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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146141/the-myth-of-water-and-salt-from-aquaretics-to-tenapanor
#1
REVIEW
Luca Visconti, Valeria Cernaro, Sebastiano Calimeri, Antonio Lacquaniti, Francesca De Gregorio, Carlo Alberto Ricciardi, Viviana Lacava, Domenico Santoro, Michele Buemi
The impact of water intake has been studied in several renal diseases. For example, increasing water intake is useful to prevent primary and secondary nephrolithiasis. In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, arginine vasopressin (AVP) is involved in the progression of the disease, and water intake could play a therapeutic role by inhibiting the synthesis of AVP, but its efficacy is still controversial. Conversely, the use of aquaretics, which are antagonists of AVP V2 receptors, results in the reduction of the increase rate of total kidney volume with a slower decline of glomerular filtration rate...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104158/moderate-salt-restriction-with-or-without-paricalcitol-in-type-2-diabetes-and-losartan-resistant-macroalbuminuria-proceed-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-trial
#2
Aneliya Parvanova, Matias Trillini, Manuel A Podestà, Ilian Petrov Iliev, Barbara Ruggiero, Manuela Abbate, Annalisa Perna, Francesco Peraro, Olimpia Diadei, Nadia Rubis, Flavio Gaspari, Fabiola Carrara, Nadia Stucchi, Antonio Belviso, Antonio C Bossi, Roberto Trevisan, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Martin de Borst, Piero Ruggenenti
BACKGROUND: Macroalbuminuria predicts renal and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to assess the albuminuria-lowering effects of salt restriction, paricalcitol therapy, or both, in this population. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, we recruited adult patients with type 2 diabetes from six diabetology outpatient clinics in northern Italy, with 24 h albuminuria of more than 300 mg despite 100 mg per day losartan therapy, blood pressure of less than 140/90 mm Hg, serum creatinine concentration of less than 2 mg/dL, stable renal function on stable renin-angiotensin system inhibitor therapy with a fixed dose of losartan, parathyroid hormone concentration of 20 pg/mL to <110 pg/mL, serum calcium concentration of less than 9·5 mg/dL, and serum phosphate concentration of less than 5 mg/dL, who had been more than 80% compliant with placebo treatment during a 1 month placebo run-in...
November 2, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066763/urotensin-ii-exerts-pressor-effects-by-stimulating-renin-and-aldosterone-synthase-gene-expression
#3
Brasilina Caroccia, Mirko Menegolo, Teresa M Seccia, Lucia Petrelli, Michele Antonello, Alice Limena, Andrea Porzionato, Raffaele De Caro, Marko Poglitsch, Gian Paolo Rossi
We investigated the in vivo pressor effects of the potent vasoconstrictor Urotensin II (UII). We randomized normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats into 4 groups that received a 7-day UII infusion (cases) or vehicle (controls). Group 1 received normal sodium intake; Group 2 underwent unilateral nephrectomy and salt loading; Group 3 received spironolactone, besides unilateral nephrectomy and salt loading; Group 4 only received spironolactone. UII raised BP transiently after a lag phase of 12-36 hours in Group 1, and progressively over the week in Group 2...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021272/combined-salt-and-caloric-restrictions-potential-adverse-outcomes
#4
Tsuyoshi Homma, Mika Homma, Yuefei Huang, Korapat Mayurasakorn, Nurul Mahamad Rodi, Anis Amalina Abdul Hamid, Shelley Hurwitz, Tham Yao, Gail K Adler, Luminita H Pojoga, Gordon H Williams, Jose R Romero
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that caloric restriction (CR) and salt restriction (ResS) would have similar effects on reducing cardiovascular risk markers and that combining CR and ResS would be synergistic in modulating these markers. METHODS AND RESULTS: To test our hypothesis, rats were randomized into 2 groups: ad libitum liberal salt diet (ad libitum/high-sodium, 1.6% sodium) or ResS diet (ad libitum/ResS, 0.03% sodium). CR was initiated in half of the rats in each group by reducing caloric intake to 60% while maintaining sodium intake constant (CR/high-sodium, 2...
October 11, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940314/dietary-sodium-induces-a-redistribution-of-the-tubular-metabolic-workload
#5
Khalil Udwan, Ahmed Abed, Isabelle Roth, Eva Dizin, Marc Maillard, Carla Bettoni, Johannes Loffing, Carsten A Wagner, Aurélie Edwards, Eric Feraille
KEY POINTS: Body Na(+) content is tightly controlled by regulated urinary Na(+) excretion. The intrarenal mechanisms mediating adaptation to variations in dietary Na(+) intake are incompletely characterized. We confirmed and expanded observations in mice that variations in dietary Na(+) intake do not alter the glomerular filtration rate but alter the total and cell-surface expression of major Na(+) transporters all along the kidney tubule. Low dietary Na(+) intake increased Na(+) reabsorption in the proximal tubule and decreased it in more distal kidney tubule segments...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929577/salt-intake-and-blood-pressure-response-to-percutaneous-renal-denervation-in-resistant-hypertension
#6
Esther de Beus, Rosa L de Jager, Martine M Beeftink, Margreet F Sanders, Wilko Spiering, Evert-Jan Vonken, Michiel Voskuil, Michiel L Bots, Peter J Blankestijn
The effect of lowering sympathetic nerve activity by renal denervation (RDN) is highly variable. With the exception of office systolic blood pressure (BP), predictors of the BP-lowering effect have not been identified. Because dietary sodium intake influences sympathetic drive, and, conversely, sympathetic activity influences salt sensitivity in hypertension, we investigated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion in participants of the SYMPATHY trial. SYMPATHY investigated RDN in patients with resistant hypertension...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845508/impact-of-renal-denervation-on-tissue-na-content-in-treatment-resistant-hypertension
#7
Christian Ott, Christoph Kopp, Anke Dahlmann, Axel Schmid, Peter Linz, Alexander Cavallaro, Matthias Hammon, Tilmann Ditting, Roland Veelken, Michael Uder, Jens Titze, Roland E Schmieder
OBJECTIVES: Renal denervation (RDN) has been introduced for reducing blood pressure (BP) in treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH). The precise mechanism how RDN exerts its BP-lowering effects are not yet fully understood. It is widely accepted that sodium (Na(+)) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of hypertensive disease. However, there is increasing evidence of osmotically inactive Na(+) storage. We investigated the impact of RDN on Na(+) homeostasis using estimation of salt intake, and measurement of tissue Na(+) content...
August 28, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780627/primary-pediatric-hypertension-current-understanding-and-emerging-concepts
#8
REVIEW
Andrew C Tiu, Michael D Bishop, Laureano D Asico, Pedro A Jose, Van Anthony M Villar
The rising prevalence of primary pediatric hypertension and its tracking into adult hypertension point to the importance of determining its pathogenesis to gain insights into its current and emerging management. Considering that the intricate control of BP is governed by a myriad of anatomical, molecular biological, biochemical, and physiological systems, multiple genes are likely to influence an individual's BP and susceptibility to develop hypertension. The long-term regulation of BP rests on renal and non-renal mechanisms...
September 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734244/renal-denervation-attenuates-hypertension-and-renal-dysfunction-in-a-model-of-cardiovascular-and-renal-disease-which-is-associated-with-reduced-nadph-and-xanthine-oxidase-activity
#9
Maria Peleli, Peter Flacker, Zhengbing Zhuge, Cristina Gomez, Craig E Wheelock, A Erik G Persson, Mattias Carlstrom
Oxidative stress is considered a central pathophysiological event in cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. Early age reduction in renal mass is associated with hypertension and oxidative stress in later life, which is aggravated by increased salt intake. The aim of the present study was to examine if renal sympathetic denervation can exert blood pressure lowering effects in uninephrectomized (UNX) rats (3-week old) fed with high salt (HS, 4%; w/w) diet for 4 weeks. Moreover, we investigated if renal denervation is associated with changes in NADPH and xanthine oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species...
July 5, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635325/effect-of-salt-loading-on-baroreflex-sensitivity-in-reduced-renal-mass-hypertension
#10
Besim Özaykan, Eylem Taskin, Ali Magemizoğlu
BACKGROUND: High dietary salt, as well as renal mass reduction, is known to decrease baroreflex sensitivity in rats. However, the effect of high salt intake on baroreflex sensitivity is unknown in reduced renal mass (RRM) hypertension; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of salt loading on arterial baroreflex sensitivity and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in RRM hypertension. METHODS: Both RRM and sham-operated control (SO) rats were loaded with 0...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594849/high-sodium-diet-converts-renal-proteoglycans-into-pro-inflammatory-mediators-in-rats
#11
Ryanne S Hijmans, Pragyi Shrestha, Kwaku A Sarpong, Saleh Yazdani, Rana El Masri, Wilhelmina H A de Jong, Gerjan Navis, Romain R Vivès, Jacob van den Born
BACKGROUND: High dietary sodium aggravates renal disease by affecting blood pressure and by its recently shown pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic effects. Moreover, pro-inflammatory modification of renal heparan sulfate (HS) can induce tissue remodeling. We aim to investigate if high sodium intake in normotensive rats converts renal HS into a pro-inflammatory phenotype, able to bind more sodium and orchestrate inflammation, fibrosis and lymphangiogenesis. METHODS: Wistar rats received a normal diet for 4 weeks, or 8% NaCl diet for 2 or 4 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581677/interplay-of-volume-blood-pressure-organ-ischemia-residual-renal-function-and-diet-certainties-and-uncertainties-with-dialytic-management
#12
REVIEW
Ercan Ok, Nathan W Levin, Gulay Asci, Charles Chazot, Huseyin Toz, Mehmet Ozkahya
Extracellular fluid volume overload and its inevitable consequence, hypertension, increases cardiovascular mortality in the long term by leading to left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, and ischemic heart disease in dialysis patients. Unlike antihypertensive medications, a strict volume control strategy provides optimal blood pressure control without need for antihypertensive drugs. However, utilization of this strategy has remained limited because of several factors, including the absence of a gold standard method to assess volume status, difficulties in reducing extracellular fluid volume, and safety concerns associated with reduction of extracellular volume...
September 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550472/salt-induced-na-k-atpase-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-expression-involves-soluble-adenylyl-cyclase-in-endothelial-cells
#13
Mirja Mewes, Johanna Nedele, Katrin Schelleckes, Olga Bondareva, Malte Lenders, Kristina Kusche-Vihrog, Hans-Joachim Schnittler, Stefan-Martin Brand, Boris Schmitz, Eva Brand
High dietary salt intake may lead to vascular stiffness, which predicts cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure, and myocardial and cerebral infarctions as well as renal impairment. The vascular endothelium is a primary target for deleterious salt effects leading to dysfunction and endothelial stiffness. We hypothesize that the Ca(2+)- and bicarbonate-activated soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) contributes to Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase expression regulation in vascular endothelial cells and is an important regulator of endothelial stiffness...
May 26, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438314/progression-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-is-associated-with-up-regulation-of-major-sodium-transporters-in-the-mouse-kidney-cortex-under-a-normal-salt-diet
#14
Xiaoming Zhou, Balamurugan Packialakshmi, Yao Xiao, Saule Nurmukhambetova, Jason R Lees
Recent demonstrations of exacerbation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by high salt diets prompted us to study whether EAE stimulated Na absorption by the renal cortex, a primary regulatory site for Na balance, even under a normal NaCl diet. We found that as EAE progressed from mild to severe symptoms, there were parallel increases in the protein abundance of NHE3 and αENaC and the Na,K-ATPase activity with an affiliated elevation of its β1-subunit protein. These effects are associated with increases in the protein levels of the well-known regulators SGK1 and scaffold NHERF2, and phosphorylation of ERK1/2...
July 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420122/the-effect-of-salt-intake-and-potassium-supplementation-on-serum-gastrin-levels-in-chinese-adults-a-randomized-trial
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Yuan-Yuan Wang, Wen-Wen He, Yan-Chun Liu, Yi-Feng Lin, Lu-Fei Hong
Excess dietary salt is strongly correlated with cardiovascular disease, morbidity, and mortality. Conversely, potassium likely elicits favorable effects against cardiovascular disorders. Gastrin, which is produced by the G-cells of the stomach and duodenum, can increase renal sodium excretion and regulate blood pressure by acting on the cholecystokinin B receptor. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of altered salt and potassium supplementation on serum gastrin levels in humans. A total of 44 subjects (38-65 years old) were selected from a rural community in northern China...
April 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414302/increased-salt-consumption-induces-body-water-conservation-and-decreases-fluid-intake
#16
Natalia Rakova, Kento Kitada, Kathrin Lerchl, Anke Dahlmann, Anna Birukov, Steffen Daub, Christoph Kopp, Tetyana Pedchenko, Yahua Zhang, Luis Beck, Bernd Johannes, Adriana Marton, Dominik N Müller, Manfred Rauh, Friedrich C Luft, Jens Titze
BACKGROUND: The idea that increasing salt intake increases drinking and urine volume is widely accepted. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in salt intake of 6 g/d would change fluid balance in men living under ultra-long-term controlled conditions. METHODS: Over the course of 2 separate space flight simulation studies of 105 and 205 days' duration, we exposed 10 healthy men to 3 salt intake levels (12, 9, or 6 g/d). All other nutrients were maintained constant...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412019/renal-function-in-relation-to-sodium-intake-a%C3%A2-quantitative-review-of-the-literature
#17
REVIEW
Kyoko Nomura, Kei Asayama, Lotte Jacobs, Lutgarde Thijs, Jan A Staessen
We undertook a quantitative literature review to search for evidence underpinning current guidelines proposing a reduction of sodium intake to less than 2.4 g/d for the management of chronic kidney disease. We searched PubMed for peer-reviewed articles published from January 1980 through May 2016. Two investigators screened 5072 publications and extracted data from 36, including 11 cross-sectional and 5 longitudinal observational studies and 20 intervention trials. Within-study effect sizes were pooled and standardized to a sodium gradient of 100 mmol/d by using inverse-variance weighted random effects models...
July 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411128/the-effects-of-experimental-gestational-hypertension-on-maternal-blood-pressure-and-fluid-intake-and-pre-weanling-hypothalamic-neuronal-activity
#18
Juan Arguelles, Carmen Perillan, Terry G Beltz, Baojian Xue, Daniel Badaue-Passos, Jose A Vega, Alan Kim Johnson
To examine the fetal programming effects of maternal hypertension, natriophilia and hyperreninemia [experimentally induced in rats by partial inter-renal aortic ligature (PAL) prior to mating] fos immunoreactivity was studied in 6-day-old offspring of PAL and control mothers. The purposes of the present set of experiments were twofold. The first was to characterize the effects of PAL on the mother's arterial blood pressure and intake of salt (1.8% NaCl solution) and water over the course of gestation. Second, was to study the pattern of neuronal activation in key brain areas of 6-day-old offspring treated with the dipsogen isoproterenol that were from PAL and control mothers...
April 12, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389525/role-of-renal-transporters-and-novel-regulatory-interactions-in-the-tal-that-control-blood-pressure
#19
REVIEW
Lesley A Graham, Anna F Dominiczak, Nicholas R Ferreri
Hypertension (HTN), a major public health issue is currently the leading factor in the global burden of disease, where associated complications account for 9.4 million deaths worldwide every year. Excessive dietary salt intake is among the environmental factors that contribute to HTN, known as salt sensitivity. The heterogeneity of salt sensitivity and the multiple mechanisms that link high salt intake to increases in blood pressure are of upmost importance for therapeutic application. A continual increase in the kidney's reabsorption of sodium (Na(+)) relies on sequential actions at various segments along the nephron...
May 1, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220030/novel-paradigms-of-salt-and-hypertension
#20
REVIEW
Wenguang Feng, Louis J Dell'Italia, Paul W Sanders
Salt resistance/sensitivity refers specifically to the effect of dietary sodium chloride (salt) intake on BP. Increased dietary salt intake promotes an early and uniform expansion of extracellular fluid volume and increased cardiac output. To compensate for these hemodynamic changes and maintain constant BP in salt resistance, renal and peripheral vascular resistance falls and is associated with an increase in production of nitric oxide. In contrast, the decline in peripheral vascular resistance and the increase in nitric oxide are impaired or absent in salt sensitivity, promoting an increase in BP in these individuals...
May 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
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