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Diabetic retinopathy ultrastructure

Rayne R Lim, DeAna G Grant, T Dylan Olver, Jaume Padilla, Alana M Czajkowski, Teagan R Schnurbusch, Rajiv R Mohan, Dean P Hainsworth, Eric M Walters, Shyam S Chaurasia
Purpose: Recent clinical data suggest an increasing prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes in adolescents, placing them at high risk of developing diabetic retinopathy during adult working years. The present study was designed to characterize the early retinal and microvascular alterations in young Ossabaw pigs fed a Western diet, described as a model of metabolic syndrome genetically predisposed to type 2 diabetes. Methods: Four-month-old Ossabaw miniature pigs were divided into two groups, lean and diet-induced obesity...
May 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Xiaoqin Lei, Yunyun Zhou, Cuicui Ren, Xi Chen, Rongguo Shang, Jianyu He, Jianwei Dou
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: According to ancient traditional Chinese medicine, Typhae Pollen (TP) is commonly used to treat fundus haemorrhage because it improves blood circulation. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This study evaluated the role of the main TP component, polysaccharides (TPP), on diabetic retinopathy (DR) and its possible mechanisms of inhibiting inflammation and improving blood circulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After successful establishment of a diabetic rat model, TPP was administered to diabetic rats for treatment, and the rats were sacrificed at 12 weeks...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Fang Yang, Jinqiang Yu, Feng Ke, Mei Lan, Dekun Li, Ke Tan, Jiaojiao Ling, Ying Wang, Kaili Wu, Dai Li
PURPOSE: To investigate the potential protective effects of curcumin on the retina in diabetic rats. METHODS: An experimental diabetic rat model was induced by a low dose of streptozotocin combined with a high-energy diet. Rats which had blood glucose levels ≥11.6 mmol/L were used as diabetic rats. The diabetic rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: diabetic rats with no treatment (DM), diabetic rats treated with 100 mg/kg curcumin (DM + Cur 100 mg/kg), and diabetic rats treated with 200 mg/kg curcumin (DM + Cur 200 mg/kg)...
March 29, 2018: Ophthalmic Research
Erika Gucciardo, Sirpa Loukovaara, Ani Korhonen, Pauliina Repo, Beatriz Martins, Helena Vihinen, Eija Jokitalo, Kaisa Lehti
Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is a major diabetic microvascular complication characterized by pathological angiogenesis. Several retinopathy animal models have been developed to study the disease mechanisms and putative targets. However, knowledge on the human proliferative disease remains incomplete, relying on steady-state results from thin histological neovascular tissue sections and vitreous samples. New translational models are thus required to comprehensively understand the disease pathophysiology and develop improved therapeutic interventions...
June 2018: Journal of Pathology
Siwei Cai, Qianhui Yang, Mengzhu Hou, Qian Han, Hanyu Zhang, Jiantao Wang, Chen Qi, Qiyu Bo, Yusha Ru, Wei Yang, Zhongxiu Gu, Ruihua Wei, Yunshan Cao, Xiaorong Li, Yan Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown and vascular leakage is the leading cause of blindness of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation are primary pathogenic factors of this severe DR complication. An effective interventional modality against the pathogenic factors during early DR is needed to curb BRB breakdown and vascular leakage. This study sought to examine the protective effects of α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) on early diabetic retina against vascular hyperpermeability, electrophysiological dysfunction, and morphological deterioration in a rat model of diabetes and probe the mechanisms underlying the α-MSH's anti-hyperpermeability in both rodent retinas and simian retinal vascular endothelial cells (RF6A)...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
János Fehér, Samanta Taurone, Marialuisa Spoletini, Zsolt Biró, Balázs Varsányi, Gianluca Scuderi, Maria Patrizia Orlando, Rosaria Turchetta, Alessandra Micera, Marco Artico
The previous concept regarding diabetic retinopathy assigned a primary role to hyperglycemia-induced microvascular alterations, while neuronal and glial abnormalities were considered to be secondary to either ischemia or exudation. The aim of this study was to reveal the potential role of neuronal and glial cells in initial and advanced alterations of the retinopathy in human type 2 diabetes. Electron microscopy and histochemical studies were performed on 38 surgically removed human eyes (28 obtained from diabetic patients and 10 from non-diabetic patients)...
January 2018: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Timur A Mavlyutov, Lian-Wang Guo
This review discusses recent advances towards understanding the sigma-1 receptor (S1R) as an endogenous neuro-protective mechanism in the retina , a favorable experimental model system. The exquisite architecture of the mammalian retina features layered and intricately wired neurons supported by non-neuronal cells. Ganglion neurons, photoreceptors , as well as the retinal pigment epithelium, are susceptible to degeneration that leads to major retinal diseases such as glaucoma , diabetic retinopathy , and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and ultimately, blindness...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Prateep Phadikar, Sandeep Saxena, Surabhi Ruia, Timothy Y Y Lai, Carsten H Meyer, Dean Eliott
BACKGROUND: Biomarker", a merged word of "biological marker", refers to a broad subcategory of medical signs that objectively indicate the state of health, and well-being of an individual. Biomarkers hold great promise for personalized medicine as information gained from diagnostic or progression markers can be used to tailor treatment to the individual for highly effective intervention in the disease process. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proved useful in identifying various biomarkers in ocular and systemic diseases...
2017: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
Luigi Gnudi
Diabetic nephropathy is the main cause of end-stage renal failure in the Western world. In diabetes, metabolic and haemodynamic perturbations disrupt the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier, leading to ultrastructural alterations of the glomeruli, including podocyte foot process fusion and detachment, glomerular basement membrane thickening, reduced endothelial cell glycocalyx, and mesangial extracellular matrix accumulation and glomerulosclerosis, ultimately leading to albuminuria and end-stage renal disease...
August 2016: Diabetologia
Orla Galvin, Akshay Srivastava, Oliver Carroll, Rajiv Kulkarni, Steve Dykes, Steven Vickers, Keith Dickinson, Alison L Reynolds, Claire Kilty, Gareth Redmond, Rob Jones, Sharon Cheetham, Abhay Pandit, Breandán N Kennedy
Pathologic neovascularisation and ocular permeability are hallmarks of proliferative diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. Current pharmacologic interventions targeting VEGF are effective in only 30-60% of patients and require multiple intraocular injections associated with iatrogenic infection. Thus, our goal is to develop novel small molecule drugs that are VEGF-independent are amenable to sustained ocular-release, and which reduce retinal angiogenesis and retinal vascular permeability...
July 10, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Sanaa A M Elgayar, Sohair A Eltony, Abdelrahman A Sayed, Maha M Abdel-Rouf
Retinopathy remains an important complication of diabetes. This work was carried out to evaluate the protective effects of genistein from diabetic retinopathy in rat. Fifteen adult male albino rats were divided into two groups; Group I: control (n = 5) and Group II: streptozotocin induced diabetic group (n = 10), which is equally divided into two subgroups; IIa (diabetic vehicle control) and IIb (diabetic genistein-treated). Specimens were taken from the retina 12 weeks post induction, processed and examined using light, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural techniques...
2015: Ultrastructural Pathology
Damián Dorfman, Marcos L Aranda, Ruth E Rosenstein
Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of reduced visual acuity and acquired blindness. Axoglial alterations of the distal (close to the chiasm) optic nerve (ON) could be the first structural change of the visual pathway in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. We analyzed the effect of environmental enrichment on axoglial alterations of the ON provoked by experimental diabetes. For this purpose, three days after vehicle or STZ injection, animals were housed in enriched environment (EE) or remained in a standard environment (SE) for 6 weeks...
2015: PloS One
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Ultrastructural changes in corneas of patients with diabetes mellitus have been previously described. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare central corneal thickness (CDR) values in diabetic patients without retinopa- thy at the stage of diabetic nonproliferative and proliferative retinopathy and CDR in a control group of healthy subjects. METHODS: The study included 121 diabetic patients and 125 healthy subjects matched according to gender and age...
September 2014: Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo
Tingting Li, Jianyan Hu, Shanshan Du, Yongdong Chen, Shuai Wang, Qiang Wu
PURPOSE: Retinal vascular dysfunction caused by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the major pathological change that occurs in diabetic retinopathy (DR). It has recently been demonstrated that G protein-coupled receptor 91 (GPR91) plays a major role in both vasculature development and retinal angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the signaling pathways involved in GPR91-dependent VEGF release during the early stages of retinal vascular change in streptozotocin-induced diabetes...
2014: Molecular Vision
Lijuan Zhang, Lijie Dong, Xun Liu, Yuanfeng Jiang, Lingjun Zhang, Xiaomin Zhang, Xiaorong Li, Yan Zhang
AIMS: Oxidative stress and apoptosis are among the earliest lesions of diabetic retinopathy. This study sought to examine the anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) in early diabetic retinas and to explore the underlying mechanisms in retinal vascular endothelial cells. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intravenously with streptozocin to induce diabetes. The diabetic rats were injected intravitreally with α-MSH or saline...
2014: PloS One
Xiaoyan Li, Maonian Zhang, Huanfen Zhou
This paper aims to explore the relationship of retinal neuron apoptosis and manganese superoxidase dismutase (MnSOD) at early phase of diabetic retinopathy. Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped into normal controls and diabetics. Data were collected after 4, 8, and 12 weeks (n = 12). The pathological changes and ultrastructure of the retina, the apoptosis rate of retinal neurons by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end label (TUNEL), mRNA expressions of MnSOD and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD), and the activities of total SOD (T-SOD) and subtypes of SOD were tested...
2014: Journal of Diabetes Research
Bojie Hu, Yan Zhang, Qing Zeng, Qian Han, Lijuan Zhang, Mian Liu, Xiaorong Li
Therapeutic modalities targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have been used to treat neovascularization and macular edema. However, anti-VEGF treatment alone may cause up-regulation of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the retina, increasing the risk of fibrosis and tractional retinal detachment. Therefore, in this study, we employ a novel dual-target intervention that involves intravitreal injection of the VEGF inhibitor ranibizumab and a transfection reagent-treated non-viral vector carrying anti-CTGF short hairpin RNA (shRNA) driven by human RNA polymerase III promoter U6...
2014: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jian Guo, Guo-Xing Xu, Ze-Jiang Hou, Jian-Bin Xu, Li-Ying Huang
OBJECTIVE: To study the retinal ultrastructure of streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and the intervention effect of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides (LBP). METHODS: The STZ-induced diabetic SD rat model was established. LBP was given to those in the treatment group by gastrogavage. Changes of body weight, blood glucose, and retinal ultrastructure at 24-week were observed. RESULTS: Early retinal changes covered mitochondrion changes, cell degeneration and apoptosis of retinal neurons and neuroglia cells in the diabetic rats...
October 2013: Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine
J Huang, X Li, M Li, J Li, W Xiao, W Ma, X Chen, X Liang, S Tang, Y Luo
Oxidative stress is one of the main contributors in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of SS31 which is a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant peptide on the retinas of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Two weeks after induction of diabetes, SS31 (3 mg/kg) or the same volume of normal saline (N.S) was injected subcutaneously into the back of diabetic rats every day. Four months later, the integrity of inner blood retinal barrier (iBRB) was measured by Evans blue perfusion...
July 2013: Current Molecular Medicine
C N Vidinova, K N Vidinov
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are sight-threatening diseases with high social impact. The aim of our study is to compare the ultrastructure of PDR membranes and those in AMD with a special focus on the macrophages. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In our study 24 PDR patients and 11 AMD patients were enrolled. They all underwent complete ophthalmological examination including OCT. In all cases pars plana vitrectomy with excision of epiretinal or subretinal membranes was performed...
December 2012: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
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