized to specific hippocampal subfields...
January 24, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115478/neural-differentiation-of-incorrectly-predicted-memories
#11
Ghootae Kim, Kenneth A Norman, Nicholas B Turk-Browne
When an item is predicted in a particular context but the prediction is violated, memory for that item is weakened (Kim et al., 2014). Here, we explore what happens when such previously mispredicted items are later reencountered. According to prior neural network simulations, this sequence of events-misprediction and subsequent restudy-should lead to differentiation of the item's neural representation from the previous context (on which the misprediction was based). Specifically, misprediction weakens connections in the representation to features shared with the previous context and restudy allows new features to be incorporated into the representation that are not shared with the previous context...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059801/repeated-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-induces-neural-plasticity-associated-gene-expression-in-the-rat-cortex-and-hippocampus
#12
Min Sun Kim, Ho Koo, Sang Who Han, Walter Paulus, Michael A Nitsche, Yun-Hee Kim, Jin A Yoon, Yong-Il Shin
BACKGROUND: Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (A-tDCS) induces a long-lasting increase in cortical excitability that can increase gene transcription in the brain. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of genes related to activity-dependent neuronal plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex and hippocampus of young Sprague-Dawley rats following A-tDCS. METHODS: We applied A-tDCS over the right sensorimotor cortex epicranially with a circular electrode (3 mm diameter) at 250 μA for 20 min per day for 7 consecutive days...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041940/roles-of-afadin-in-the-formation-of-the-cellular-architecture-of-the-mouse-hippocampus-and-dentate-gyrus
#13
Muneaki Miyata, Tomohiko Maruo, Aika Kaito, Shujie Wang, Hideaki Yamamoto, Takeshi Fujiwara, Akira Mizoguchi, Kenji Mandai, Yoshimi Takai
The hippocampal formation with tightly packed neurons, mainly at the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA2, and CA1 regions, constitutes a one-way neural circuit, which is associated with learning and memory. We previously showed that the cell adhesion molecules nectins and its binding protein afadin play roles in the formation of the mossy fiber synapses which are formed between the mossy fibers of the dentate gyrus granule cells and the dendrites of the CA3 pyramidal cells. We showed here that in the afadin-deficient hippocampal formation, the dentate gyrus granules cells and the CA3, CA2, and CA1 pyramidal cells were abnormally located; the mossy fiber trajectory was abnormally elongated; the CA3 pyramidal cells were abnormally differentiated; and the densities of the presynaptic boutons on the mossy fibers and the apical dendrites of the CA3 pyramidal cells were decreased...
December 29, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039370/hippocampal-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-contributes-to-memory-impairment-and-is-consistent-with-spread-of-pathology
#14
David H Adamowicz, Subhojit Roy, David P Salmon, Douglas R Galasko, Lawrence A Hansen, Eliezer Masliah, Fred H Gage
Despite considerable research to uncover them, the anatomic and neuropathologic correlates of memory impairment in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) remain unclear. While some studies have implicated Lewy bodies in the neocortex, others have pointed to α-synuclein pathology in the hippocampus. We systematically examined hippocampal Lewy pathology and its distribution in hippocampal subfields in 95 clinically and neuropathologically characterized human cases of DLB, finding that α-synuclein pathology was highest in two hippocampal-related subregions: the CA2 subfield and the entorhinal cortex (EC)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987389/structural-differences-in-hippocampal-subfields-among-schizophrenia-patients-major-depressive-disorder-patients-and-healthy-subjects
#15
Miho Ota, Noriko Sato, Shinsuke Hidese, Toshiya Teraishi, Norihide Maikusa, Hiroshi Matsuda, Kotaro Hattori, Hiroshi Kunugi
Many MRI studies have reported a volume reduction of the hippocampus in psychiatric diseases. However, disease-related volume differences in hippocampus subfields remain unclear. Here we compared the volumes of hippocampus subfields in patients with schizophrenia, patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), and healthy subjects as controls. T2-weighted images were acquired in 20 patients with schizophrenia, 36 with MDD, and 35 healthy volunteers by 3-Tesla MRI. Hippocampal subfields were segmented using an automatic algorithm, Automatic Segmentation of Hippocampal Subfields (ASHS)...
January 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931151/regulation-of-mitochondrial-function-and-glutamatergic-system-are-the-target-of-guanosine-effect-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Fernando Dobrachinski, Rogério da Rosa Gerbatin, Gláubia Sartori, Naiani Ferreira Marques, Ana Paula Zemolin, Luiz Fernando Almeida Silva, Jeferson Luis Franco, Luiz Fernando Freire Royes, Michele Rechia Fighera, Félix Alexandre Antunes Soares
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a highly complex multi-factorial disorder. Experimental trauma involves primary and secondary injury cascades that underlie delayed neuronal dysfunction and death. Mitochondrial dysfunction and glutamatergic excitotoxicity are the hallmark mechanisms of damage. Accordingly, a successful pharmacological intervention requires a multi-faceted approach. Guanosine (GUO) is known for its neuromodulator effects in various models of brain pathology, specifically those that involve the glutamatergic system...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909001/synaptic-phospholipid-signaling-modulates-axon-outgrowth-via-glutamate-dependent-ca2-mediated-molecular-pathways
#17
Johannes Vogt, Sergei Kirischuk, Petr Unichenko, Leslie Schlüter, Assunta Pelosi, Heiko Endle, Jenq-Wei Yang, Nikolai Schmarowski, Jin Cheng, Carine Thalman, Ulf Strauss, Alexey Prokudin, B Suman Bharati, Junken Aoki, Jerold Chun, Beat Lutz, Heiko J Luhmann, Robert Nitsch
Altered synaptic bioactive lipid signaling has been recently shown to augment neuronal excitation in the hippocampus of adult animals by activation of presynaptic LPA2-receptors leading to increased presynaptic glutamate release. Here, we show that this results in higher postsynaptic Ca(2+) levels and in premature onset of spontaneous neuronal activity in the developing entorhinal cortex. Interestingly, increased synchronized neuronal activity led to reduced axon growth velocity of entorhinal neurons which project via the perforant path to the hippocampus...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893017/evaluation-of-cognitive-deficits-and-structural-hippocampal-damage-in-encephalitis-with-leucine-rich-glioma-inactivated-1-antibodies
#18
Carsten Finke, Harald Prüss, Josephine Heine, Sigrid Reuter, Ute A Kopp, Florian Wegner, Florian Then Bergh, Sebastian Koch, Olav Jansen, Thomas Münte, Günther Deuschl, Klemens Ruprecht, Winfried Stöcker, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Friedemann Paul, Thorsten Bartsch
Importance: Limbic encephalitis with leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) antibodies is one of the most frequent variants of autoimmune encephalitis with antibodies targeting neuronal surface antigens. However, the neuroimaging pattern and long-term cognitive outcome are not well understood. Objective: To study cognitive outcome and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) alterations in patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Departments of Neurology at Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin and University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany...
January 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889579/protective-effects-of-high-tryptophan-diet-on-aging-induced-passive-avoidance-impairment-and-hippocampal-apoptosis
#19
Giuseppe Musumeci, Paola Castrogiovanni, Marta Anna Szychlinska, Rosa Imbesi, Carla Loreto, Sergio Castorina, Salvatore Giunta
In our previous work we have shown that L-Tryptophan (TrP) enriched diet prevents the age-induced decline of hippocampal Serotonin (5-HT) production. Considering that loss or reduction in 5-HT neurotransmission may contribute to age-related cognitive decline, here we have investigated the effect of such diet on passive avoidance (PA) behavior, cell death, pro- and anti- apoptotic molecules (BAX, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3) and an important transcription factor involved in synaptic plasticity and memory (CREB). The increase in 5-HT neurotransmission in the Hippocampus (Hp) of aged rats was induced by 1 month of high TrP administration...
January 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886057/age-related-modulations-of-aqp4-and-caveolin-1-in-the-hippocampus-predispose-the-toxic-effect-of-phoneutria-nigriventer-spider-venom
#20
Edilene S Soares, Leila M Stávale, Monique C P Mendonça, Andressa Coope, Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling
We have previously demonstrated that Phoneutria nigriventer venom (PNV) causes blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, swelling of astrocytes end-feet and fluid permeation into brain interstitium in rats. Caveolae and water channels respond to BBB alterations by co-participation in shear stress response and edema formation/resolution. Herein, we showed post-natal developmental-related changes of two BBB-associated transporter proteins: the endothelial caveolin-1 (Cav-1), the major scaffolding protein from caveolae frame, and the astroglial aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the main water channel protein expressed in astrocytic peri-vascular end-feet processes, in the hippocampus of rats intraperitoneally-administered PNV...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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