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Tear cytokines

S L Hsu, P Y Lee, C H Chang, C H Chen
Thyroid orbitopathy (TO) is an autoimmune disease that is complicated by ocular surface disorders, leading to discomfort. Dry eye is very prevalent in patients with TO. Recent studies on the pathogenesis of dry eye have focused on the inflammatory process, and some supporting evidence has been discovered. Because TO is a disorder of autoimmune origin, we assumed that the association between TO and dry eye is related to inflammation. Inflammation of the ocular surface in TO-related dry eye has not been well studied...
August 30, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Xue Li, Xiaoxiao Lu, Deming Sun, Xilian Wang, Liyuan Yang, Shaozhen Zhao, Hong Nian, Ruihua Wei
Purpose: To investigate the immunoregulatory roles of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) in autoimmune dacryoadenitis. Methods: Rabbits were treated with ADSCs or phosphate-buffered solution on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 after injection of activated peripheral blood lymphocytes, and clinical scores were determined by assessing tear production, break-up time, and fluorescein and hematoxylin and eosin staining. Inflammatory response was determined by measuring the expression of different mediators of inflammation in the lacrimal glands...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Yuli Park, Hyung Bin Hwang, Hyun Seung Kim
INTRODUCTION: To evaluate meibomian gland function, changes of lacrimal tears and ocular surface parameters and tear inflammatory mediators following cataract surgery. METHODS: 48 eyes of 34 patients who underwent uncomplicated phacoemulsification were involved and divided into 2 groups with those who had preexisting dry-eye before cataract surgery and those who did not. Ocular symptom score, Schirmer I test, tear film break-up time (TBUT), corneal sensitivity threshold, corneal staining, inflammatory cytokine activities, lid margin abnormalities, meibum expressibility, meibum quality and meibomian gland imaging were evaluated preoperatively, at 1 day, 1 and 2 months postoperatively...
2016: PloS One
Pedram Hamrah, Yashar Seyed-Razavi, Takefumi Yamaguchi
Corneal immunoimaging and neuroimaging approaches facilitate in vivo analyses of the cornea, including high-resolution imaging of corneal immune cells and nerves. This approach facilitates the analyses of underlying immune and nerve alterations not detected by clinical slit-lamp examination alone. In this review, we describe recent work performed in our translational ocular immunology center with a focus on "bench-to-bedside" and "bedside-to-bench" research. The ability to visualize dendritiform immune cells (DCs) in patients with laser in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM), recently discovered in the central murine cornea, has allowed us to demonstrate their utility as a potential surrogate biomarker for inflammatory ocular surface diseases...
November 2016: Cornea
Takefumi Yamaguchi, Pedram Hamrah, Jun Shimazaki
This review summarizes the recent literature regarding corneal imaging in human subjects using in vivo confocal microscopy. It also covers the recent literature on corneal immune cells, nerves, and tear cytokine levels in ocular surface diseases as well as corneal immune privilege. The significance of interactions between corneal immune cells and nerves in health, neurotrophic keratopathy, and infectious keratitis is discussed. Furthermore, bilateral alterations of immune cells and nerves in clinically unilateral corneal diseases and the link to changes of tear cytokines or neuropeptide levels in contralateral eyes are described...
November 2016: Cornea
Robert H Brophy, Linda J Sandell, Muhammad Farooq Rai
BACKGROUND: Meniscus tears are classified as traumatic or degenerative based on the tear pattern. There is little evidence demonstrating biological differences between the 2 tear types. HYPOTHESIS: Gene expression signatures in the injured meniscus are different between traumatic (vertical) and degenerative (complex, horizontal, or flap) tears. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: Samples of the torn meniscus from the white-white zone were removed at the time of clinically indicated partial meniscectomy from 48 patients (37 with degenerative tears and 11 with traumatic tears)...
September 7, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Rupesh Agrawal, Praveen Kumar Balne, Anuradha Veerappan, Veonice Bijin Au, Bernett Lee, Eileen Loo, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Louis Tong, Stephen C Teoh, John Connolly, Petrina Tan
PURPOSE: To investigate the tear cytokine profile in HIV patients with dry eye disease (DED) and study the association between the severity of ocular inflammatory complications and tear cytokines levels. We postulate that HIV-mediated inflammation may be the underlying pathogenic mechanism for HIV-associated DED. METHODS: The current prospective case-control study compared tear film cytokine profiles in DED patients with HIV infection (n=34) and age/gender-matched DED patients without HIV infection [controls (n=32)]...
December 2016: Cytokine
Valerie Sloane Jones, Jian Wu, Si-Wei Zhu, Ruo-Pan Huang
Eye-derived fluids, including tears, aqueous humour and vitreous humour often contain molecular signatures of ocular disease states. These signatures can be composed of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, proteases and soluble receptors. However, the small quantities (<10 µl) of these fluids severely limit the detection of these proteins by traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or Western blot. To maximise the amount of information generated from the analysis of these specimens, many researchers have employed multiplex immunoassay technologies for profiling the expression or modification of multiple proteins from minute sample volumes...
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Louis J Soslowsky, George W Fryhofer
Hypercholesterolemia is a serious health problem that is associated not only with heart disease, but also tendon pathology. In high cholesterol environments (e.g. familial hyperlipidemia), lipids accumulate within the tendon extracellular matrix and form deposits called xanthomas. Lipid-related changes are known to affect several tendon mechanical properties, including stiffness and modulus, in uninjured and injured tendons, alike. Mechanisms to explain these cholesterol-related changes are multiple, including alterations in tenocyte gene and protein expression, matrix turnover, tissue vascularity, and cytokine production...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Mohammad Hosein Validad, Hossein Ali Khazaei, Masoud Pishjoo, Zohre Safdari
INTRODUCTION: Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a bilateral multi-factorial disease. The pathogenesis of this disease is not obviously determined, but the role of various inflammatory cytokines has been specified. This study has provided a comparison between the level of interleukin-17 (IL17) in the serum and tears of case and control groups, and also the relationship between the level of this interleukin with severity of signs and symptoms of the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This case-control study has been accomplished on 40 individuals (20 healthy people and 20 patients who suffer from VKC) in Al-Zahra Eye Center in 2014...
July 15, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Alain Saraux, Jacques-Olivier Pers, Valérie Devauchelle-Pensec
Primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) is a progressive autoimmune disease characterized by sicca and systemic manifestations. In this Review, we summarize the available data on topical and systemic medications, according to clinical signs and disease activity, and we describe the ongoing studies using biologic drugs in the treatment of pSS. Expanding knowledge about the epidemiology, classification criteria, systemic activity scoring (ESSDAI) and patient-reported outcomes (ESSPRI) is driving active research. Treatment decisions are based on the evaluation of symptoms and extraglandular manifestations...
August 2016: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
Seung Hoon Lee, Kyoung Woo Kim, Kwangsic Joo, Jae Chan Kim
BACKGROUND: Angiogenin (ANG), a component of tears, is involved in the innate immune system and is related with inflammatory disease. We investigated whether ANG has an immune modulatory function in human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs). METHODS: HCFs were cultured from excised corneal tissues. The gene or protein expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta (β), IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, complements, toll-like receptor (TLR)4, myeloid differentiation primary response gene (MYD)88, TANK-binding kinase (TBK)1, IkappaB kinase-epsilon (IKK-ε) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) were analyzed with or without ANG treatment in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)- or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory HCFs by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blotting and immunocytochemistry...
2016: BMC Ophthalmology
Charles P Semba, Thomas R Gadek
Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disorder of the ocular surface characterized by symptoms of discomfort, decreased tear quality, and chronic inflammation that affects an estimated 20 million patients in the US alone. DED is associated with localized inflammation of the ocular surface and periocular tissues leading to homing and activation of T cells, cytokine release, and development of hyperosmolar tears. This inflammatory milieu results in symptoms of eye dryness and discomfort. Homing of T cells to the ocular surface is influenced by the binding of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1; CD11a/CD18; αLβ2), a cell surface adhesion protein, to its cognate ligand, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1; CD54), which is expressed on inflamed ocular/periocular epithelium and vascular endothelium...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
Chuanwei Zhang, Kai Li, Zichao Yang, Yuliang Wang, Haipeng Si
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bidens pilosa L. (Bp) is widely distributed in China and has been widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the extract of Bp on androgen deficiency dry eye and determine its possible mechanisms. METHODS: Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into four groups: Group Con (control), Group Sal (physiological saline), Group Fin (oral finasteride), and Group Bp (oral finasteride and Bp). The dry eye model was established in group Fin and group Bp...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Ching-Li Tseng, Ya-Jung Hung, Zhi-Yu Chen, Hsu-Wei Fang, Ko-Hua Chen
Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common eye disease. Artificial tears (AT) are used to treat DES, but they are not effective. In this study, we assessed the anti-inflammatory effect of AT containing epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and hyaluronic acid (HA) on DES. Human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) were used in the WST-8 assay to determine the safe dose of EGCG. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated HCECs showing inflammation were treated with EGCG/HA. The expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α was assessed by real-time PCR and AT physical properties such as the viscosity, osmolarity, and pH were examined...
2016: PloS One
Mirko Resan, Miroslav Vukosavljevic, Danilo Vojvodic, Brigitte Pajic-Eggspuehler, Bojan Pajic
PURPOSE: To evaluate the participation of proinflammatory cytokines in the acute phase of corneal wound-healing response after excimer laser treatment. METHODS: The study included 68 myopic eyes up to -3.0 diopters divided into two groups: 1) eyes treated with laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) (n=31) and 2) eyes treated with photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) (n=37). Each group was then divided into three subgroups based on tear sampling times: before (0 hours), 1 hour after, and 24 hours after treatment...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
Marco Bigoni, Marco Turati, Marta Gandolla, Paola Sacerdote, Massimiliano Piatti, Alberto Castelnuovo, Silvia Franchi, Massimo Gorla, Daniele Munegato, Diego Gaddi, Alessandra Pedrocchi, Robert J Omeljaniuk, Vittorio Locatelli, Antonio Torsello
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction restores knee stability but does not reduce the incidence of posttraumatic osteoarthritis induced by inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this research was to longitudinally measure IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α levels in patients subjected to ACL reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone graft. Synovial fluid was collected within 24-72 hours of ACL rupture (acute), 1 month after injury immediately prior to surgery (presurgery), and 1 month thereafter (postsurgery)...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Devon H Ghodasra, Ryan Fante, Thomas W Gardner, Michael Langue, Leslie M Niziol, Cagri Besirli, Steven R Cohen, Vaidehi S Dedania, Hakan Demirci, Nieraj Jain, K Thiran Jayasundera, Mark W Johnson, Partho S Kalyani, Rajesh C Rao, David N Zacks, Jeffrey M Sundstrom
PURPOSE: The goals of this study were to evaluate the safety of office-based vitreous sampling, and determine the utility of these samples with multiplex cytokine analysis. METHODS: Vitreous samples were collected from office-based needle aspiration and the rate of adverse events during follow-up was reviewed. The vitreous cytokine concentrations in a subset of patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) were analyzed using a 42 plex-cytokine bead array. These results were compared with vitreous cytokine concentrations in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and controls (macular hole, epiretinal membrane, symptomatic vitreous floaters) from pars plana vitrectomy...
June 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Sara J Codding, Naomi Marty, Nazish Abdullah, Colin P Johnson
Resealing of tears in the sarcolemma of myofibers is a necessary step in the repair of muscle tissue. Recent work suggests a critical role for dysferlin in the membrane repair process and that mutations in dysferlin are responsible for limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2B and Miyoshi myopathy. Beyond membrane repair, dysferlin has been linked to SNARE-mediated exocytotic events including cytokine release and acid sphingomyelinase secretion. However, it is unclear whether dysferlin regulates SNARE-mediated membrane fusion...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Salma Chaudhury, Zhidao Xia, Dipti Thakkar, Osnat Hakimi, Andrew J Carr
BACKGROUND: Progressive cellular and extracellular matrix (ECM) changes related to age and disease severity have been demonstrated in rotator cuff tendon tears. Larger rotator cuff tears demonstrate structural abnormalities that potentially adversely influence healing potential. This study aimed to gain greater insight into the relationship of pathologic changes to tear size by analyzing gene expression profiles from normal rotator cuff tendons, small rotator cuff tears, and large rotator cuff tears...
October 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
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