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AIDS neuropathy

Gavin A McKenzie, Stephen M Broski, Benjamin M Howe, Robert J Spinner, Kimberly K Amrami, Angela Dispenzieri, Michael D Ringler
OBJECTIVE: To highlight the MRI characteristics of pathologically proven amyloidosis involving the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and determine the utility of MRI in directing targeted biopsy for aiding diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed for patients with pathologically proven PNS amyloidosis who also underwent MRI of the biopsied or excised nerve. MRI signal characteristics, nerve morphology, associated muscular denervation changes, and the presence of multifocal involvement were detailed...
October 12, 2016: Skeletal Radiology
Barbara Zangerl, Andrew Whatham, Juno Kim, Agnes Choi, Nagi N Assaad, Michael P Hennessy, Michael Kalloniatis
BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis in patients presenting with lesions at various locations within the visual pathway is challenging. This study investigated functional and structural changes secondary to such lesions to identify patterns useful to guide early and effective management. METHODS: Over 10,000 records from patients referred for optic nerve head assessment were reviewed and 31 patients with a final diagnosis of likely neuropathic lesions posterior to the eye were included in the current study...
October 11, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Mark F McCarty
In type 1 diabetics, hepatic exposure to insulin is chronically subnormal even in the context of insulin therapy; as a result, expression of glycolytic enzymes is decreased, and that of gluconeogenic enzymes is enhanced, resulting in a physiologically inappropriate elevation of hepatic glucose output. Subnormal expression of glucokinase (GK) is of particular importance in this regard. Possible strategies for correcting this perturbation of hepatic enzyme expression include administration of small molecule allosteric activators of GK, as well as a procedure known as chronic intermittent intravenous insulin therapy (CIIIT); however, side effects accompany the use of GK activators, and CIIIT is time and labor intensive...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Sumeshni Birbal, Mukesh Dheda, Elizabeth Ojewole, Frasia Oosthuizen
South Africa has one of the highest prevalences of HIV and AIDS in the world. HIV/AIDS patients face countless challenges, one of which is the risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). This study aimed to describe the ADRs reported in South Africa with reference to the type of ADRs, antiretrovirals (ARVs) implicated, seriousness of the ADRs and patient demographics associated with specific ADRs. A retrospective quantitative study was carried out using ADR reports submitted to the National Department of Health (NDoH) from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014...
September 2016: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Ana Rocha, Luísa Lobato
Orthotopic liver transplantation (LT) was implemented as the inaugural disease-modifying therapy for hereditary transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis, a systemic amyloidosis mainly affecting the peripheral nervous system and heart. The first approach to pharmacologic therapy was focused on the stabilization of the TTR tetramer; following that new advent LT was assumed as the second step of treatment, for those patients whose neuropathy becomes worse after a course of pharmacologic therapy. The renal disease has been ignored in hereditary ATTR amyloidosis...
September 14, 2016: Transplantation Reviews
Bryan G Beutel, Scott D Lifchez, Eitan Melamed
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular procedures are common and are trending toward endovascular interventions. With this increase in endovascular procedures, there is also increasing awareness of upper extremity morbidity resulting from treatment. METHODS: Articles indexed within PubMed between the years 1975 and 2015 that discussed such complications were reviewed. RESULTS: Percutaneous radial artery access can lead to nerve ischemia, especially in the setting of an incomplete arterial arch, whereas radial artery harvesting for bypass surgery more commonly causes frank tissue ischemia and radial neuropathy...
August 2016: Journal of Hand and Microsurgery
Kirsty Gardner-Berry, Hsiuwen Chang, Teresa Y C Ching, Sanna Hou
With the introduction of newborn hearing screening, infants are being diagnosed with hearing loss during the first few months of life. For infants with a sensory/neural hearing loss (SNHL), the audiogram can be estimated objectively using auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing and hearing aids prescribed accordingly. However, for infants with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) due to the abnormal/absent ABR waveforms, alternative measures of auditory function are needed to assess the need for amplification and evaluate whether aided benefit has been achieved...
February 2016: Seminars in Hearing
Marzie Zilaee, Saeed Shirali
Diabetes is a chronic disease, and its prevalence continues to rise and can increase the risk for the progression of microvascular (such as nephropathy, retinopathy and neuropathy) and also macrovascular complications. Diabetes is a condition in which the oxidative stress and inflammation rise. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a highly conserved family of proteins that are expressed by all cells exposed to environmental stress, and they have diverse functions. In patients with diabetes, the expression and levels of HSPs decrease, but these chaperones can aid in improving some complications of diabetes, such as oxidative stress and inflammation...
August 18, 2016: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
Rashmi Rao, Victoria R Dimitriades, Maria Weimer, Chelsey Sandlin
BACKGROUND: Neurosarcoidosis occurs in fewer than 5% of adults with systemic sarcoid. However, only 53 examples of neurosarcoidosis have been reported in the pediatric population, with nine of those cases being isolated neurosarcoidosis. We present the tenth case of a child with an initial presentation of isolated neurosarcoidosis and a review of the literature. METHODS: We searched the Ovid Medline database from 1946 to May 28, 2015. The Mesh terms "neurosarcoidosis," "pediatric," and "child" were exploded, and the Boolean "AND" was used to combine "neurosarcoidosis" with "pediatric" or "child...
October 2016: Pediatric Neurology
G Stoll, K Reiners
The Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) are the most common immune-mediated polyneuropathies, which can show variable clinical and electrophysiological manifestations. Rarer immune-mediated neuropathies encompass paraproteinemic neuropathies (PPN), multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) and vasculitic neuropathies. The diagnosis usually relies on the history of symptom evolution, distribution of nerve dysfunction and particularly on characteristic features in nerve conduction studies, aided by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination and nerve biopsy findings...
August 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Gemma Olive, Antonia Clarke, Katja Doerholt, Vasantha Gowda, Atta Siddiqui, Ming J Lim
BACKGROUND: Acute flaccid weakness may be the first presentation of acute transverse myelitis (ATM), an immune-mediated central nervous system disorder or may be the first presentation of anterior horn cell syndrome or peripheral nervous system disease. CASE REPORTS: We describe two previously healthy female infants who presented with acute flaccid paralysis and encephalopathy. Neuroimaging revealed central cord signal changes in both cases and surprisingly electrophysiological studies performed revealed a generalized axonal motor neuropathy as well...
November 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Sangeetha Srinivasan, Nicola Pritchard, Geoff P Sampson, Katie Edwards, Dimitrios Vagenas, Anthony W Russell, Rayaz A Malik, Nathan Efron
PURPOSE: To examine the diagnostic capability of the full retinal and inner retinal thickness measures in differentiating individuals with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) from those without neuropathy and non-diabetic controls. METHODS: Individuals with (n=44) and without (n=107) diabetic neuropathy and non-diabetic control (n=42) participants underwent spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). Retinal thickness in the central 1mm zone (including the fovea), parafovea and perifovea was assessed in addition to ganglion cell complex (GCC) global loss volume (GCC GLV) and focal loss volume (GCC FLV), and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness...
July 13, 2016: Journal of Optometry
Neeraj Kumar, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Ravindra Kumar Garg, Rakesh Lalla, Kiran Preet Malhotra, Amita Jain, Imran Rizvi
OBJECTIVE: The diagnosis of leprous neuropathy is mostly empirical and electrophysiological studies may not truly represent the clinical findings. This study comprehensively evaluates the neuroelectrophysiology and looks at clinico-electrophysiological dissociation. METHODS: Conventional electrophysiological recording included evaluation of median, ulnar, radial, tibial, and common peroneal nerve; an extended protocol included great auricular, phrenic, and facial nerves, along with sympathetic skin response and blink reflex...
August 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
A M Mahon
This report documents an unusual case of distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) in an otherwise healthy patient without diabetes mellitus (DM) presenting to a podiatric wound care clinic. The development of gas gangrene coupled with Charcot neuroarthropathic changes ultimately resulted in a potentially life-saving transmetatarsal (TMT) amputation. Causation of, or at least a contributor to, the DSPN was likely phenytoin usage for epileptic seizures. Long-term use of phenytoin can lead to axonal shrinkage and random clusters of nerve demyelination [1]...
June 24, 2016: Journal of Tissue Viability
Matthew R Sapio, Samridhi C Goswami, Jacklyn R Gross, Andrew J Mannes, Michael J Iadarola
Inherited sensory neuropathies are caused by mutations in genes affecting either primary afferent neurons, or the Schwann cells that myelinate them. Using RNA-Seq, we analyzed the transcriptome of human and rat DRG and peripheral nerve, which contain sensory neurons and Schwann cells, respectively. We subdivide inherited sensory neuropathies based on expression of the mutated gene in these tissues, as well as in mouse TRPV1 lineage DRG nociceptive neurons, and across 32 human tissues from the Human Protein Atlas...
September 2016: Experimental Neurology
Guilherme Machado de Carvalho, Priscila Ramos, Castilho Arthur, Alexandre Guimarães, Edi Sartorato
OBJECTIVE: To describe the performance and results of CIs (cochlear implant) in patients with AN (auditory neuropathy) and to present a medical literature review. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective chart review of patients with AN who were treated with CI. The mesh terms used for the review in the Pubmed and Scopus databases were as follows: "hearing loss, cochlear implants, rehabilitation of persons with hearing impairment, auditory neuropathy". STATISTICAL ANALYSES: The Mann-Whitney test was performed...
April 2016: Journal of International Advanced Otology
Rick T Dobrowsky
The chaperome constitutes a broad family of molecular chaperones and co-chaperones that facilitate the folding, refolding, and degradation of the proteome. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) promotes the folding of numerous oncoproteins to aid survival of malignant phenotypes, and small molecule inhibitors of the Hsp90 chaperone complex offer a viable approach to treat certain cancers. One therapeutic attribute of this approach is the selectivity of these molecules to target high affinity oncogenic Hsp90 complexes present in tumor cells, which are absent in nontransformed cells...
August 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Juan M Politei, Didier Bouhassira, Dominique P Germain, Cyril Goizet, Antonio Guerrero-Sola, Max J Hilz, Elspeth J Hutton, Amel Karaa, Rocco Liguori, Nurcan Üçeyler, Lonnie K Zeltzer, Alessandro Burlina
AIMS: Patients with Fabry disease (FD) characteristically develop peripheral neuropathy at an early age, with pain being a crucial symptom of underlying pathology. However, the diagnosis of pain is challenging due to the heterogeneous and nonspecific symptoms. Practical guidance on the diagnosis and management of pain in FD is needed. METHODS: In 2014, experts met to discuss recent advances on this topic and update clinical guidance. RESULTS: Emerging disease-specific tools, including FabryScan, Fabry-specific Pediatric Health and Pain Questionnaire, and Würzburg Fabry Pain Questionnaire, and more general tools like the Total Symptom Score can aid diagnosis, characterization, and monitoring of pain in patients with FD...
July 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Sang Beom Han, Hee Kyung Yang, Ji Eun Oh, Kwang Gi Kim, Jeong-Min Hwang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy of a new automatic computer-aided detection (CAD) system for mass screening of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) defects in a large population using fundus photographs. METHODS: Among the fundus photographs of 1200 consecutive subjects who visited a healthcare centre, a total of 2270 photographs appropriate for analysis were tested. The photographs were first reviewed by two expert ophthalmologists for detection of RNFL defects (gold standard manual detection)...
June 8, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
M D Sanna, D Peroni, T Mello, C Ghelardini, A Quattrone, N Galeotti
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are key components of HIV/AIDS treatment to reduce viral load. However, antiretroviral toxic neuropathy has become a common peripheral neuropathy among HIV/AIDS patients leading to discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy, for which the underlying pathogenesis is uncertain. This study examines the role of neurofilament (NF) proteins in the spinal dorsal horn, DRG and sciatic nerve after NRTI neurotoxicity in mice treated with zalcitabine (2',3'-dideoxycitidine; ddC)...
September 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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