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salt intake renal effect

Justine M Abais-Battad, Hayley Lund, Daniel J Fehrenbach, John Henry Dasinger, David L Mattson
The current study, performed in Dahl Salt-Sensitive (SS) and SS-Rag1-/- rats lacking T- and B- lymphocytes, tested the hypothesis that immune cells amplify salt-sensitive hypertension and kidney damage in response to a high protein diet. After weaning, SS and SS-Rag1-/- rats were placed on an isocaloric, 0.4% NaCl diet containing normal (18%) or high (30%) protein. At 9 weeks of age, rats were switched to a 4.0% NaCl diet containing the same amount of dietary protein and maintained on the high salt diet for 3 weeks...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Niels J Aachmann-Andersen, Soren J Christensen, Kristian Lisbjerg, Peter Oturai, Pär I Johansson, Niels-Henrik Holstein-Rathlou, Niels V Olsen
The effect of recombinant erythropoietin (rhEPO) on renal and systemic hemodynamics was evaluated in a randomized double-blinded, cross-over study. Sixteen healthy subjects were tested with placebo, or low-dose rhEPO for 2 weeks, or high-dose rhEPO for 3 days. Subjects refrained from excessive salt intake, according to instructions from a dietitian. Renal clearance studies were done for measurements of renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the segmentel tubular handling of sodium and water (lithium clearance)...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Adamasco Cupisti, Csaba P Kovesdy, Claudia D'Alessandro, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
Whereas the adequate intake of potassium is relatively high in healthy adults, i.e., 4.7 g per day, a dietary potassium restriction of usually less than 3 g per day is recommended in the management of patients with reduced kidney function, especially those who tend to develop hyperkalaemia including patients who are treated with angiotensin pathway modulators. Most potassium-rich foods are considered heart-healthy nutrients with high fibre, high anti-oxidant vitamins and high alkali content such as fresh fruits and vegetables; hence, the main challenge of dietary potassium management is to maintain high fibre intake and a low net fixed-acid load, because constipation and metabolic acidosis are per se major risk factors for hyperkalaemia...
February 25, 2018: Nutrients
G Sakalauskienė, G Civinskienė, A Antuševas, P Civinskas
Edematous states caused by an excessesive extracellular fluid retention are major components of cardiovascular and renal disorders including chronic kidney disease, nephrotic syndrome, and heart failure. The use of diuretic drugs from various groups including loop duiretics are important means of pharmacological correction of these clinical conditions. Moreover, diuretics used to lower bood pressure as a part of antihypertensive treatment, reduce cardiovascular events. The response of patients to the dose of a diuretic is reflected by a sigmoid dose-response curve which can be affected by changes of sodium content in the body...
January 2018: Kardiologiia
Yang Wang, Chao Chu, Ke-Ke Wang, Jia-Wen Hu, Yu Yan, Yong-Bo Lv, Yu-Meng Cao, Wen-Ling Zheng, Xi-Long Dang, Jing-Tao Xu, Wei Chen, Zu-Yi Yuan, Jian-Jun Mu
Uric acid (UA) has been proposed as an important risk factor for cardiovascular and renal morbidity. We conducted an interventional trial to assess effects of altered salt intake on plasma and urine UA levels and the relationship between UA levels and salt sensitivity in humans. Ninety subjects (18-65 years old) were sequentially maintained on a normal diet for 3 days at baseline, a low-salt diet for 7 days (3.0 g/day, NaCl), and a high-salt diet for an additional 7 days (18.0 g/day of NaCl). Plasma UA levels significantly increased from baseline to low-salt diet and decreased from low-salt to high-salt diet...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jenny van der Wijst, Omar A Z Tutakhel, Caro Bos, A H Jan Danser, Ewout J Hoorn, Joost G J Hoenderop, René J M Bindels
The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) of the kidney plays an important role in blood pressure regulation by modulating Na+ reabsorption via the Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC). A diet containing high salt (NaCl) and low K+ activates NCC, thereby causing Na+ retention and a rise in blood pressure. Since high blood pressure, hypertension, is associated with changes in serum calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) levels, we hypothesized that dietary Na+ and K+ intake affects Ca2+ and Mg2+ transport in the DCT. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of a high Na+/low K+ diet on renal Ca2+ and Mg2+ handling...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Michel Burnier
Changes in lifestyle and nutrition are recommended as the first-step approach to the management of hypertension by all national and international guidelines. Today, when considering nutritional factors in hypertension, almost all the attention is focused on the reduction of salt intake to improve blood pressure (BP) control. Changes in potassium intake are only briefly evoked in guidelines. Few physicians actually think about proposing to eat more foods that are high in potassium (fruits, vegetables, nuts) to better control BP...
January 2, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Chang-Yun Yoon, Juhwan Noh, Jinae Lee, Youn Kyung Kee, Changhwan Seo, Misol Lee, Min-Uk Cha, Hyoungnae Kim, Seohyun Park, Hae-Ryong Yun, Su-Young Jung, Jong Hyun Jhee, Seung Hyeok Han, Tae-Hyun Yoo, Shin-Wook Kang, Jung Tak Park
The association between salt intake and renal outcome in subjects with preserved kidney function remains unclear. Here we evaluated the effect of sodium intake on the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a prospective cohort of people with normal renal function. Data were obtained from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, a prospective community-based cohort study while sodium intake was estimated by a 24-hour dietary recall Food Frequency Questionnaire. A total of 3,106 individuals with and 4,871 patients without hypertension were analyzed with a primary end point of CKD development [a composite of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) under 60 mL/min/1...
November 29, 2017: Kidney International
Luca Visconti, Valeria Cernaro, Sebastiano Calimeri, Antonio Lacquaniti, Francesca De Gregorio, Carlo Alberto Ricciardi, Viviana Lacava, Domenico Santoro, Michele Buemi
The impact of water intake has been studied in several renal diseases. For example, increasing water intake is useful to prevent primary and secondary nephrolithiasis. In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, arginine vasopressin (AVP) is involved in the progression of the disease, and water intake could play a therapeutic role by inhibiting the synthesis of AVP, but its efficacy is still controversial. Conversely, the use of aquaretics, which are antagonists of AVP V2 receptors, results in the reduction of the increase rate of total kidney volume with a slower decline of glomerular filtration rate...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Aneliya Parvanova, Matias Trillini, Manuel A Podestà, Ilian Petrov Iliev, Barbara Ruggiero, Manuela Abbate, Annalisa Perna, Francesco Peraro, Olimpia Diadei, Nadia Rubis, Flavio Gaspari, Fabiola Carrara, Nadia Stucchi, Antonio Belviso, Antonio C Bossi, Roberto Trevisan, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Martin de Borst, Piero Ruggenenti
BACKGROUND: Macroalbuminuria predicts renal and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to assess the albuminuria-lowering effects of salt restriction, paricalcitol therapy, or both, in this population. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, we recruited adult patients with type 2 diabetes from six diabetology outpatient clinics in northern Italy, with 24 h albuminuria of more than 300 mg despite 100 mg per day losartan therapy, blood pressure of less than 140/90 mm Hg, serum creatinine concentration of less than 2 mg/dL, stable renal function on stable renin-angiotensin system inhibitor therapy with a fixed dose of losartan, parathyroid hormone concentration of 20 pg/mL to <110 pg/mL, serum calcium concentration of less than 9·5 mg/dL, and serum phosphate concentration of less than 5 mg/dL, who had been more than 80% compliant with placebo treatment during a 1 month placebo run-in...
November 2, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Brasilina Caroccia, Mirko Menegolo, Teresa M Seccia, Lucia Petrelli, Michele Antonello, Alice Limena, Andrea Porzionato, Raffaele De Caro, Marko Poglitsch, Gian Paolo Rossi
We investigated the in vivo pressor effects of the potent vasoconstrictor Urotensin II (UII). We randomized normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats into 4 groups that received a 7-day UII infusion (cases) or vehicle (controls). Group 1 received normal sodium intake; Group 2 underwent unilateral nephrectomy and salt loading; Group 3 received spironolactone, besides unilateral nephrectomy and salt loading; Group 4 only received spironolactone. UII raised BP transiently after a lag phase of 12-36 hours in Group 1, and progressively over the week in Group 2...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tsuyoshi Homma, Mika Homma, Yuefei Huang, Korapat Mayurasakorn, Nurul Mahamad Rodi, Anis Amalina Abdul Hamid, Shelley Hurwitz, Tham Yao, Gail K Adler, Luminita H Pojoga, Gordon H Williams, Jose R Romero
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that caloric restriction (CR) and salt restriction (ResS) would have similar effects on reducing cardiovascular risk markers and that combining CR and ResS would be synergistic in modulating these markers. METHODS AND RESULTS: To test our hypothesis, rats were randomized into 2 groups: ad libitum liberal salt diet (ad libitum/high-sodium, 1.6% sodium) or ResS diet (ad libitum/ResS, 0.03% sodium). CR was initiated in half of the rats in each group by reducing caloric intake to 60% while maintaining sodium intake constant (CR/high-sodium, 2...
October 11, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
Khalil Udwan, Ahmed Abed, Isabelle Roth, Eva Dizin, Marc Maillard, Carla Bettoni, Johannes Loffing, Carsten A Wagner, Aurélie Edwards, Eric Feraille
KEY POINTS: Body Na(+) content is tightly controlled by regulated urinary Na(+) excretion. The intrarenal mechanisms mediating adaptation to variations in dietary Na(+) intake are incompletely characterized. We confirmed and expanded observations in mice that variations in dietary Na(+) intake do not alter the glomerular filtration rate but alter the total and cell-surface expression of major Na(+) transporters all along the kidney tubule. Low dietary Na(+) intake increased Na(+) reabsorption in the proximal tubule and decreased it in more distal kidney tubule segments...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Esther de Beus, Rosa L de Jager, Martine M Beeftink, Margreet F Sanders, Wilko Spiering, Evert-Jan Vonken, Michiel Voskuil, Michiel L Bots, Peter J Blankestijn
The effect of lowering sympathetic nerve activity by renal denervation (RDN) is highly variable. With the exception of office systolic blood pressure (BP), predictors of the BP-lowering effect have not been identified. Because dietary sodium intake influences sympathetic drive, and, conversely, sympathetic activity influences salt sensitivity in hypertension, we investigated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion in participants of the SYMPATHY trial. SYMPATHY investigated RDN in patients with resistant hypertension...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Christian Ott, Christoph Kopp, Anke Dahlmann, Axel Schmid, Peter Linz, Alexander Cavallaro, Matthias Hammon, Tilmann Ditting, Roland Veelken, Michael Uder, Jens Titze, Roland E Schmieder
OBJECTIVES: Renal denervation (RDN) has been introduced for reducing blood pressure (BP) in treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH). The precise mechanism how RDN exerts its BP-lowering effects are not yet fully understood. It is widely accepted that sodium (Na(+)) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of hypertensive disease. However, there is increasing evidence of osmotically inactive Na(+) storage. We investigated the impact of RDN on Na(+) homeostasis using estimation of salt intake, and measurement of tissue Na(+) content...
August 28, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Andrew C Tiu, Michael D Bishop, Laureano D Asico, Pedro A Jose, Van Anthony M Villar
The rising prevalence of primary pediatric hypertension and its tracking into adult hypertension point to the importance of determining its pathogenesis to gain insights into its current and emerging management. Considering that the intricate control of BP is governed by a myriad of anatomical, molecular biological, biochemical, and physiological systems, multiple genes are likely to influence an individual's BP and susceptibility to develop hypertension. The long-term regulation of BP rests on renal and non-renal mechanisms...
September 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
Maria Peleli, Peter Flacker, Zhengbing Zhuge, Cristina Gomez, Craig E Wheelock, A Erik G Persson, Mattias Carlstrom
Oxidative stress is considered a central pathophysiological event in cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. Early age reduction in renal mass is associated with hypertension and oxidative stress in later life, which is aggravated by increased salt intake. The aim of the present study was to examine if renal sympathetic denervation can exert blood pressure lowering effects in uninephrectomized (UNX) rats (3-week old) fed with high salt (HS, 4%; w/w) diet for 4 weeks. Moreover, we investigated if renal denervation is associated with changes in NADPH and xanthine oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species...
July 5, 2017: Redox Biology
Besim Özaykan, Eylem Taskin, Ali Magemizoğlu
BACKGROUND: High dietary salt, as well as renal mass reduction, is known to decrease baroreflex sensitivity in rats. However, the effect of high salt intake on baroreflex sensitivity is unknown in reduced renal mass (RRM) hypertension; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of salt loading on arterial baroreflex sensitivity and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in RRM hypertension. METHODS: Both RRM and sham-operated control (SO) rats were loaded with 0...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Ryanne S Hijmans, Pragyi Shrestha, Kwaku A Sarpong, Saleh Yazdani, Rana El Masri, Wilhelmina H A de Jong, Gerjan Navis, Romain R Vivès, Jacob van den Born
BACKGROUND: High dietary sodium aggravates renal disease by affecting blood pressure and by its recently shown pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic effects. Moreover, pro-inflammatory modification of renal heparan sulfate (HS) can induce tissue remodeling. We aim to investigate if high sodium intake in normotensive rats converts renal HS into a pro-inflammatory phenotype, able to bind more sodium and orchestrate inflammation, fibrosis and lymphangiogenesis. METHODS: Wistar rats received a normal diet for 4 weeks, or 8% NaCl diet for 2 or 4 weeks...
2017: PloS One
Ercan Ok, Nathan W Levin, Gulay Asci, Charles Chazot, Huseyin Toz, Mehmet Ozkahya
Extracellular fluid volume overload and its inevitable consequence, hypertension, increases cardiovascular mortality in the long term by leading to left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, and ischemic heart disease in dialysis patients. Unlike antihypertensive medications, a strict volume control strategy provides optimal blood pressure control without need for antihypertensive drugs. However, utilization of this strategy has remained limited because of several factors, including the absence of a gold standard method to assess volume status, difficulties in reducing extracellular fluid volume, and safety concerns associated with reduction of extracellular volume...
September 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
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