keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

MRI Vs CT of the brain

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891421/imaging-modality-of-choice-for-pre-operative-cochlear-imaging-hrct-vs-mri-temporal-bone
#1
Poornima Digge, Rajendra N Solanki, Dipali C Shah, Rajesh Vishwakarma, Sandeep Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Congenital inner ear malformations occur as a result of the arrest or aberrance of inner ear development due to the heredity, gene mutation or other factors. Ever since the availability of cochlear implants, pre-operative evaluation by imaging of temporal bone has gained much attention. Precise selection of the candidate for cochlear implant dependent on preoperative radiological investigations. Only CT (Computed Tomography) and MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) can provide a better picture of anatomy and pathology...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693197/multiparametric-imaging-of-brain-hemodynamics-and-function-using-gas-inhalation-mri
#2
Peiying Liu, Babu G Welch, Yang Li, Hong Gu, Darlene King, Yihong Yang, Marco Pinho, Hanzhang Lu
Diagnosis and treatment monitoring of cerebrovascular diseases routinely require hemodynamic imaging of the brain. Current methods either only provide part of the desired information or require the injection of multiple exogenous agents. In this study, we developed a multiparametric imaging scheme for the imaging of brain hemodynamics and function using gas-inhalation MRI. The proposed technique uses a single MRI scan to provide simultaneous measurements of baseline venous cerebral blood volume (vCBV), cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), bolus arrival time (BAT), and resting-state functional connectivity (fcMRI)...
September 28, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669228/radiological-patterns-of-brain-metastases-in-breast-cancer-patients-a-subproject-of-the-german-brain-metastases-in-breast-cancer-bmbc-registry
#3
Elena Laakmann, Isabell Witzel, Verena Scriba, Ulrich Grzyska, Christine Zu Eulenburg, Nicole Burchardi, Tobias Hesse, Florian Würschmidt, Tanja Fehm, Volker Möbus, Gunter von Minckwitz, Sibylle Loibl, Tjoung-Won Park-Simon, Volkmar Mueller
Evidence about distribution patterns of brain metastases with regard to breast cancer subtypes and its influence on the prognosis of patients is insufficient. Clinical data, cranial computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 300 breast cancer patients with brain metastases (BMs) were collected retrospectively in four centers participating in the Brain Metastases in Breast Cancer Registry (BMBC) in Germany. Patients with positive estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) statuses, had a significantly lower number of BMs at diagnosis...
September 23, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651328/diagnostic-accuracy-of-whole-brain-ct-perfusion-in-the-detection-of-acute-infratentorial-infarctions
#4
Christine Bollwein, Annika Plate, Wieland H Sommer, Kolja M Thierfelder, Hendrik Janssen, Maximilian F Reiser, Andreas Straube, Louisa von Baumgarten
INTRODUCTION: Although the diagnostic performance of whole-brain computed tomographic perfusion (WB-CTP) in the detection of supratentorial infarctions is well established, its value in the detection of infratentorial strokes remains less well defined. We examined its diagnostic accuracy in the detection of infratentorial infarctions and compared it to nonenhanced computed tomography (NECT), aiming to identify factors influencing its detection rate. METHODS: Out of a cohort of 1380 patients who underwent WB-CTP due to suspected stroke, we retrospectively included all patients with MRI-confirmed infratentorial strokes and compared it to control patients without infratentorial strokes...
November 2016: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557149/time-dependent-changes-in-dural-enhancement-associated-with-spontaneous-intracranial-hypotension
#5
Peter G Kranz, Timothy J Amrhein, Kingshuk Roy Choudhury, Teerath Peter Tanpitukpongse, Linda Gray
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to determine whether the presence of individual imaging signs of spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is correlated with increasing duration of headache symptoms. Of particular interest is the relationship of symptom duration to dural enhancement because it is the most commonly identified imaging sign in patients with SIH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-nine patients with SIH who underwent pretreatment brain MRI and total-spine CT myelography and whose medical record included data on the duration of clinical symptoms were included in this cross-sectional retrospective study...
December 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462210/distinct-brain-and-behavioral-benefits-from-cognitive-vs-physical-training-a-randomized-trial-in-aging-adults
#6
Sandra B Chapman, Sina Aslan, Jeffrey S Spence, Molly W Keebler, Laura F DeFina, Nyaz Didehbani, Alison M Perez, Hanzhang Lu, Mark D'Esposito
Insidious declines in normal aging are well-established. Emerging evidence suggests that non-pharmacological interventions, specifically cognitive and physical training, may counter diminishing age-related cognitive and brain functions. This randomized trial compared effects of two training protocols: cognitive training (CT) vs. physical training (PT) on cognition and brain function in adults 56-75 years. Sedentary participants (N = 36) were randomized to either CT or PT group for 3 h/week over 12 weeks. They were assessed at baseline-, mid-, and post-training using neurocognitive, MRI, and physiological measures...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441999/migraine-does-aura-require-investigation
#7
Nirosen Vijiaratnam, Daniel Barber, Kai Zheong Lim, Eldho Paul, Matthew Jiang, Benjamin Chosich, Tissa Wijeratne
OBJECTIVES: Migraine is a debilitating condition that affects approximately 15% of the general population. It represents a huge proportion of presentations to the emergency department and a significant number of neurology admissions. Patients are often investigated with imaging. This is particularly the case with migraine with aura (MA). The yield of imaging is however low. There is limited information on Australian hospital presentations and utility of imaging. We aimed to analyse the demographics of migraine presentations to our hospital and the yield of imaging in our centre to help guide future approaches to these patients...
September 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344149/a-prognostic-neonatal-neuroimaging-scale-for-symptomatic-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection
#8
Ana Alarcon, Miriam Martinez-Biarge, Fernando Cabañas, Jose Quero, Alfredo García-Alix
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) can cause brain inflammation/destruction and teratogenic effects. The only validated neuroimaging prognostic categorization for symptomatic cCMV available is based on destructive lesions seen on computed tomography (CT). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to establish the predictive ability of a comprehensive neonatal neuroimaging scale in symptomatic cCMV. METHODS: Twenty-six infants were studied by neonatal cranial ultrasound scans (US; n = 25), CT (n = 11) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; n = 9)...
2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27117985/radionecrosis-versus-disease-progression-in-brain-metastasis-value-of-18-f-dopa-pet-ct-mri
#9
J Hernández Pinzón, D Mena, M Aguilar, F Biafore, G Recondo, M Bastianello
The use of (18)F-DOPA PET/CT with magnetic resonance imaging fusion and the use of visual methods and quantitative analysis helps to differentiate between changes post-radiosurgery vs. suspicion of disease progression in a patient with brain metastases from melanoma, thus facilitating taking early surgical action.
September 2016: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090254/32nd-international-austrian-winter-symposium-zell-am-see-the-netherlands-20-23-january-2016
#10
W Langsteger, A Rezaee, W Loidl, H S Geinitz, F Fitz, M Steinmair, G Broinger, L Pallwien-Prettner, M Beheshti, L Imamovic, M Beheshti, G Rendl, D Hackl, O Tsybrovsky, M Steinmair, K Emmanuel, F Moinfar, C Pirich, W Langsteger, A Bytyqi, G Karanikas, M Mayerhöfer, O Koperek, B Niederle, M Hartenbach, T Beyer, K Herrmann, J Czernin, I Rausch, P Rust, M D DiFranco, M Lassen, A Stadlbauer, M E Mayerhöfer, M Hartenbach, M Hacker, T Beyer, K Binzel, R Magnussen, W Wei, M U Knopp, D C Flanigan, C Kaeding, M V Knopp, A Leisser, M Nejabat, M Hartenbach, G Kramer, M Krainer, M Hacker, A Haug, Wencke Lehnert, Karl Schmidt, Sharok Kimiaei, Marcus Bronzel, Andreas Kluge, C L Wright, K Binzel, J Zhang, Evan Wuthrick, Piotr Maniawski, M V Knopp, M Blaickner, E Rados, A Huber, M Dulovits, H Kulkarni, S Wiessalla, C Schuchardt, R P Baum, B Knäusl, D Georg, M Bauer, B Wulkersdorfer, W Wadsak, C Philippe, H Haslacher, M Zeitlinger, O Langer, M Bauer, M Feldmann, R Karch, W Wadsak, M Zeitlinger, M J Koepp, M-C Asselin, E Pataraia, O Langer, M Zeilinger, C Philippe, M Dumanic, F Pichler, J Pilz, M Hacker, W Wadsak, M Mitterhauser, L Nics, B Steiner, M Hacker, M Mitterhauser, W Wadsak, A Traxl, Thomas Wanek, Kushtrim Kryeziu, Severin Mairinger, Johann Stanek, Walter Berger, Claudia Kuntner, Oliver Langer, S Mairinger, T Wanek, A Traxl, M Krohn, J Stanek, T Filip, M Sauberer, C Kuntner, J Pahnke, O Langer, D Svatunek, C Denk, M Wilkovitsch, T Wanek, T Filip, C Kuntner-Hannes, J Fröhlich, H Mikula, C Denk, D Svatunek, T Wanek, S Mairinger, J Stanek, T Filip, J Fröhlich, H Mikula, C Kuntner-Hannes, T Balber, J Singer, J Fazekas, C Rami-Mark, N Berroterán-Infante, E Jensen-Jarolim, W Wadsak, M Hacker, H Viernstein, M Mitterhauser, C Denk, D Svatunek, B Sohr, H Mikula, J Fröhlich, T Wanek, C Kuntner-Hannes, T Filip, S Pfaff, C Philippe, M Mitterhauser, M Hartenbach, M Hacker, W Wadsak, T Wanek, E Halilbasic, M Visentin, S Mairinger, B Stieger, C Kuntner, M Trauner, O Langer, P Lam, M Aistleitner, R Eichinger, C Artner, H Eidherr, C Vraka, A Haug, M Mitterhauser, L Nics, M Hartenbach, M Hacker, W Wadsak, H Kvaternik, R Müller, D Hausberger, C Zink, R M Aigner, U Cossío, M Asensio, A Montes, S Akhtar, Y Te Welscher, R van Nostrum, V Gómez-Vallejo, J Llop, F VandeVyver, T Barclay, N Lippens, M Troch, L Hehenwarter, B Egger, J Holzmannhofer, M Rodrigues-Radischat, C Pirich, N Pötsch, I Rausch, D Wilhelm, M Weber, J Furtner, G Karanikas, A Wöhrer, M Mitterhauser, M Hacker, T Traub-Weidinger, T Cassou-Mounat, S Balogova, V Nataf, M Calzada, V Huchet, K Kerrou, J-Y Devaux, M Mohty, L Garderet, J-N Talbot, S Stanzel, G Pregartner, T Schwarz, V Bjelic-Radisic, B Liegl-Atzwanger, R Aigner, S Stanzel, F Quehenberger, R M Aigner, A Koljević Marković, Milica Janković, V Miler Jerković, M Paskaš, G Pupić, R Džodić, D Popović, M C Fornito, D Familiari, P Koranda, H Polzerová, I Metelková, L Henzlová, R Formánek, E Buriánková, M Kamínek, W H Thomson, C Lewis, W H Thomson, J O'Brien, G James, A Notghi, H Huber, I Stelzmüller, R Wunn, M Mandl, F Fellner, B Lamprecht, M Gabriel, M C Fornito, G Leonardi, W H Thomson, J O'Brien, G James, J Hudzietzová, J Sabol, M Fülöp
A1 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in staging and restaging of Prostate Cancer Patients: comparative study with 18F-Choline PET/CTW Langsteger, A Rezaee, W Loidl, HS Geinitz, F Fitz, M Steinmair, G Broinger, L Pallwien-Prettner, M BeheshtiA2 F18 Choline PET - CT: an accurate diagnostic tool for the detection of parathyroid adenoma?L Imamovic, M Beheshti, G Rendl, D Hackl, O Tsybrovsky, M Steinmair, K Emmanuel, F Moinfar, C Pirich, W LangstegerA3 [18F]Fluoro-DOPA-PET/CT in the primary diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinomaA Bytyqi, G Karanikas, M Mayerhöfer, O Koperek, B Niederle, M HartenbachA4 Variations of clinical PET/MR operations: An international survey on the clinical utilization of PET/MRIT Beyer, K Herrmann, J CzerninA5 Standard Dixon-based attenuation correction in combined PET/MRI: Reproducibility and the possibility of Lean body mass estimationI Rausch, P Rust, MD DiFranco, M Lassen, A Stadlbauer, ME Mayerhöfer, M Hartenbach, M Hacker, T BeyerA6 High resolution digital FDG PET/MRI imaging for assessment of ACL graft viabilityK Binzel, R Magnussen, W Wei, MU Knopp, DC Flanigan, C Kaeding, MV KnoppA7 Using pre-existing hematotoxicity as predictor for severe side effects and number of treatment cycles of Xofigo therapyA Leisser, M Nejabat, M Hartenbach, G Kramer, M Krainer, M Hacker, A HaugA8 QDOSE - comprehensive software solution for internal dose assessmentWencke Lehnert, Karl Schmidt, Sharok Kimiaei, Marcus Bronzel, Andreas KlugeA9 Clinical impact of Time-of-Flight on next-generation digital PET imaging of Yttrium-90 radioactivity following liver radioembolizationCL Wright, K Binzel, J Zhang, Evan Wuthrick, Piotr Maniawski, MV KnoppA10 Snakes in patients! Lessons learned from programming active contours for automated organ segmentationM Blaickner, E Rados, A Huber, M Dulovits, H Kulkarni, S Wiessalla, C Schuchardt, RP Baum, B Knäusl, D GeorgA11 Influence of a genetic polymorphism on brain uptake of the dual ABCB1/ABCG2 substrate [11C]tariquidarM Bauer, B Wulkersdorfer, W Wadsak, C Philippe, H Haslacher, M Zeitlinger, O LangerA12 Outcome prediction of temporal lobe epilepsy surgery from P-glycoprotein activity...
April 2016: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27013697/multi-atlas-based-attenuation-correction-for-brain-18f-fdg-pet-imaging-using-a-time-of-flight-pet-mr-scanner-comparison-with-clinical-single-atlas-and-ct-based-attenuation-correction
#11
Tetsuro Sekine, Ninon Burgos, Geoffrey Warnock, Martin Huellner, Alfred Buck, Edwin E G W Ter Voert, M Jorge Cardoso, Brian F Hutton, Sebastien Ourselin, Patrick Veit-Haibach, Gaspar Delso
UNLABELLED: In this work, we assessed the feasibility of attenuation correction (AC) based on a multi-atlas-based method (m-Atlas) by comparing it with a clinical AC method (single-atlas-based method [s-Atlas]), on a time-of-flight (TOF) PET/MRI scanner. METHODS: We enrolled 15 patients. The median patient age was 59 y (age range, 31-80). All patients underwent clinically indicated whole-body (18)F-FDG PET/CT for staging, restaging, or follow-up of malignant disease...
August 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27006141/experience-with-fast-track-postoperative-care-after-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery
#12
Nuria Martín, Ricard Valero, Paola Hurtado, Isabel Gracia, Carla Fernández, Jordi Rumià, Francesc Valldeoriola, Enrique J Carrero, Francisco Javier Tercero, Nicolás de Riva, Neus Fàbregas
BACKGROUND: A 24-h-stay in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) is a common postoperative procedure after deep brain stimulation surgery (DBS). OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the impact of a fast-track (FT) postoperative care protocol. METHODS: An analysis was performed on all patients who underwent DBS in 2 periods: 2006, overnight monitored care (OMC group), and 2007-2013, FT care (FT group). RESULTS: The study included 19 patients in OMC and 95 patients in FT...
March 19, 2016: Neurocirugía
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26903074/conjugate-eye-deviation-as-predictor-of-acute-cortical-and-subcortical-ischemic-brain-lesions
#13
Dimitrios G Kaditis, Elias Zintzaras, Dimitra Sali, Grigorios Kotoulas, Alexandros Papadimitriou, Georgios M Hadjigeorgiou
OBJECTIVES: Non-enhanced computed tomography (NECT) of the brain is used to exclude intracranial hemorrhage in patients who are considered for treatment with tissue plasminogen activator due to stroke symptoms. However, early infarct signs on NECT have low sensitivity for ischemic stroke. It was hypothesized that horizontal conjugate eye deviation (average ocular gaze deviation-OGD >14°) on NECT predicts ischemic brain injury on a second detailed examination. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent brain NECT within three hours after the onset of stroke symptoms and subsequently had brain CT scan with intravenous contrast or MRI were potential participants...
April 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26848170/differences-in-globus-pallidus-neuronal-firing-rates-and-patterns-relate-to-different-disease-biology-in-children-with-dystonia
#14
V M McClelland, A Valentin, H G Rey, D E Lumsden, M C Elze, R Selway, G Alarcon, J-P Lin
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology underlying different types of dystonia is not yet understood. We report microelectrode data from the globus pallidus interna (GPi) and globus pallidus externa (GPe) in children undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) for dystonia and investigate whether GPi and GPe firing rates differ between dystonia types. METHODS: Single pass microelectrode data were obtained to guide electrode position in 44 children (3.3-18.1 years, median 10...
September 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26699321/potential-for-reduced-radiation-induced-toxicity-using-intensity-modulated-arc-therapy-for-whole-brain-radiotherapy-with-hippocampal-sparing
#15
Damodar Pokhrel, Sumit Sood, Christopher Lominska, Pravesh Kumar, Rajeev Badkul, Hongyu Jiang, Fen Wang
The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate the accuracy, plan quality, and efficiency of using intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) for whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) patients with sparing not only the hippocampus (following RTOG 0933 compliance criteria) but also other organs at risk (OARs). A total of 10 patients previously treated with nonconformal opposed laterals whole-brain radiotherapy (NC-WBRT) were retrospectively replanned for hippocampal sparing using IMAT treatment planning...
2015: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26613177/-asleep-deep-brain-stimulation-for-essential-tremor
#16
Tsinsue Chen, Zaman Mirzadeh, Kristina Chapple, Margaret Lambert, Rohit Dhall, Francisco A Ponce
OBJECT Deep brain stimulation (DBS) performed under general anesthesia ("asleep" DBS) has not been previously reported for essential tremor. This is in part due to the inability to visualize the target (the ventral intermediate nucleus [VIM]) on MRI. The authors evaluate the efficacy of this asleep technique in treating essential tremor by indirect VIM targeting. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed consecutive cases of initial DBS for essential tremor performed by a single surgeon. DBS was performed with patients awake (n = 40, intraoperative test stimulation without microelectrode recording) or asleep (n = 17, under general anesthesia)...
June 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26567595/cerebral-imaging-in-infectious-endocarditis-a-clinical-study
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Julia Champey, Patricia Pavese, Hélène Bouvaist, Jean-Philippe Vittoz, Florence Tahon, Omer F Eker, Sandrine Goutier, Christine Recule, Patrice Francois
BACKGROUND: Because neurological failure is the most frequent extra-cardiac complication in Infectious Endocarditis (IE), a brain computerised tomography (CT) scan is usually performed. The benefits of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have not been clearly established. This study aims to clarify the prevalence and type of cerebral lesions in IE detected using MRI and to compare them with those detected using CT scans. METHODS: In the Grenoble University Hospital, patients diagnosed with definite or possible endocarditis according to Duke's criteria were screened from 2010-2012...
2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26452116/parkinson-s-disease-outcomes-after-intraoperative-ct-guided-asleep-deep-brain-stimulation-in-the-globus-pallidus-internus
#18
Zaman Mirzadeh, Kristina Chapple, Margaret Lambert, Virgilio G Evidente, Padma Mahant, Maria C Ospina, Johan Samanta, Guillermo Moguel-Cobos, Naomi Salins, Abraham Lieberman, Alexander I Tröster, Rohit Dhall, Francisco A Ponce
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies show that deep brain stimulation can be performed safely and accurately without microelectrode recording ortest stimulation but with the patient under general anesthesia. The procedure couples techniques for direct anatomical targeting on MRI with intraoperative imaging to verify stereotactic accuracy. However, few authors have examined the clinical outcomes of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients after this procedure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PD outcomes following "asleep" deep brain stimulation in the globus pallidus internus (GPi)...
April 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26446063/availability-accessibility-and-affordability-of-neurodiagnostic-tests-in-37-countries
#19
Hannah C McLane, Aaron L Berkowitz, Bryan N Patenaude, Erica D McKenzie, Emma Wolper, Sarah Wahlster, Günther Fink, Farrah J Mateen
OBJECTIVE: To determine the availability, accessibility, and affordability of EEG, EMG, CSF analysis, head CT, and brain MRI for neurologic disorders across countries. METHODS: An online, 60-question survey was distributed to neurology practitioners in 2014 to assess the presence, wait time, and cost of each test in private and public health sectors. Data were stratified by World Bank country income group. Affordability was calculated with reference to the World Health Organization's definition of catastrophic health expenditure as health-related out-of-pocket expenditure of >40% of disposable household income, and assessment of providers' perceptions of affordability to the patient...
November 3, 2015: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26298592/intraparenchymal-ventricular-diverticula-in-chronic-obstructive-hydrocephalus-prevalence-imaging-features-and-evolution
#20
Renzo Manara, Valentina Citton, Annalisa Traverso, Maria Chiara Zanotti, Roberto Faggin, Stefano Sartori, Riccardo Perini, Laura Milanese, Chiara Briani, Francesco Bona, Giuseppe Rolma, Marta Rossetto, Fabio Zerbo, Francesco Di Salle, Domenico d'Avella
BACKGROUND: Intraparenchymal cavities communicating with the ventricles may appear in patients with chronic obstructive hydrocephalus despite no identifiable surgerical, vascular or traumatic causes. The rate, features, pathogenesis, evolution and clinical impact of intraparenchymal diverticula have not been outlined, yet. METHODS: Brain MRIs of 130 patients (mean age: 11.3 years; age range: 0-67; 60 females) with chronic obstructive hydrocephalus were analyzed...
October 2015: Acta Neurochirurgica
keyword
keyword
83501
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"