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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108678/anti-tb-drug-concentrations-and-drug-associated-toxicities-among-tb-hiv-coinfected-patients
#1
C Sekaggya-Wiltshire, A von Braun, A U Scherrer, Y C Manabe, A Buzibye, D Muller, B Ledergerber, U Gutteck, N Corti, A Kambugu, P Byakika-Kibwika, M Lamorde, B Castelnuovo, J Fehr, M R Kamya
BACKGROUND: Toxicities due to anti-TB treatment frequently occur among TB/HIV-coinfected patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between anti-TB drug concentrations and the occurrence of hepatotoxicity and peripheral neuropathy among TB/HIV-coinfected patients. METHODS: TB/HIV-coinfected patients were started on standard dose anti-TB treatment according to WHO guidelines. Anti-TB drug concentrations were measured using HPLC 1, 2 and 4 h after drug intake at 2, 8 and 24 weeks following initiation of TB treatment...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054138/-ultrasound-guided-interventions-on-the-peripheral-nervous-system
#2
A Loizides, L Gruber, S Peer, M Plaikner, H Gruber
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Up to the advent of high-resolution ultrasound, interventions on the peripheral nervous system, including local anesthesia and pain treatment were performed without visual guidance, which in some cases led to treatment failure or local tissue and nerve damage. METHODICAL INNOVATIONS: Progress in the field of ultrasound has enabled the functional visualization, anesthesia and anti-inflammatory or neurolytic treatment of many peripheral nerves, such as the brachial plexus, nerves of the upper and lower extremities and various nerves of the trunk...
January 4, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002115/pilot-testing-a-web-based-system-for-the-assessment-and-management-of-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neuropathy
#3
Robert Knoerl, William N Dudley, Gloria Smith, Celia Bridges, Grace Kanzawa-Lee, Ellen M Lavoie Smith
Because numerous barriers hinder the assessment and management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in clinical practice, the Carevive Care Planning System, a novel Web-based platform, was developed to address these barriers. It provides patients an opportunity to report their symptoms before their clinic visit and generates customizable care plans composed of evidence-based management strategies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient and provider perspectives of feasibility, usability, acceptability, and satisfaction with the Carevive platform...
December 20, 2016: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992968/establishment-of-in%C3%A2-vitro-model-of-erectile-dysfunction-for-the-study-of-high-glucose-induced-angiopathy-and-neuropathy
#4
G N Yin, S-H Park, K-M Song, A Limanjaya, K Ghatak, N N Minh, J Ock, J-K Ryu, J-K Suh
Penile erection requires complex interaction between vascular endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and autonomic nerves. Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common causes of erectile dysfunction (ED) and multiple pathogenic factors, such as cavernous angiopathy and autonomic neuropathy, are associated with diabetic ED. Although a variety of animal models of diabetic ED play an important role in understanding pathophysiologic mechanisms of diabetes-induced ED, these animal models have limitations for addressing the exact cellular or molecular mechanisms involved in ED...
December 19, 2016: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942602/audiological-profile-of-adult-persons-with-auditory-neuropathy-spectrum-disorders
#5
Pradeep Yuvaraj, Mannarukrishnaiah Jayaram
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The auditory profile of a large number of persons with late onset auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) is recently described in the Indian context. The purpose of study was 1) to profile data on routine audiological parameters, cortical evoked potentials, and temporal processing, 2) to analyze the benefit from hearing aids for persons with ANSD, and 3) to understand the association between benefit from hearing aids and auditory profile. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight adults with late onset ANSD and a matched group of 40 normally hearing adults participated in the study...
December 2016: Journal of Audiology & Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906850/isolated-hypoglossal-nerve-palsy-mimicking-a-base-of-tongue-tumor
#6
Daniela Francesca Nestola, Mariangela Lombardi, Matteo Brucoli, Francesco Pia, Paolo Aluffi
Isolated paralysis of hypoglossal nerve is uncommon, generally being associated with other neuropathies. A careful differential diagnosis is necessary to recognize the underlying diseases, some of which can be life-threatening. The authors report a patient of an 80-year-old woman presenting with an isolated hypoglossal palsy, mimicking a tongue neoplasm. Through a careful clinical workup and thanks to the aid of the imaging, it was possible to identify the presence of signal alterations due to a subacute denervation of the affected hemitongue and to exclude the presence of a tumor...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902538/ulnar-tunnel-syndrome-radial-tunnel-syndrome-anterior-interosseous-nerve-syndrome-and-pronator-syndrome
#7
Adam B Strohl, David S Zelouf
In addition to the more common carpal tunnel and cubital tunnel syndromes, orthopaedic surgeons must recognize and manage other potential sites of peripheral nerve compression. The distal ulnar nerve may become compressed as it travels through the wrist, which is known as ulnar tunnel or Guyon canal syndrome. The posterior interosseous nerve may become entrapped in the proximal forearm as it travels through the radial tunnel, which results in a pain syndrome without motor weakness. The median nerve may become entrapped in the proximal forearm, which can result in a variety of symptoms...
January 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885979/gender-differences-in-audiological-findings-and-hearing-aid-benefit-in-255-individuals-with-auditory-neuropathy-spectrum-disorder-a-retrospective-study
#8
Vijaya Kumar Narne, Prashanth Prabhu, Hunsur S Chandan, Mahadeva Deepthi
BACKGROUND: There are many studies reported in the literature that have summarized audiological findings and possible rehabilitation in individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). However, there are very few studies that have attempted to delineate the gender differences in audiological characteristics and hearing aid benefit in individuals with ANSD. PURPOSE: The study aimed to explore the differences between males and females in terms of demographic details, audiogram, speech identification scores, otoacoustic emissions, acoustic reflexes, long latency responses, and hearing aid benefit...
November 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865310/the-diabetic-charcot-foot-from-1936-to-2016-eighty-years-later-and-still-growing
#9
REVIEW
Crystal L Ramanujam, Thomas Zgonis
Knowledge of diabetic Charcot neuroarthropathy (DCN) has grown tremendously since this condition was first described in 1936 by William Riely Jordan. Despite advancements in diagnostic approaches and treatment options making DCN limb salvage a more viable option, ongoing and additional research is needed to determine the definitive pathogenesis, which may aid in prevention of the condition. This article chronicles the main developments for the study and management of DCN since 1936 and recommends using the term diabetic Charcot-Jordan foot when specifically managing foot and ankle neuroarthropathy joints in patients with diabetic neuropathy...
January 2017: Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821382/a-prospective-multicenter-randomized-phase-ii-study-to-evaluate-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-eculizumab-in-patients-with-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-gbs-protocol-of-japanese-eculizumab-trial-for-gbs-jet-gbs
#10
Nobuko Yamaguchi, Sonoko Misawa, Yasunori Sato, Kengo Nagashima, Kanako Katayama, Yukari Sekiguchi, Yuta Iwai, Hiroshi Amino, Tomoki Suichi, Takanori Yokota, Yoichiro Nishida, Nobuo Kohara, Koichi Hirata, Kazutoshi Nishiyama, Ichiro Yabe, Ken-Ichi Kaida, Norihiro Suzuki, Hiroyuki Nodera, Shoji Tsuji, Haruki Koike, Jun-Ichi Kira, Hideki Hanaoka, Susumu Kusunoki, Satoshi Kuwabara
BACKGROUND: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an immune-mediated neuropathy that causes acute flaccid paralysis. Immunoglobulin and plasma exchange are established treatments for GBS; however, a substantial number of patients, particularly those with severe disease, have poor recovery and residual deficits. Recent studies suggest that complement activation plays a pivotal role in GBS-associated axonal degeneration, and eculizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that specifically binds to complement component 5 and potently inhibits complement activation...
November 7, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814471/reference-data-of-the-european-organisation-for-research-and-treatment-of-cancer-eortc-qlq-cipn20-questionnaire-in-the-general-dutch-population
#11
Floortje Mols, Lonneke V van de Poll-Franse, Gerard Vreugdenhil, Antoinetta J Beijers, Jacobien M Kieffer, Neil K Aaronson, Olga Husson
OBJECTIVE: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a debilitating side-effect of chemotherapy. However, CIPN symptoms are also reported by patients not receiving chemotherapy. Normative data could help interpret CIPN among cancer patients. Our aim was to generate normative data for the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-CIPN20 Questionnaire designed to assess CIPN from the patients' perspective. The normative CIPN data have also been generated for stratified subgroups formed on the basis of sex, age and comorbidity...
November 1, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755139/performance-intensity-function-and-aided-improvement-in-individuals-with-late-onset-auditory-neuropathy-spectrum-disorder
#12
Jijo Pottackal Mathai, Asha Yathiraj
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to explore the effect of intensity on speech perception in individuals with late-onset auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) by obtaining their performance-intensity (PI) function. Additionally, the study investigated the effect of PI function on aided speech perception. It was hypothesized that speech perception abilities of individuals with ANSD vary with intensity and may provide information regarding their aided performance. DESIGN: A factorial research design was used to obtain the PI function and aided performance...
October 13, 2016: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730358/mri-of-pathology-proven-peripheral-nerve-amyloidosis
#13
Gavin A McKenzie, Stephen M Broski, Benjamin M Howe, Robert J Spinner, Kimberly K Amrami, Angela Dispenzieri, Michael D Ringler
OBJECTIVE: To highlight the MRI characteristics of pathologically proven amyloidosis involving the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and determine the utility of MRI in directing targeted biopsy for aiding diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed for patients with pathologically proven PNS amyloidosis who also underwent MRI of the biopsied or excised nerve. MRI signal characteristics, nerve morphology, associated muscular denervation changes, and the presence of multifocal involvement were detailed...
January 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728957/reconciling-visual-field-defects-and-retinal-nerve-fibre-layer-asymmetric-patterns-in-retrograde-degeneration-an-extended-case-series
#14
Barbara Zangerl, Andrew Whatham, Juno Kim, Agnes Choi, Nagi N Assaad, Michael P Hennessy, Michael Kalloniatis
BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis in patients presenting with lesions at various locations within the visual pathway is challenging. This study investigated functional and structural changes secondary to such lesions to identify patterns useful to guide early and effective management. METHODS: Over 10,000 records from patients referred for optic nerve head assessment were reviewed and 31 patients with a final diagnosis of likely neuropathic lesions posterior to the eye were included in the current study...
October 11, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692165/in-type-1-diabetics-high-dose-biotin-may-compensate-for-low-hepatic-insulin-exposure-promoting-a-more-normal-expression-of-glycolytic-and-gluconeogenic-enyzymes-and-thereby-aiding-glycemic-control
#15
Mark F McCarty
In type 1 diabetics, hepatic exposure to insulin is chronically subnormal even in the context of insulin therapy; as a result, expression of glycolytic enzymes is decreased, and that of gluconeogenic enzymes is enhanced, resulting in a physiologically inappropriate elevation of hepatic glucose output. Subnormal expression of glucokinase (GK) is of particular importance in this regard. Possible strategies for correcting this perturbation of hepatic enzyme expression include administration of small molecule allosteric activators of GK, as well as a procedure known as chronic intermittent intravenous insulin therapy (CIIIT); however, side effects accompany the use of GK activators, and CIIIT is time and labor intensive...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681148/adverse-drug-reactions-associated-with-antiretroviral-therapy-in-south-africa
#16
Sumeshni Birbal, Mukesh Dheda, Elizabeth Ojewole, Frasia Oosthuizen
South Africa has one of the highest prevalences of HIV and AIDS in the world. HIV/AIDS patients face countless challenges, one of which is the risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). This study aimed to describe the ADRs reported in South Africa with reference to the type of ADRs, antiretrovirals (ARVs) implicated, seriousness of the ADRs and patient demographics associated with specific ADRs. A retrospective quantitative study was carried out using ADR reports submitted to the National Department of Health (NDoH) from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014...
September 2016: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671053/liver-transplantation-in-transthyretin-amyloidosis-characteristics-and-management-related-to-kidney-disease
#17
Ana Rocha, Luísa Lobato
Orthotopic liver transplantation (LT) was implemented as the inaugural disease-modifying therapy for hereditary transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis, a systemic amyloidosis mainly affecting the peripheral nervous system and heart. The first approach to pharmacologic therapy was focused on the stabilization of the TTR tetramer; following that new advent LT was assumed as the second step of treatment, for those patients whose neuropathy becomes worse after a course of pharmacologic therapy. The renal disease has been ignored in hereditary ATTR amyloidosis...
September 14, 2016: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625533/neurovascular-complications-of-the-upper-extremity-following-cardiovascular-procedures
#18
REVIEW
Bryan G Beutel, Scott D Lifchez, Eitan Melamed
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular procedures are common and are trending toward endovascular interventions. With this increase in endovascular procedures, there is also increasing awareness of upper extremity morbidity resulting from treatment. METHODS: Articles indexed within PubMed between the years 1975 and 2015 that discussed such complications were reviewed. RESULTS: Percutaneous radial artery access can lead to nerve ischemia, especially in the setting of an incomplete arterial arch, whereas radial artery harvesting for bypass surgery more commonly causes frank tissue ischemia and radial neuropathy...
August 2016: Journal of Hand and Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587922/detection-rates-of-cortical-auditory-evoked-potentials-at-different-sensation-levels-in-infants-with-sensory-neural-hearing-loss-and-auditory-neuropathy-spectrum-disorder
#19
Kirsty Gardner-Berry, Hsiuwen Chang, Teresa Y C Ching, Sanna Hou
With the introduction of newborn hearing screening, infants are being diagnosed with hearing loss during the first few months of life. For infants with a sensory/neural hearing loss (SNHL), the audiogram can be estimated objectively using auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing and hearing aids prescribed accordingly. However, for infants with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) due to the abnormal/absent ABR waveforms, alternative measures of auditory function are needed to assess the need for amplification and evaluate whether aided benefit has been achieved...
February 2016: Seminars in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545596/heat-shock-proteins-and-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Marzie Zilaee, Saeed Shirali
Diabetes is a chronic disease, and its prevalence continues to rise and can increase the risk for the progression of microvascular (such as nephropathy, retinopathy and neuropathy) and also macrovascular complications. Diabetes is a condition in which the oxidative stress and inflammation rise. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a highly conserved family of proteins that are expressed by all cells exposed to environmental stress, and they have diverse functions. In patients with diabetes, the expression and levels of HSPs decrease, but these chaperones can aid in improving some complications of diabetes, such as oxidative stress and inflammation...
December 2016: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
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