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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769424/sex-specific-response-of-renal-na-k-atpase-to-prenatal-angiotensin-2-exposure-and-increased-salt-intake-in-offspring
#1
L Jagmasevic-Mezesova, P Svitok, B Kalocayova, M Zeman, N Vrbjar
In rodents, increased angiotensin 2 (Ang2) during pregnancy increases blood pressure and decreases salt sensitivity in the offspring. To explore the underlying mechanisms, this study evaluated the effects of prenatal Ang2 exposure on the activity of renal Na,K-ATPase, which is one of the main systems that maintains sodium ion homeostasis in an organism. Moreover, this study also investigated the impact of a higher-salt diet on the enzyme activity in the offspring in a sex-dependent manner. Pregnant Wistar rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps that continuously released Ang2 (2 μg/kg/h) for 2 weeks...
February 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718928/enteral-resuscitation-with-oral-rehydration-solution-to-reduce-acute-kidney-injury-in-burn-victims-evidence-from-a-porcine-model
#2
Belinda I Gómez, Matthew K McIntyre, Jennifer M Gurney, Kevin K Chung, Leopoldo C Cancio, Michael A Dubick, David M Burmeister
Intravenous (IV) resuscitation of burn patients has greatly improved outcomes and become a cornerstone of modern burn care. However, the heavy fluids and vascular access required may not be feasible in austere environments, mass casualty, or delayed transport scenarios. Enteral resuscitation has been proposed for these situations; we sought to examine the effectiveness of this strategy on improving burn-induced kidney injury. Anesthetized Yorkshire swine sustaining 40% TBSA full-thickness contact burns were randomized to three groups (n = 6/group): fluid deprivation, ad libitum water access, or 70 mL/kg/d Oral Rehydration Salt solution (ORS)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686001/biological-sex-modulates-the-adrenal-and-blood-pressure-responses-to-angiotensin-ii
#3
Mohammad Zaki Shukri, Jia Wei Tan, Worapaka Manosroi, Luminita H Pojoga, Alicia Rivera, Jonathan S Williams, Ellen W Seely, Gail K Adler, Iris Z Jaffe, Richard H Karas, Gordon H Williams, Jose R Romero
The relationship between biological sex and aldosterone on blood pressure (BP) is unclear. We hypothesized that sex would modify the interaction between aldosterone and vascular responses to salt intake and angiotensin II (AngII). To test this hypothesis, in 1592 subjects from the well-controlled Hypertensive Pathotype cohort, we compared responses of women and men to chronic (BP and aldosterone levels in response to dietary salt) and acute (BP, renal plasma flow, and aldosterone responses to AngII infusion) manipulations...
June 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595916/the-complement-system-in-hypertension-and-renal-damage-in-the-dahl-ss-rat
#4
Jean F Regal, Connor F Laule, Luke McCutcheon, Kate M Root, Hayley Lund, Shireen Hashmat, David L Mattson
Evidence indicates the immune system is important in development of hypertension and kidney disease. In the Dahl Salt-Sensitive (SS) rat model, lymphocytes play a role in development of hypertension and kidney damage after increased sodium intake. Recent transcriptomic analyses demonstrate upregulation of the innate immune complement system in the kidney of Dahl SS rat fed a high-salt diet, leading us to hypothesize that inhibition of complement activation would attenuate development of hypertension and kidney damage...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574718/compromised-regulation-of-the-collecting-duct-enac-activity-in-mice-lacking-at-1a-receptor
#5
Mykola Mamenko, Oleg Zaika, Viktor Tomilin, V Behrana Jensen, Oleh Pochynyuk
ENaC-mediated sodium reabsorption in the collecting duct (CD) is a critical determinant of urinary sodium excretion. Existing evidence suggest direct stimulatory actions of Angiotensin II (Ang II) on ENaC in the CD, independently of the aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) signaling. Deletion of the major renal AT1 receptor isoform, AT1a R, decreases blood pressure and reduces ENaC abundance despite elevated aldosterone levels. The mechanism of this insufficient compensation is not known. Here, we used patch clamp electrophysiology in freshly isolated split-opened CDs to investigate how AT1a R dysfunction compromises functional ENaC activity and its regulation by dietary salt intake...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537860/rag1-null-dahl-ss-rats-reveal-adaptive-immune-mechanisms-exacerbate-high-protein-induced-hypertension-and-renal-injury
#6
Justine M Abais-Battad, Hayley Lund, Daniel J Fehrenbach, John Henry Dasinger, David L Mattson
The current study, performed in Dahl Salt-Sensitive (SS) and SS-Rag1-/- rats lacking T- and B- lymphocytes, tested the hypothesis that immune cells amplify salt-sensitive hypertension and kidney damage in response to a high protein diet. After weaning, SS and SS-Rag1-/- rats were placed on an isocaloric, 0.4% NaCl diet containing normal (18%) or high (30%) protein. At 9 weeks of age, rats were switched to a 4.0% NaCl diet containing the same amount of dietary protein and maintained on the high salt diet for 3 weeks...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504258/recombinant-erythropoietin-acutely-decreases-renal-perfusion-and-decouples-the-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system
#7
Niels J Aachmann-Andersen, Soren J Christensen, Kristian Lisbjerg, Peter Oturai, Pär I Johansson, Niels-Henrik Holstein-Rathlou, Niels V Olsen
The effect of recombinant erythropoietin (rhEPO) on renal and systemic hemodynamics was evaluated in a randomized double-blinded, cross-over study. Sixteen healthy subjects were tested with placebo, or low-dose rhEPO for 2 weeks, or high-dose rhEPO for 3 days. Subjects refrained from excessive salt intake, according to instructions from a dietitian. Renal clearance studies were done for measurements of renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the segmentel tubular handling of sodium and water (lithium clearance)...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495340/dietary-approach-to-recurrent-or-chronic-hyperkalaemia-in-patients-with-decreased-kidney-function
#8
Adamasco Cupisti, Csaba P Kovesdy, Claudia D'Alessandro, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
Whereas the adequate intake of potassium is relatively high in healthy adults, i.e., 4.7 g per day, a dietary potassium restriction of usually less than 3 g per day is recommended in the management of patients with reduced kidney function, especially those who tend to develop hyperkalaemia including patients who are treated with angiotensin pathway modulators. Most potassium-rich foods are considered heart-healthy nutrients with high fibre, high anti-oxidant vitamins and high alkali content such as fresh fruits and vegetables; hence, the main challenge of dietary potassium management is to maintain high fibre intake and a low net fixed-acid load, because constipation and metabolic acidosis are per se major risk factors for hyperkalaemia...
February 25, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466174/-pharmacological-properties-of-loop-diuretics-and-their-clinical-effects
#9
G Sakalauskienė, G Civinskienė, A Antuševas, P Civinskas
Edematous states caused by an excessesive extracellular fluid retention are major components of cardiovascular and renal disorders including chronic kidney disease, nephrotic syndrome, and heart failure. The use of diuretic drugs from various groups including loop duiretics are important means of pharmacological correction of these clinical conditions. Moreover, diuretics used to lower bood pressure as a part of antihypertensive treatment, reduce cardiovascular events. The response of patients to the dose of a diuretic is reflected by a sigmoid dose-response curve which can be affected by changes of sodium content in the body...
January 2018: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362390/effect-of-salt-intake-on-plasma-and-urinary-uric-acid-levels-in-chinese-adults-an-interventional-trial
#10
Yang Wang, Chao Chu, Ke-Ke Wang, Jia-Wen Hu, Yu Yan, Yong-Bo Lv, Yu-Meng Cao, Wen-Ling Zheng, Xi-Long Dang, Jing-Tao Xu, Wei Chen, Zu-Yi Yuan, Jian-Jun Mu
Uric acid (UA) has been proposed as an important risk factor for cardiovascular and renal morbidity. We conducted an interventional trial to assess effects of altered salt intake on plasma and urine UA levels and the relationship between UA levels and salt sensitivity in humans. Ninety subjects (18-65 years old) were sequentially maintained on a normal diet for 3 days at baseline, a low-salt diet for 7 days (3.0 g/day, NaCl), and a high-salt diet for an additional 7 days (18.0 g/day of NaCl). Plasma UA levels significantly increased from baseline to low-salt diet and decreased from low-salt to high-salt diet...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357414/effects-of-a-high-sodium-low-potassium-diet-on-renal-calcium-magnesium-and-phosphate-handling
#11
Jenny van der Wijst, Omar A Z Tutakhel, Caro Bos, A H Jan Danser, Ewout J Hoorn, Joost G J Hoenderop, René J M Bindels
The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) of the kidney plays an important role in blood pressure regulation by modulating Na+ reabsorption via the Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC). A diet containing high salt (NaCl) and low K+ activates NCC, thereby causing Na+ retention and a rise in blood pressure. Since high blood pressure, hypertension, is associated with changes in serum calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) levels, we hypothesized that dietary Na+ and K+ intake affects Ca2+ and Mg2+ transport in the DCT. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of a high Na+/low K+ diet on renal Ca2+ and Mg2+ handling...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301002/should-we-eat-more-potassium-to-better-control-blood-pressure-in-hypertension
#12
Michel Burnier
Changes in lifestyle and nutrition are recommended as the first-step approach to the management of hypertension by all national and international guidelines. Today, when considering nutritional factors in hypertension, almost all the attention is focused on the reduction of salt intake to improve blood pressure (BP) control. Changes in potassium intake are only briefly evoked in guidelines. Few physicians actually think about proposing to eat more foods that are high in potassium (fruits, vegetables, nuts) to better control BP...
January 2, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198468/high-and-low-sodium-intakes-are-associated-with-incident-chronic-kidney-disease-in-patients-with-normal-renal-function-and-hypertension
#13
Chang-Yun Yoon, Juhwan Noh, Jinae Lee, Youn Kyung Kee, Changhwan Seo, Misol Lee, Min-Uk Cha, Hyoungnae Kim, Seohyun Park, Hae-Ryong Yun, Su-Young Jung, Jong Hyun Jhee, Seung Hyeok Han, Tae-Hyun Yoo, Shin-Wook Kang, Jung Tak Park
The association between salt intake and renal outcome in subjects with preserved kidney function remains unclear. Here we evaluated the effect of sodium intake on the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a prospective cohort of people with normal renal function. Data were obtained from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, a prospective community-based cohort study while sodium intake was estimated by a 24-hour dietary recall Food Frequency Questionnaire. A total of 3,106 individuals with and 4,871 patients without hypertension were analyzed with a primary end point of CKD development [a composite of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) under 60 mL/min/1...
November 29, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146141/the-myth-of-water-and-salt-from-aquaretics-to-tenapanor
#14
REVIEW
Luca Visconti, Valeria Cernaro, Sebastiano Calimeri, Antonio Lacquaniti, Francesca De Gregorio, Carlo Alberto Ricciardi, Viviana Lacava, Domenico Santoro, Michele Buemi
The impact of water intake has been studied in several renal diseases. For example, increasing water intake is useful to prevent primary and secondary nephrolithiasis. In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, arginine vasopressin (AVP) is involved in the progression of the disease, and water intake could play a therapeutic role by inhibiting the synthesis of AVP, but its efficacy is still controversial. Conversely, the use of aquaretics, which are antagonists of AVP V2 receptors, results in the reduction of the increase rate of total kidney volume with a slower decline of glomerular filtration rate...
March 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104158/moderate-salt-restriction-with-or-without-paricalcitol-in-type-2-diabetes-and-losartan-resistant-macroalbuminuria-proceed-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-trial
#15
Aneliya Parvanova, Matias Trillini, Manuel A Podestà, Ilian Petrov Iliev, Barbara Ruggiero, Manuela Abbate, Annalisa Perna, Francesco Peraro, Olimpia Diadei, Nadia Rubis, Flavio Gaspari, Fabiola Carrara, Nadia Stucchi, Antonio Belviso, Antonio C Bossi, Roberto Trevisan, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Martin de Borst, Piero Ruggenenti
BACKGROUND: Macroalbuminuria predicts renal and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to assess the albuminuria-lowering effects of salt restriction, paricalcitol therapy, or both, in this population. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, we recruited adult patients with type 2 diabetes from six diabetology outpatient clinics in northern Italy, with 24 h albuminuria of more than 300 mg despite 100 mg per day losartan therapy, blood pressure of less than 140/90 mm Hg, serum creatinine concentration of less than 2 mg/dL, stable renal function on stable renin-angiotensin system inhibitor therapy with a fixed dose of losartan, parathyroid hormone concentration of 20 pg/mL to <110 pg/mL, serum calcium concentration of less than 9·5 mg/dL, and serum phosphate concentration of less than 5 mg/dL, who had been more than 80% compliant with placebo treatment during a 1 month placebo run-in...
January 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066763/urotensin-ii-exerts-pressor-effects-by-stimulating-renin-and-aldosterone-synthase-gene-expression
#16
Brasilina Caroccia, Mirko Menegolo, Teresa M Seccia, Lucia Petrelli, Michele Antonello, Alice Limena, Andrea Porzionato, Raffaele De Caro, Marko Poglitsch, Gian Paolo Rossi
We investigated the in vivo pressor effects of the potent vasoconstrictor Urotensin II (UII). We randomized normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats into 4 groups that received a 7-day UII infusion (cases) or vehicle (controls). Group 1 received normal sodium intake; Group 2 underwent unilateral nephrectomy and salt loading; Group 3 received spironolactone, besides unilateral nephrectomy and salt loading; Group 4 only received spironolactone. UII raised BP transiently after a lag phase of 12-36 hours in Group 1, and progressively over the week in Group 2...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021272/combined-salt-and-caloric-restrictions-potential-adverse-outcomes
#17
Tsuyoshi Homma, Mika Homma, Yuefei Huang, Korapat Mayurasakorn, Nurul Mahamad Rodi, Anis Amalina Abdul Hamid, Shelley Hurwitz, Tham Yao, Gail K Adler, Luminita H Pojoga, Gordon H Williams, Jose R Romero
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that caloric restriction (CR) and salt restriction (ResS) would have similar effects on reducing cardiovascular risk markers and that combining CR and ResS would be synergistic in modulating these markers. METHODS AND RESULTS: To test our hypothesis, rats were randomized into 2 groups: ad libitum liberal salt diet (ad libitum/high-sodium, 1.6% sodium) or ResS diet (ad libitum/ResS, 0.03% sodium). CR was initiated in half of the rats in each group by reducing caloric intake to 60% while maintaining sodium intake constant (CR/high-sodium, 2...
October 11, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940314/dietary-sodium-induces-a-redistribution-of-the-tubular-metabolic-workload
#18
Khalil Udwan, Ahmed Abed, Isabelle Roth, Eva Dizin, Marc Maillard, Carla Bettoni, Johannes Loffing, Carsten A Wagner, Aurélie Edwards, Eric Feraille
KEY POINTS: Body Na(+) content is tightly controlled by regulated urinary Na(+) excretion. The intrarenal mechanisms mediating adaptation to variations in dietary Na(+) intake are incompletely characterized. We confirmed and expanded observations in mice that variations in dietary Na(+) intake do not alter the glomerular filtration rate but alter the total and cell-surface expression of major Na(+) transporters all along the kidney tubule. Low dietary Na(+) intake increased Na(+) reabsorption in the proximal tubule and decreased it in more distal kidney tubule segments...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929577/salt-intake-and-blood-pressure-response-to-percutaneous-renal-denervation-in-resistant-hypertension
#19
Esther de Beus, Rosa L de Jager, Martine M Beeftink, Margreet F Sanders, Wilko Spiering, Evert-Jan Vonken, Michiel Voskuil, Michiel L Bots, Peter J Blankestijn
The effect of lowering sympathetic nerve activity by renal denervation (RDN) is highly variable. With the exception of office systolic blood pressure (BP), predictors of the BP-lowering effect have not been identified. Because dietary sodium intake influences sympathetic drive, and, conversely, sympathetic activity influences salt sensitivity in hypertension, we investigated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion in participants of the SYMPATHY trial. SYMPATHY investigated RDN in patients with resistant hypertension...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845508/impact-of-renal-denervation-on-tissue-na-content-in-treatment-resistant-hypertension
#20
Christian Ott, Christoph Kopp, Anke Dahlmann, Axel Schmid, Peter Linz, Alexander Cavallaro, Matthias Hammon, Tilmann Ditting, Roland Veelken, Michael Uder, Jens Titze, Roland E Schmieder
OBJECTIVES: Renal denervation (RDN) has been introduced for reducing blood pressure (BP) in treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH). The precise mechanism how RDN exerts its BP-lowering effects are not yet fully understood. It is widely accepted that sodium (Na+ ) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of hypertensive disease. However, there is increasing evidence of osmotically inactive Na+ storage. We investigated the impact of RDN on Na+ homeostasis using estimation of salt intake, and measurement of tissue Na+ content...
January 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
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