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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790096/intranasal-location-and-immunohistochemical-characterization-of-the-equine-olfactory-epithelium
#1
Alexandra Kupke, Sabine Wenisch, Klaus Failing, Christiane Herden
The olfactory epithelium (OE) is the only body site where neurons contact directly the environment and are therefore exposed to a broad variation of substances and insults. It can serve as portal of entry for neurotropic viruses which spread via the olfactory pathway to the central nervous system. For horses, it has been proposed and concluded mainly from rodent studies that different viruses, e.g., Borna disease virus, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), hendra virus, influenza virus, rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus can use this route...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25375324/coronavirus-cell-entry-occurs-through-the-endo-lysosomal-pathway-in-a-proteolysis-dependent-manner
#2
Christine Burkard, Monique H Verheije, Oliver Wicht, Sander I van Kasteren, Frank J van Kuppeveld, Bart L Haagmans, Lucas Pelkmans, Peter J M Rottier, Berend Jan Bosch, Cornelis A M de Haan
Enveloped viruses need to fuse with a host cell membrane in order to deliver their genome into the host cell. While some viruses fuse with the plasma membrane, many viruses are endocytosed prior to fusion. Specific cues in the endosomal microenvironment induce conformational changes in the viral fusion proteins leading to viral and host membrane fusion. In the present study we investigated the entry of coronaviruses (CoVs). Using siRNA gene silencing, we found that proteins known to be important for late endosomal maturation and endosome-lysosome fusion profoundly promote infection of cells with mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV)...
November 2014: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24950142/functional-characterization-of-canine-interferon-lambda
#3
Wenhui Fan, Lei Xu, Liqian Ren, Hongren Qu, Jing Li, Jingjing Liang, Wenjun Liu, Limin Yang, Tingrong Luo
In this study, we provide the first comprehensive annotation of canine interferon-λ (CaIFN-λ, type III IFN). Phylogenetic analysis based on genomic sequences indicated that CaIFN-λ is located in the same branch with Swine IFN-λ1 (SwIFN-λ), Bat IFN-λ1 (BaIFN-λ), and human IFN-λ1 (HuIFN-λ1). CaIFN-λ was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to further investigate the biological activity in vitro. The recombinant CaIFN-λ (rCaIFN-λ) displayed potent antiviral activity on both homologous and heterologous animal cells in terms of inhibiting the replication of the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), canine parvovirus, and influenza virus A/WSN/33 (H1N1), respectively...
November 2014: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24906510/design-synthesis-antiviral-and-cytostatic-activity-of-%C3%AF-1h-1-2-3-triazol-1-yl-polyhydroxy-alkylphosphonates-as-acyclic-nucleotide-analogues
#4
Iwona E Głowacka, Jan Balzarini, Graciela Andrei, Robert Snoeck, Dominique Schols, Dorota G Piotrowska
The efficient synthesis of a new series of polyhydroxylated dibenzyl ω-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)alkylphosphonates as acyclic nucleotide analogues is described starting from dibenzyl ω-azido(polyhydroxy)alkylphosphonates and selected alkynes under microwave irradiation. Selected O,O-dibenzylphosphonate acyclonucleotides were transformed into the respective phosphonic acids. All compounds were evaluated in vitro for activity against a broad variety of DNA and RNA viruses and for cytostatic activity against murine leukemia L1210, human T-lymphocyte CEM and human cervix carcinoma HeLa cells...
July 15, 2014: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24822188/a-two-step-lyssavirus-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-using-degenerate-primers-with-superior-sensitivity-to-the-fluorescent-antigen-test
#5
Vanessa Suin, Florence Nazé, Aurélie Francart, Sophie Lamoral, Stéphane De Craeye, Michael Kalai, Steven Van Gucht
A generic two-step lyssavirus real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), based on a nested PCR strategy, was validated for the detection of different lyssavirus species. Primers with 17 to 30% of degenerate bases were used in both consecutive steps. The assay could accurately detect RABV, LBV, MOKV, DUVV, EBLV-1, EBLV-2, and ABLV. In silico sequence alignment showed a functional match with the remaining lyssavirus species. The diagnostic specificity was 100% and the sensitivity proved to be superior to that of the fluorescent antigen test...
2014: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24789779/a-small-molecule-inhibits-virion-attachment-to-heparan-sulfate-or-sialic-acid-containing-glycans
#6
Che C Colpitts, Luis M Schang
Primary attachment to cellular glycans is a critical entry step for most human viruses. Some viruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), bind to heparan sulfate, whereas others, such as influenza A virus (IAV), bind to sialic acid. Receptor mimetics that interfere with these interactions are active against viruses that bind to either heparan sulfate or to sialic acid. However, no molecule that inhibits the attachment of viruses in both groups has yet been identified. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea catechin, is active against many unrelated viruses, including several that bind to heparan sulfate or to sialic acid...
July 2014: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24767605/%C3%AE-catenin-promotes-the-type-i-ifn-synthesis-and-the-ifn-dependent-signaling-response-but-is-suppressed-by-influenza-a-virus-induced-rig-i-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#7
Andrea Hillesheim, Carolin Nordhoff, Yvonne Boergeling, Stephan Ludwig, Viktor Wixler
BACKGROUND: The replication cycle of most pathogens, including influenza viruses, is perfectly adapted to the metabolism and signal transduction pathways of host cells. After infection, influenza viruses activate several cellular signaling cascades that support their propagation but suppress those that interfere with viral replication. Accumulation of viral RNA plays thereby a central role. Its sensing by the pattern recognition receptors of the host cells leads to the activation of several signal transduction waves that result in induction of genes, responsible for the cellular innate immune response...
2014: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24460802/surface-morphology-of-superficial-cells-in-irradiated-oral-mucosa-an-experimental-study-in-beagle-dog
#8
Pekka Asikainen, Jopi J W Mikkonen, Arja M Kullaa
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to investigate if radiation induces changes in the superficial cells of the oral mucosa and secondly to describe morphological characteristics of the cell surface structure by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten beagle dogs aged 1-2 years were used in this study. One side of each mandible was irradiated in two sessions, each lasting 1 week. The total dosage was 40 Gy (Group A; 5 dogs) and 50 Gy (Group B; 5 dogs), in five fractions of 4 Gy...
August 2014: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24440876/evidence-for-a-crucial-role-of-a-host-non-coding-rna-in-influenza-a-virus-replication
#9
Carla Winterling, Manuel Koch, Max Koeppel, Fernando Garcia-Alcalde, Alexander Karlas, Thomas F Meyer
A growing body of evidence suggests the non-protein coding human genome is of vital importance for human cell function. Besides small RNAs, the diverse class of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) recently came into focus. However, their relevance for infection, a major evolutionary driving force, remains elusive. Using two commercially available microarray systems, namely NCode™ and Sureprint™ G3, we identified differential expression of 42 ncRNAs during influenza A virus (IAV) infection in human lung epithelial cells...
2014: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24219832/safety-studies-on-intravenous-administration-of-oncolytic-recombinant-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-in-purpose-bred-beagle-dogs
#10
Amy K LeBlanc, Shruthi Naik, Gina D Galyon, Nathan Jenks, Mike Steele, Kah-Whye Peng, Mark J Federspiel, Robert Donnell, Stephen J Russell
VSV-IFNβ-NIS is a novel recombinant oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with documented efficacy and safety in preclinical murine models of cancer. To facilitate clinical translation of this promising oncolytic therapy in patients with disseminated cancer, we are utilizing a comparative oncology approach to gather data describing the safety and efficacy of systemic VSV-IFNβ-NIS administration in dogs with naturally occurring cancer. In support of this, we executed a dose-escalation study in purpose-bred dogs to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of systemic VSV-hIFNβ-NIS, characterize the adverse event profile, and describe routes and duration of viral shedding in healthy, immune-competent dogs...
December 2013: Human Gene Therapy. Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23466195/-ocular-leishmaniasis-in-a-cat-case-report
#11
M Verneuil
Leishmaniasis is a disease common to humans as well as wild and domestic animals. When it affects pets, it primarily involves dogs, which constitute a parasitic reservoir. This disease is observed in Africa, Asia, and America and around the entire Mediterranean coast. We report an ocular form of leishmaniasis in a cat from the Var region.
April 2013: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23372851/inactivation-of-pathogenic-viruses-by-plant-derived-tannins-strong-effects-of-extracts-from-persimmon-diospyros-kaki-on-a-broad-range-of-viruses
#12
Kyoko Ueda, Ryoko Kawabata, Takashi Irie, Yoshiaki Nakai, Yukinobu Tohya, Takemasa Sakaguchi
Tannins, plant-derived polyphenols and other related compounds, have been utilized for a long time in many fields such as the food industry and manufacturing. In this study, we investigated the anti-viral effects of tannins on 12 different viruses including both enveloped viruses (influenza virus H3N2, H5N3, herpes simplex virus-1, vesicular stomatitis virus, Sendai virus and Newcastle disease virus) and non-enveloped viruses (poliovirus, coxsachievirus, adenovirus, rotavirus, feline calicivirus and mouse norovirus)...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23283943/5-perylen-3-yl-ethynyl-arabino-uridine-auy11-an-arabino-based-rigid-amphipathic-fusion-inhibitor-targets-virion-envelope-lipids-to-inhibit-fusion-of-influenza-virus-hepatitis-c-virus-and-other-enveloped-viruses
#13
Che C Colpitts, Alexey V Ustinov, Raquel F Epand, Richard M Epand, Vladimir A Korshun, Luis M Schang
Entry of enveloped viruses requires fusion of viral and cellular membranes. Fusion requires the formation of an intermediate stalk structure, in which only the outer leaflets are fused. The stalk structure, in turn, requires the lipid bilayer of the envelope to bend into negative curvature. This process is inhibited by enrichment in the outer leaflet of lipids with larger polar headgroups, which favor positive curvature. Accordingly, phospholipids with such shape inhibit viral fusion. We previously identified a compound, 5-(perylen-3-yl)ethynyl-2'-deoxy-uridine (dUY11), with overall shape and amphipathicity similar to those of these phospholipids...
April 2013: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22911799/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-three-isoforms-of-bovine-bst-2
#14
Eri Takeda, So Nakagawa, Yuki Nakaya, Atsushi Tanaka, Takayuki Miyazawa, Jiro Yasuda
Human BST-2 (hBST-2) has been identified as a cellular antiviral factor that blocks the release of various enveloped viruses. Orthologues of BST-2 have been identified in several species, including human, monkeys, pig, mouse, cat and sheep. All have been reported to possess antiviral activity. Duplication of the BST-2 gene has been observed in sheep and the paralogues are referred to as ovine BST-2A and BST2-B, although only a single gene corresponding to BST-2 has been identified in most species. In this study, we identified three isoforms of bovine BST-2, named bBST-2A1, bBST-2A2 and bBST-2B, in bovine cells treated with type I interferon, but not in untreated cells...
2012: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22784253/erythema-multiforme-and-epitheliotropic-t-cell-lymphoma-in-the-oral-cavity-of-dogs-1989-to-2009
#15
A Nemec, R Zavodovskaya, V K Affolter, F J M Verstraete
OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical signs, major laboratory findings, diagnostic procedures and outcome in dogs with erythema multiforme or epitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma of the oral cavity. METHODS: Retrospective analysis identified 14 client-owned dogs with erythema multiforme or epitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma of the oral cavity. Histological changes were combined with immunohistochemistry and clonality testing data in selected cases, and a clinical follow-up was acquired...
August 2012: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22740402/intracytoplasmic-trapping-of-influenza-virus-by-a-lipophilic-derivative-of-aglycoristocetin
#16
Evelien Vanderlinden, Els Vanstreels, Eline Boons, Wouter ter Veer, Anke Huckriede, Dirk Daelemans, Alfons Van Lommel, Erzsébet Rőth, Ferenc Sztaricskai, Pàl Herczegh, Lieve Naesens
We report on a new anti-influenza virus agent, SA-19, a lipophilic glycopeptide derivative consisting of aglycoristocetin coupled to a phenylbenzyl-substituted cyclobutenedione. In Madin-Darby canine kidney cells infected with influenza A/H1N1, A/H3N2, or B virus, SA-19 displayed a 50% antivirally effective concentration of 0.60 μM and a selectivity index (ratio of cytotoxic versus antiviral concentration) of 112. SA-19 was 11-fold more potent than unsubstituted aglycoristocetin and was active in human and nonhuman cell lines...
September 2012: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22578803/amino-acid-differences-in-interferon-tau-ifn-%C3%AF-of-bos-taurus-coreanae-and-holstein
#17
Dongjun Kang, Soyoon Ryoo, Byunghyun Chung, Joongbok Lee, Seungyoung Park, Jinsoo Han, Sangmin Jeong, Gyujin Rho, Jaewoo Hong, Suyoung Bae, Taebong Kang, Soseob Kim, Soohyun Kim
Interferons (IFNs) are commonly grouped into type I and type II IFN. Type I IFNs are known as antiviral IFNs including IFN-α, IFN-β, and IFN-ω whereas type II IFN is referred to immune IFN and IFN-γ is only member of the type II IFN. Type I IFNs are induced by virus invading however type II IFN is produced by mitogenic or antigenic stimuli. IFN-τ was first identified in ruminant ungulates as a pregnancy recognition hormone, trophoblastin. IFN-τ constitutes a new class of type I IFN, which possesses the common features of type I IFN, such as the ability to prevent viral infection and to limit cell proliferation...
August 2012: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22312003/inhibition-of-pyrimidine-synthesis-reverses-viral-virulence-factor-mediated-block-of-mrna-nuclear-export
#18
Liang Zhang, Priyabrata Das, Mirco Schmolke, Balaji Manicassamy, Yaming Wang, Xiaoyi Deng, Ling Cai, Benjamin P Tu, Christian V Forst, Michael G Roth, David E Levy, Adolfo García-Sastre, Jef de Brabander, Margaret A Phillips, Beatriz M A Fontoura
The NS1 protein of influenza virus is a major virulence factor essential for virus replication, as it redirects the host cell to promote viral protein expression. NS1 inhibits cellular messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) processing and export, down-regulating host gene expression and enhancing viral gene expression. We report in this paper the identification of a nontoxic quinoline carboxylic acid that reverts the inhibition of mRNA nuclear export by NS1, in the absence or presence of the virus. This quinoline carboxylic acid directly inhibited dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), a host enzyme required for de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis, and partially reduced pyrimidine levels...
February 6, 2012: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22065774/rnai-screening-reveals-requirement-for-host-cell-secretory-pathway-in-infection-by-diverse-families-of-negative-strand-rna-viruses
#19
Debasis Panda, Anshuman Das, Phat X Dinh, Sakthivel Subramaniam, Debasis Nayak, Nicholas J Barrows, James L Pearson, Jesse Thompson, David L Kelly, Istvan Ladunga, Asit K Pattnaik
Negative-strand (NS) RNA viruses comprise many pathogens that cause serious diseases in humans and animals. Despite their clinical importance, little is known about the host factors required for their infection. Using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a prototypic NS RNA virus in the family Rhabdoviridae, we conducted a human genome-wide siRNA screen and identified 72 host genes required for viral infection. Many of these identified genes were also required for infection by two other NS RNA viruses, the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus of the Arenaviridae family and human parainfluenza virus type 3 of the Paramyxoviridae family...
November 22, 2011: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21998709/a-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-replicon-based-bioassay-for-the-rapid-and-sensitive-determination-of-multi-species-type-i-interferon
#20
Marianne Berger Rentsch, Gert Zimmer
Type I interferons (IFN) comprise a family of cytokines that signal through a common cellular receptor to induce a plethora of genes with antiviral and other activities. Recombinant IFNs are used for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection, multiple sclerosis, and certain malignancies. The capability of type I IFN to suppress virus replication and resultant cytopathic effects is frequently used to measure their bioactivity. However, these assays are time-consuming and require appropriate biosafety containment...
2011: PloS One
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