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Diabetic retinopathy ultrastructure

Timur A Mavlyutov, Lian-Wang Guo
This review discusses recent advances towards understanding the sigma-1 receptor (S1R) as an endogenous neuro-protective mechanism in the retina , a favorable experimental model system. The exquisite architecture of the mammalian retina features layered and intricately wired neurons supported by non-neuronal cells. Ganglion neurons, photoreceptors , as well as the retinal pigment epithelium, are susceptible to degeneration that leads to major retinal diseases such as glaucoma , diabetic retinopathy , and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and ultimately, blindness...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Prateep Phadikar, Sandeep Saxena, Surabhi Ruia, Timothy Y Y Lai, Carsten H Meyer, Dean Eliott
BACKGROUND: Biomarker", a merged word of "biological marker", refers to a broad subcategory of medical signs that objectively indicate the state of health, and well-being of an individual. Biomarkers hold great promise for personalized medicine as information gained from diagnostic or progression markers can be used to tailor treatment to the individual for highly effective intervention in the disease process. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proved useful in identifying various biomarkers in ocular and systemic diseases...
2017: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
Luigi Gnudi
Diabetic nephropathy is the main cause of end-stage renal failure in the Western world. In diabetes, metabolic and haemodynamic perturbations disrupt the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier, leading to ultrastructural alterations of the glomeruli, including podocyte foot process fusion and detachment, glomerular basement membrane thickening, reduced endothelial cell glycocalyx, and mesangial extracellular matrix accumulation and glomerulosclerosis, ultimately leading to albuminuria and end-stage renal disease...
August 2016: Diabetologia
Orla Galvin, Akshay Srivastava, Oliver Carroll, Rajiv Kulkarni, Steve Dykes, Steven Vickers, Keith Dickinson, Alison L Reynolds, Claire Kilty, Gareth Redmond, Rob Jones, Sharon Cheetham, Abhay Pandit, Breandán N Kennedy
Pathologic neovascularisation and ocular permeability are hallmarks of proliferative diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. Current pharmacologic interventions targeting VEGF are effective in only 30-60% of patients and require multiple intraocular injections associated with iatrogenic infection. Thus, our goal is to develop novel small molecule drugs that are VEGF-independent are amenable to sustained ocular-release, and which reduce retinal angiogenesis and retinal vascular permeability...
July 10, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Sanaa A M Elgayar, Sohair A Eltony, Abdelrahman A Sayed, Maha M Abdel-Rouf
Retinopathy remains an important complication of diabetes. This work was carried out to evaluate the protective effects of genistein from diabetic retinopathy in rat. Fifteen adult male albino rats were divided into two groups; Group I: control (n = 5) and Group II: streptozotocin induced diabetic group (n = 10), which is equally divided into two subgroups; IIa (diabetic vehicle control) and IIb (diabetic genistein-treated). Specimens were taken from the retina 12 weeks post induction, processed and examined using light, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural techniques...
2015: Ultrastructural Pathology
Damián Dorfman, Marcos L Aranda, Ruth E Rosenstein
Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of reduced visual acuity and acquired blindness. Axoglial alterations of the distal (close to the chiasm) optic nerve (ON) could be the first structural change of the visual pathway in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. We analyzed the effect of environmental enrichment on axoglial alterations of the ON provoked by experimental diabetes. For this purpose, three days after vehicle or STZ injection, animals were housed in enriched environment (EE) or remained in a standard environment (SE) for 6 weeks...
2015: PloS One
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Ultrastructural changes in corneas of patients with diabetes mellitus have been previously described. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare central corneal thickness (CDR) values in diabetic patients without retinopa- thy at the stage of diabetic nonproliferative and proliferative retinopathy and CDR in a control group of healthy subjects. METHODS: The study included 121 diabetic patients and 125 healthy subjects matched according to gender and age...
September 2014: Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo
Tingting Li, Jianyan Hu, Shanshan Du, Yongdong Chen, Shuai Wang, Qiang Wu
PURPOSE: Retinal vascular dysfunction caused by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the major pathological change that occurs in diabetic retinopathy (DR). It has recently been demonstrated that G protein-coupled receptor 91 (GPR91) plays a major role in both vasculature development and retinal angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the signaling pathways involved in GPR91-dependent VEGF release during the early stages of retinal vascular change in streptozotocin-induced diabetes...
2014: Molecular Vision
Lijuan Zhang, Lijie Dong, Xun Liu, Yuanfeng Jiang, Lingjun Zhang, Xiaomin Zhang, Xiaorong Li, Yan Zhang
AIMS: Oxidative stress and apoptosis are among the earliest lesions of diabetic retinopathy. This study sought to examine the anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) in early diabetic retinas and to explore the underlying mechanisms in retinal vascular endothelial cells. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intravenously with streptozocin to induce diabetes. The diabetic rats were injected intravitreally with α-MSH or saline...
2014: PloS One
Xiaoyan Li, Maonian Zhang, Huanfen Zhou
This paper aims to explore the relationship of retinal neuron apoptosis and manganese superoxidase dismutase (MnSOD) at early phase of diabetic retinopathy. Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped into normal controls and diabetics. Data were collected after 4, 8, and 12 weeks (n = 12). The pathological changes and ultrastructure of the retina, the apoptosis rate of retinal neurons by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end label (TUNEL), mRNA expressions of MnSOD and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD), and the activities of total SOD (T-SOD) and subtypes of SOD were tested...
2014: Journal of Diabetes Research
Bojie Hu, Yan Zhang, Qing Zeng, Qian Han, Lijuan Zhang, Mian Liu, Xiaorong Li
Therapeutic modalities targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have been used to treat neovascularization and macular edema. However, anti-VEGF treatment alone may cause up-regulation of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the retina, increasing the risk of fibrosis and tractional retinal detachment. Therefore, in this study, we employ a novel dual-target intervention that involves intravitreal injection of the VEGF inhibitor ranibizumab and a transfection reagent-treated non-viral vector carrying anti-CTGF short hairpin RNA (shRNA) driven by human RNA polymerase III promoter U6...
2014: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jian Guo, Guo-Xing Xu, Ze-Jiang Hou, Jian-Bin Xu, Li-Ying Huang
OBJECTIVE: To study the retinal ultrastructure of streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and the intervention effect of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides (LBP). METHODS: The STZ-induced diabetic SD rat model was established. LBP was given to those in the treatment group by gastrogavage. Changes of body weight, blood glucose, and retinal ultrastructure at 24-week were observed. RESULTS: Early retinal changes covered mitochondrion changes, cell degeneration and apoptosis of retinal neurons and neuroglia cells in the diabetic rats...
October 2013: Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine
J Huang, X Li, M Li, J Li, W Xiao, W Ma, X Chen, X Liang, S Tang, Y Luo
Oxidative stress is one of the main contributors in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of SS31 which is a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant peptide on the retinas of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Two weeks after induction of diabetes, SS31 (3 mg/kg) or the same volume of normal saline (N.S) was injected subcutaneously into the back of diabetic rats every day. Four months later, the integrity of inner blood retinal barrier (iBRB) was measured by Evans blue perfusion...
July 2013: Current Molecular Medicine
C N Vidinova, K N Vidinov
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are sight-threatening diseases with high social impact. The aim of our study is to compare the ultrastructure of PDR membranes and those in AMD with a special focus on the macrophages. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In our study 24 PDR patients and 11 AMD patients were enrolled. They all underwent complete ophthalmological examination including OCT. In all cases pars plana vitrectomy with excision of epiretinal or subretinal membranes was performed...
December 2012: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Yuan-juan Zong, Qiang Shen, Xue-dong Zhang, Bo Lei, Yan-hong Fang, Xue-mei Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the electrophysiological and morphological changes of retinae after intravitreal injection of cyclosporin A (CsA) in experimental diabetic rats. METHODS: Experimental study. SD diabetic mellitus (DM) rat models were induced with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The rats were divided into four groups, with 9 rats in each group:the normal control (group CON), the diabetic rats with or without CsA intravitreal injection respectively (group DM + CsA and group DM), and the diabetic rats with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) intravitreal injection (group DM + DMSO)...
July 2012: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Sanjay V Patel, Keith H Baratz, Leo J Maguire, David O Hodge, Jay W McLaren
PURPOSE: To determine the change in anterior corneal high-order aberrations (HOAs) after Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK) for Fuchs' dystrophy, and to compare the HOAs with those of age-matched controls. DESIGN: Prospective cohort and cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS AND CONTROLS: Forty-eight eyes with Fuchs' dystrophy were examined before and after DSEK, and were compared with 52 eyes of age-matched controls with normal corneas...
August 2012: Ophthalmology
Tapas Chandra Nag, Shashi Wadhwa
Vision is hampered in aging and diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. This review collates the fine structural alterations of the human retina in aging and various pathological situations and their links to the disease pathogenesis. It transpires that most changes occur at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium -Bruch's membrane and the photoreceptor layer, causing visual problems to the sufferers. These changes include loss of normal, essential features of these cells and their gradual disappearance...
July 2012: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Yuan Zhu, Xiao-Ling Zhang, Bo-Feng Zhu, Yan-Ning Ding
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness globally and its pathogenesis has still not been completely elucidated. Some studies show a close relation between oxidative stress and DR. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of anti-oxidant in DR and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) from retinal blood vessels in diabetic rats. Diabetic rat models were established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) and confirmation of high serum glucose levels in the animals...
April 2012: Molecular Biology Reports
Renu A Kowluru, Ghulam Mohammad, Julia M dos Santos, Qing Zhong
OBJECTIVE: In the development of diabetic retinopathy, mitochondrial dysfunction is considered to play an important role in the apoptosis of retinal capillary cells. Diabetes activates matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in the retina and its capillary cells, and activated MMP-9 becomes proapoptotic. The objective of this study is to elucidate the plausible mechanism by which active MMP-9 contributes to the mitochondrial dysfunction in the retina. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using MMP-9 gene knockout (MMP-KO) mice, we investigated the effect of MMP-9 regulation on diabetes-induced increased retinal capillary cell apoptosis, development of retinopathy, mitochondrial dysfunction and ultrastructure, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage...
November 2011: Diabetes
Dae Il Park, Sung Woo Ha, Seong Bae Park, Helen Lew
PURPOSE: To report clinicopathologic and ultrastructural feature of one opacified hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) explanted from a diabetic patient. METHODS: A 48-year-old man underwent trans pars plana vitrectomy and phacoemulsification with implantation of a hydrophilic acrylic lens OS in November 2008. The patient complained of a marked decrease in visual acuity in May 2009 as a result of a milky opalescence of the IOL. Intraocular lens explantation and exchange were performed in August 2009, and the explanted IOL was submitted to our center for detailed pathologic, histochemical and ultrastructural evaluation...
November 2011: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
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