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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771556/tobacco-and-alcohol-use-among-firefighters-during-their-first-3-years-of-service
#1
Suzy B Gulliver, Rose Zimering, Jeff Knight, Sandra Morissette, Barbara Kamholz, Eric Meyer, Terence Keane, Michelle Pennington, Tessa Denman, Thomas Carpenter, Nathan Kimbrel
Firefighters constitute an understudied occupational group that are exposed to a great deal of occupational stress including potentially traumatic stress. As such, higher prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders have been observed within this population; however, very little is known about the trajectories of health-risk behaviors among firefighters in response to occupational stress over time. The present study enrolled 322 fire service recruits from 7 urban U.S...
May 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743539/recruitment-drives-spatial-variation-in-recovery-rates-of-resilient-coral-reefs
#2
Sally J Holbrook, Thomas C Adam, Peter J Edmunds, Russell J Schmitt, Robert C Carpenter, Andrew J Brooks, Hunter S Lenihan, Cheryl J Briggs
Tropical reefs often undergo acute disturbances that result in landscape-scale loss of coral. Due to increasing threats to coral reefs from climate change and anthropogenic perturbations, it is critical to understand mechanisms that drive recovery of these ecosystems. We explored this issue on the fore reef of Moorea, French Polynesia, following a crown-of-thorns seastar outbreak and cyclone that dramatically reduced cover of coral. During the five-years following the disturbances, the rate of re-establishment of coral cover differed systematically around the triangular-shaped island; coral cover returned most rapidly at sites where the least amount of live coral remained after the disturbances...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690859/a-comparison-of-oxidative-lactate-metabolism-in-traumatically-injured-brain-and-control-brain
#3
Ibrahim Jalloh, Adel Helmy, Duncan Howe, Richard J Shannon, Peter Grice, Andrew Mason, Clare N Gallagher, Michael Murphy, John Pickard, David Menon, Thomas Adrian Carpenter, Peter John Hutchinson, Keri Carpenter
Metabolic abnormalities occur after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Glucose is conventionally regarded as the major energy substrate, although lactate can also be an energy source. We compared 3-13C lactate metabolism in TBI with "normal" control brain and muscle, measuring 13C-glutamine enrichment to assess tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism. Microdialysis catheters in 9 severe TBI patients' brains, 5 non-TBI brain surgical patients, and 5 resting muscle (non-TBI) patients were perfused (24h in brain, 8h in muscle) with 8 mmol/L sodium 3‑13C lactate...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594054/a-case-report-of-syndromic-multinodular-goitre-in-adolescence-exploring-the-phenotype-overlap-between-cowden-and-dicer1-syndromes
#4
Dorothée Bouron-Dal Soglio, Leanne de Kock, Richard Gauci, Nelly Sabbaghian, Elizabeth Thomas, Helen C Atkinson, Nicholas Pachter, Simon Ryan, John P Walsh, M Priyanthi Kumarasinghe, Karen Carpenter, Ayça Aydoğan, Colin J R Stewart, William D Foulkes, Catherine S Choong
Background: Hereditary tumour predisposition syndromes may increase the risk for development of thyroid nodules at a young age. We present the case of an adolescent female with Cowden syndrome who had some atypical phenotypic features which overlapped with the DICER1 syndrome. Material and Methods: A 17-year-old female presented with a 3-month history of progressive right neck swelling. Fine needle cytology of the thyroid revealed a follicular neoplasm with features suggestive of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and she underwent a hemithyroidectomy...
January 2018: European Thyroid Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574228/a-platform-for-preparing-homogeneous-proteinaceous-sub-visible-particles-with-distinct-morphologies
#5
Malthe Møhl Schack, Eva Horn Møller, John F Carpenter, Thomas Rades, Minna Groenning
Regulatory authorities and scientific communities are increasingly attentive to the known and universal presence of small particulates in biological drug products. The underlying concern is that these particulates may cause unwanted formation of anti-drug antibodies in patients Pharmacological studies, however, have to date not succeeded in unambiguously identifying risk-prone particle properties. This lack of success may be partly due to a lack of available, well-defined, homogenous particle material. Protein particles arising from stress of protein drug products are by nature often highly heterogeneous in size, morphology, and structure of the constituent protein in the particles...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551243/evaluating-quality-of-life-of-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-survivors-using-the-pediatric-quality-of-life-inventory-survey
#6
Yangyang R Yu, Jennifer L Carpenter, Annalyn S DeMello, Sundeep G Keswani, Darrell L Cass, Oluyinka O Olutoye, Adam M Vogel, James A Thomas, Cole Burgman, Caraciolo J Fernandes, Timothy C Lee
PURPOSE: This study assesses the impact of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) associated morbidities on long-term quality of life (QOL) outcomes. METHODS: A single center, retrospective review of neonatal and pediatric non-cardiac ECMO survivors from 1/2005-7/2016 was performed. The 2012 Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) survey was administered. Clinical outcomes and QOL scores between groups were compared. RESULTS: Of 74 patients eligible, 64% (35 NICU, 12 PICU) completed the survey...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503180/dicer-2-dependent-generation-of-viral-dna-from-defective-genomes-of-rna-viruses-modulates-antiviral-immunity-in-insects
#7
Enzo Z Poirier, Bertsy Goic, Lorena Tomé-Poderti, Lionel Frangeul, Jérémy Boussier, Valérie Gausson, Hervé Blanc, Thomas Vallet, Hyelee Loyd, Laura I Levi, Sophie Lanciano, Chloé Baron, Sarah H Merkling, Louis Lambrechts, Marie Mirouze, Susan Carpenter, Marco Vignuzzi, Maria-Carla Saleh
The RNAi pathway confers antiviral immunity in insects. Virus-specific siRNA responses are amplified via the reverse transcription of viral RNA to viral DNA (vDNA). The nature, biogenesis, and regulation of vDNA are unclear. We find that vDNA produced during RNA virus infection of Drosophila and mosquitoes is present in both linear and circular forms. Circular vDNA (cvDNA) is sufficient to produce siRNAs that confer partially protective immunity when challenged with a cognate virus. cvDNAs bear homology to defective viral genomes (DVGs), and DVGs serve as templates for vDNA and cvDNA synthesis...
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485974/redirection-to-the-bone-marrow-improves-t-cell-persistence-and-antitumor-functions
#8
Anjum B Khan, Ben Carpenter, Pedro Santos E Sousa, Constandina Pospori, Reema Khorshed, James Griffin, Pedro Velica, Mathias Zech, Sara Ghorashian, Calum Forrest, Sharyn Thomas, Sara Gonzalez Anton, Maryam Ahmadi, Angelika Holler, Barry Flutter, Zaida Ramirez-Ortiz, Terry K Means, Clare L Bennett, Hans Stauss, Emma Morris, Cristina Lo Celso, Ronjon Chakraverty
A key predictor for the success of gene-modified T cell therapies for cancer is the persistence of transferred cells in the patient. The propensity of less differentiated memory T cells to expand and survive efficiently has therefore made them attractive candidates for clinical application. We hypothesized that redirecting T cells to specialized niches in the BM that support memory differentiation would confer increased therapeutic efficacy. We show that overexpression of chemokine receptor CXCR4 in CD8+ T cells (TCXCR4) enhanced their migration toward vascular-associated CXCL12+ cells in the BM and increased their local engraftment...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421920/legacy-beliefs-across-generations-comparing-views-of-older-parents-and-their-adult-children
#9
Thomas M Meuser, Thuli G Mthembu, Brianne L Overton, Nicolette V Roman, Rebecca D Miller, Katharina P Lyons, Brian D Carpenter
This mixed-methods study examined legacy beliefs (i.e., anticipated remembrances and linkages to the self after death) as understood in 14 older parent and adult child pairs. This work validates and expands on a 2005 typology of legacy beliefs from gerontologists, Elizabeth Hunter and Graham Rowles. A structured interview was administered separately to parents and children, coded for legacy examples (i.e., those unique to the parent, overlapping, unique to the child), and analyzed with respect to expectations of similarity reported by each participant...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398200/sequence-based-hla-a-b-c-dp-dq-and-dr-typing-of-159-individuals-from-the-worcester-region-of-the-western-cape-province-of-south-africa
#10
Alba Grifoni, John Sidney, Chelsea Carpenter, Elizabeth Phillips, Simon Mallal, Thomas J Scriba, Alessandro Sette, Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn
DNA sequence-based typing at the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DPA1, -DPB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DRB1, and -DRB3/4/5 loci was performed on samples provided by 159 individuals from the Worcester region of the Western Cape province of South Africa. The purpose of the study was to characterize allele frequencies in the local population, to support studies of T cell immunity against pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There are no detectable deviations from Hardy Weinberg proportions for the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DPA1, -DPB1, -DQA1, and -DRB1 loci...
March 2018: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383408/three-month-randomized-clinical-trial-of-nasal-calcitonin-in-adults-with-x-linked-hypophosphatemia
#11
Rebecca Sullivan, Alice Abraham, Christine Simpson, Elizabeth Olear, Thomas Carpenter, Yanhong Deng, Chuqing Chen, Karl L Insogna
Previous work has demonstrated that a single subcutaneous dose of salmon calcitonin leads to a transient decline in circulating levels of FGF23 in patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH). Since the calcitonin receptor is expressed on osteocytes, this raises the possibility that interdicting signals through that receptor could modulate circulating levels of FGF23 in XLH. In the present study, 21 subjects with XLH were randomly assigned to receive either placebo nasal spray or 400 IU of nasal salmon calcitonin daily for three months...
January 30, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349617/use-of-venovenous-ecmo-for-neonatal-and-pediatric-ecmo-a-decade-of-experience-at-a-tertiary-children-s-hospital
#12
Jennifer L Carpenter, Yangyang R Yu, Darrell L Cass, Oluyinka O Olutoye, James A Thomas, Cole Burgman, Caraciolo J Fernandes, Timothy C Lee
BACKGROUND: Advances in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) have led to increased use of venovenous (VV) ECMO in the pediatric population. We present the evolution and experience of pediatric VV ECMO at a tertiary care institution. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study from 01/2005 to 07/2016 was performed, comparing by cannulation mode. Survival to discharge, complications, and decannulation analyses were performed. RESULTS: In total, 160 patients (105 NICU, 55 PICU) required 13 ± 11 days of ECMO...
March 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326102/collectively-improving-our-teaching-attempting-biology-department-wide-professional-development-in-scientific-teaching
#13
Melinda T Owens, Gloriana Trujillo, Shannon B Seidel, Colin D Harrison, Katherine M Farrar, Hilary P Benton, J R Blair, Katharyn E Boyer, Jennifer L Breckler, Laura W Burrus, Dana T Byrd, Natalia Caporale, Edward J Carpenter, Yee-Hung M Chan, Joseph C Chen, Lily Chen, Linda H Chen, Diana S Chu, William P Cochlan, Robyn J Crook, Karen D Crow, José R de la Torre, Wilfred F Denetclaw, Lynne M Dowdy, Darleen Franklin, Megumi Fuse, Michael A Goldman, Brinda Govindan, Michael Green, Holly E Harris, Zheng-Hui He, Stephen B Ingalls, Peter Ingmire, Amber R B Johnson, Jonathan D Knight, Gretchen LeBuhn, Terrye L Light, Candace Low, Lance Lund, Leticia M Márquez-Magaña, Vanessa C Miller-Sims, Christopher A Moffatt, Heather Murdock, Gloria L Nusse, V Thomas Parker, Sally G Pasion, Robert Patterson, Pleuni S Pennings, Julio C Ramirez, Robert M Ramirez, Blake Riggs, Rori V Rohlfs, Joseph M Romeo, Barry S Rothman, Scott W Roy, Tatiane Russo-Tait, Ravinder N M Sehgal, Kevin A Simonin, Greg S Spicer, Jonathon H Stillman, Andrea Swei, Leslie C Tempe, Vance T Vredenburg, Steven L Weinstein, Andrew G Zink, Loretta A Kelley, Carmen R Domingo, Kimberly D Tanner
Many efforts to improve science teaching in higher education focus on a few faculty members at an institution at a time, with limited published evidence on attempts to engage faculty across entire departments. We created a long-term, department-wide collaborative professional development program, Biology Faculty Explorations in Scientific Teaching (Biology FEST). Across 3 years of Biology FEST, 89% of the department's faculty completed a weeklong scientific teaching institute, and 83% of eligible instructors participated in additional semester-long follow-up programs...
2018: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279357/successful-outcome-following-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-adults-with-primary-immunodeficiency
#14
Thomas A Fox, Ronjon Chakraverty, Siobhan Burns, Benjamin Carpenter, Kirsty Thomson, David Lowe, Adele Fielding, Karl Peggs, Panagiotis Kottaridis, Benjamin Uttenthal, Venetia Bigley, Matthew Buckland, Victoria Grandage, Shari Denovan, Sarah Grace, Julia Dahlstrom, Sarita Workman, Andrew Symes, Stephen Mackinnon, Rachael Hough, Emma Morris
The primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), rare inherited diseases characterized by severe dysfunction of immunity, have been successfully treated by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT) in childhood. Controversy exists regarding optimal timing and use of Allo-HSCT in adults, due to lack of experience and previous poor outcomes. Twenty-nine consecutive adult patients, with a mean age at transplant of 24 years (range, 17-50 years), underwent Allo-HSCT. Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) included fludarabine (Flu)/melphalan/alemtuzumab (n = 20), Flu/busulfan (Bu)/alemtuzumab (n = 8), and Flu/Bu/antithymocyte globulin (n = 1)...
February 22, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244532/risk-factors-and-predictors-of-significant-chondral-surface-change-from-primary-to-revision-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-a-moon-and-mars-cohort-study
#15
Robert A Magnussen, James R Borchers, Angela D Pedroza, Laura J Huston, Amanda K Haas, Kurt P Spindler, Rick W Wright, Christopher C Kaeding, Christina R Allen, Allen F Anderson, Daniel E Cooper, Thomas M DeBerardino, Warren R Dunn, Brett A Lantz, Barton Mann, Michael J Stuart, John P Albright, Annunziato Amendola, Jack T Andrish, Christopher C Annunziata, Robert A Arciero, Bernard R Bach, Champ L Baker, Arthur R Bartolozzi, Keith M Baumgarten, Jeffery R Bechler, Jeffrey H Berg, Geoffrey A Bernas, Stephen F Brockmeier, Robert H Brophy, Charles A Bush-Joseph, J Brad Butler, John D Campbell, James L Carey, James E Carpenter, Brian J Cole, Jonathan M Cooper, Charles L Cox, R Alexander Creighton, Diane L Dahm, Tal S David, David C Flanigan, Robert W Frederick, Theodore J Ganley, Elizabeth A Garofoli, Charles J Gatt, Steven R Gecha, James Robert Giffin, Sharon L Hame, Jo A Hannafin, Christopher D Harner, Norman Lindsay Harris, Keith S Hechtman, Elliott B Hershman, Rudolf G Hoellrich, Timothy M Hosea, David C Johnson, Timothy S Johnson, Morgan H Jones, Ganesh V Kamath, Thomas E Klootwyk, Bruce A Levy, C Benjamin Ma, G Peter Maiers, Robert G Marx, Matthew J Matava, Gregory M Mathien, David R McAllister, Eric C McCarty, Robert G McCormack, Bruce S Miller, Carl W Nissen, Daniel F O'Neill, Brett D Owens, Richard D Parker, Mark L Purnell, Arun J Ramappa, Michael A Rauh, Arthur C Rettig, Jon K Sekiya, Kevin G Shea, Orrin H Sherman, James R Slauterbeck, Matthew V Smith, Jeffrey T Spang, Steven J Svoboda, Timothy N Taft, Joachim J Tenuta, Edwin M Tingstad, Armando F Vidal, Darius G Viskontas, Richard A White, James S Williams, Michelle L Wolcott, Brian R Wolf, James J York
BACKGROUND: Articular cartilage health is an important issue following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and primary ACL reconstruction. Factors present at the time of primary ACL reconstruction may influence the subsequent progression of articular cartilage damage. HYPOTHESIS: Larger meniscus resection at primary ACL reconstruction, increased patient age, and increased body mass index (BMI) are associated with increased odds of worsened articular cartilage damage at the time of revision ACL reconstruction...
March 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229948/assessment-of-lipid-and-metabolite-changes-in-obese-calf-muscle-using-multi-echo-echo-planar-correlated-spectroscopic-imaging
#16
Rajakumar Nagarajan, Catherine L Carpenter, Cathy C Lee, Navin Michael, Manoj K Sarma, Raissa Souza, Edward Xu, S Sendhil Velan, Theodore J Hahn, Vay-Liang Go, M Albert Thomas
Obesity-related conditions including heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes are leading causes of preventable death. Recent evidence suggests that altered myocellular lipid metabolism in obesity may lead to increased insulin resistance (IR) that predisposes to these disorders. To test the hypothesis that muscles rich in type I vs. type II muscle fibers would exhibit similar changes in intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL) content in obesity, we utilized a new four-dimensional multi echo echo-planar correlated spectroscopic imaging technique that allows separate determination of IMCL and EMCL content in individual calf muscles in obese vs...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223176/the-influence-of-exposure-to-natural-disasters-on-depression-and-ptsd-symptoms-among-firefighters
#17
Michelle L Pennington, Thomas P Carpenter, Samantha J Synett, Victoria A Torres, Jennifer Teague, Sandra B Morissette, Jeffrey Knight, Barbara W Kamholz, Terence M Keane, Rose T Zimering, Suzy B Gulliver
Introduction Firefighters represent an important population for understanding the consequences of exposure to potentially traumatic stressors. Hypothesis/Problem The researchers were interested in the effects of pre-employment disaster exposure on firefighter recruits' depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms during the first three years of fire service and hypothesized that: (1) disaster-exposed firefighters would have greater depression and PTSD symptoms than non-exposed overall; and (2) depression and PTSD symptoms would worsen over years in fire service in exposed firefighters, but not in their unexposed counterparts...
February 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165636/reducing-redundant-anaerobic-therapy-through-spaced-education-and-antimicrobial-stewardship-interventions
#18
Kelly B Flett, Athos Bousvaros, Jane Carpenter, Carly E Millrinen, Patricia Martin, Thomas J Sandora
Background: Decreasing the use of redundant anaerobic therapy is a key target for antimicrobial stewardship. Education techniques that optimize knowledge retention could be an important component of reducing these regimens. Methods: We implemented a quality improvement project that incorporated spaced education to reduce the use of redundant anaerobic therapy. The initial interventions (November through December 2015) included education in a hospital-wide newsletter and review of redundant anaerobic regimens by the antimicrobial stewardship program...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136135/sarin-exposures-in-a-cohort-of-british-military-participants-in-human-experimental-research-at-porton-down-1945-1987
#19
Thomas J Keegan, Lucy M Carpenter, Claire Brooks, Toby Langdon, Katherine M Venables
Background: The effects of exposure to chemical warfare agents in humans are topical. Porton Down is the UK's centre for research on chemical warfare where, since WWI, a programme of experiments involving ~30000 participants drawn from the UK armed services has been undertaken. Objectives: Our aim is to report on exposures to nerve agents, particularly sarin, using detailed exposure data not explored in a previous analysis. Methods: In this paper, we have used existing data on exposures to servicemen who attended the human volunteer programme at Porton Down to examine exposures to nerve agents in general and to sarin in particular...
December 15, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943516/interhospital-transfer-prior-to-thrombectomy-is-associated-with-delayed-treatment-and-worse-outcome-in-the-stratis-registry
#20
Michael T Froehler, Jeffrey L Saver, Osama O Zaidat, Reza Jahan, Mohammad Ali Aziz-Sultan, Richard P Klucznick, Diogo C Haussen, Frank R Hellinger, Dileep R Yavagal, Tom L Yao, David S Liebeskind, Ashutosh P Jadhav, Rishi Gupta, Ameer E Hassan, Coleman O Martin, Hormozd Bozorgchami, Ritesh Kaushal, Raul G Nogueira, Ravi H Gandhi, Eric C Peterson, Shervin R Dashti, Curtis A Given, Brijesh P Mehta, Vivek Deshmukh, Sidney Starkman, Italo Linfante, Scott H McPherson, Peter Kvamme, Thomas J Grobelny, Muhammad S Hussain, Ike Thacker, Nirav Vora, Peng Roc Chen, Stephen J Monteith, Robert D Ecker, Clemens M Schirmer, Eric Sauvageau, Alex Abou-Chebl, Colin P Derdeyn, Lucian Maidan, Aamir Badruddin, Adnan H Siddiqui, Travis M Dumont, Abdulnasser Alhajeri, M Asif Taqi, Khaled Asi, Jeffrey S Carpenter, Alan Boulos, Gaurav Jindal, Ajit S Puri, Rohan Chitale, Eric M Deshaies, David H Robinson, David F Kallmes, Blaise W Baxter, Mouhammad A Jumaa, Peter Sunenshine, Aniel Q Majjhoo, Joey D English, Shuichi Suzuki, Richard D Fessler, Josser E Delgado Almandoz, Jerry C Martin, Nils H Mueller-Kronast
Background -Endovascular treatment with mechanical thrombectomy (MT) is beneficial for acute stroke patients suffering a large vessel occlusion, though treatment efficacy is highly time-dependent. We hypothesized that interhospital transfer to endovascular-capable centers would result in treatment delays and worse clinical outcomes compared to direct presentation. Methods -STRATIS was a prospective, multicenter, observational, single-arm study of real-world MT for acute stroke due to anterior-circulation large vessel occlusion performed at 55 sites over 2 years, including 1000 patients with severe stroke and treated within 8 hours...
September 24, 2017: Circulation
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