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Cornea transplant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332131/assessment-of-human-corneas-prior-to-transplantation-using-high-resolution-two-photon-imaging
#1
Ana Batista, Hans Georg Breunig, Aisada König, Andreas Schindele, Tobias Hager, Berthold Seitz, António Miguel Morgado, Karsten König
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using two-photon imaging (TPI) to assess the condition of human corneas for transplantation. Methods: Human corneas were imaged after different storage times: short-term (STS), medium-term (MTS), and long-term (LTS) storage. A high-resolution, custom-built 5-dimensional multiphoton microscope with 12-fs pulsed laser excitation was used for image acquisition. Results: Optical discrimination between different corneal layers and sublayers based on their morphologic characteristics revealed by two-photon autofluorescence (AF) is possible...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325021/oligonucleotides-targeting-tcf4-triplet-repeat-expansion-inhibit-rna-foci-and-mis-splicing-in-fuchs-dystrophy
#2
Jiaxin Hu, Ziye Rong, Xin Gong, Zhengyang Zhou, Vivek K Sharma, Chao Xing, Jonathan K Watts, David R Corey, V Vinod Mootha
Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is the most common repeat expansion disorder. FECD impacts 4% of United States population and is the leading indication for corneal transplantation. Most cases are caused by an expanded intronic CUG tract in the TCF4 gene that forms nuclear foci, sequesters splicing factors, and impairs splicing. We investigated the sense and antisense RNA landscape at the FECD gene and find that the sense expanded repeat transcript is the predominant species in patient corneas. In patient tissue, sense foci number were negatively correlated with age and showed no correlation with sex...
January 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307015/therapeutic-approaches-for-induction-of-tolerance-and-immune-quiescence-in-corneal-allotransplantation
#3
REVIEW
Maryam Tahvildari, Afsaneh Amouzegar, William Foulsham, Reza Dana
The cornea is the most commonly transplanted tissue in the body. Corneal grafts in low-risk recipients enjoy high success rates, yet over 50% of high-risk grafts (with inflamed and vascularized host beds) are rejected. As our understanding of the cellular and molecular pathways that mediate rejection has deepened, a number of novel therapeutic strategies have been unveiled. This manuscript reviews therapeutic approaches to promote corneal transplant survival through targeting (1) corneal lymphangiogenesis and hemangiogenesis, (2) antigen presenting cells, (3) effector and regulatory T cells, and (4) mesenchymal stem cells...
January 6, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305888/comparative-immunological-study-of-penetrating-and-anterior-lamellar-keratoplasty-in-a-murine-model
#4
Hyun Soo Lee, Ji Young Kwon, Choun-Ki Joo
In lamellar keratoplasty, the diseased part of a cornea is replaced while the healthy tissue remains. lamellar keratoplasty has the advantage of better graft survival compared to penetrating keratoplasty (PK). We compared the immunological responses to PK and anterior lamellar keratoplasty (ALK) in a murine model. PK or ALK was performed using C57BL/6 donor grafts and BALB/c recipients, and graft opacity was assessed to evaluate graft rejection up to 8 weeks. We evaluated the immunological responses in both groups, which were not clinically considered as graft failure on postoperative day 21...
January 3, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296489/deformation-velocity-imaging-using-optical-coherence-tomography-and-its-applications-to-the-cornea
#5
Samuel Lawman, Peter W Madden, Vito Romano, Yue Dong, Sharon Mason, Bryan M Williams, Stephen B Kaye, Colin E Willoughby, Simon P Harding, Yao-Chun Shen, Yalin Zheng
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can monitor human donor corneas non-invasively during the de-swelling process following storage for corneal transplantation, but currently only resultant thickness as a function of time is extracted. To visualize and quantify the mechanism of de-swelling, we present a method exploiting the nanometer sensitivity of the Fourier phase in OCT data to image deformation velocities. The technique was demonstrated by non-invasively showing during de-swelling that osmotic flow through an intact epithelium is negligible and removing the endothelium approximately doubled the initial flow at that interface...
December 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287709/angiogenesis-and-lymphangiogenesis-in-corneal-transplantation-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Wei Zhong, Mario Montana, Samuel M Santosa, Irene D Isjwara, Yu-Hui Huang, Kyu-Yeon Han, Christopher O'Neil, Ashley Wang, Maria Soledad Cortina, Jose de la Cruz, Qiang Zhou, Mark Rosenblatt, Jin-Hong Chang, Dimitri T Azar
Corneal transplantation has been proven effective for returning the gift of sight to those affected by corneal disorders such as opacity, injury, and infections that are a leading cause of blindness. Immune privilege plays an important role in the success of corneal transplantation procedures; however, immune rejection reactions do occur, and they, in conjunction with a shortage of corneal donor tissue, continue to pose major challenges. Corneal immune privilege is important to the success of corneal transplantation and closely related to the avascular nature of the cornea...
December 26, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279602/new-therapeutic-perceptions-in-a-patient-with-complicated-herpes-simplex-virus-1-keratitis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
REVIEW
Dimitrios Kalogeropoulos, Aliki Geka, Konstantinos Malamos, Maria Kanari, Chris Kalogeropoulos
BACKGROUND Keratitis caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) can have detrimental effects on the cornea leading to loss of vision. Modern therapies can contribute to the prevention of anatomical and functional damage. CASE REPORT An 80-year-old male with complicated HSV-1 keratitis of the left eye (confirmed diagnosis after microbiological investigation) presented three months after antiviral treatment with corneal blurring, severe epitheliopathy, thinning of the stroma, and neovascularization. At the time he was referred, the visual acuity of his left eye was very low, as he could only count fingers at a one-foot distance...
December 27, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259248/aav-vector-meditated-expression-of-hla-g-reduces-injury-induced-corneal-vascularization-immune-cell-infiltration-and-fibrosis
#8
Matthew L Hirsch, Laura M Conatser, Sara M Smith, Jacklyn H Salmon, Jerry Wu, Nicholas E Buglak, Rich Davis, Brian C Gilger
Over 1.5 million individuals suffer from cornea vascularization due to genetic and/or environmental factors, compromising visual acuity and often resulting in blindness. Current treatments of corneal vascularization are limited in efficacy and elicit undesirable effects including, ironically, vision loss. To develop a safe and effective therapy for corneal vascularization, adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy, exploiting a natural immune tolerance mechanism induced by human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G), was investigated...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239730/directed-differentiation-of-periocular-mesenchyme-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#9
Matthew Lovatt, Gary Hin-Fai Yam, Gary S Peh, Alan Colman, N Ray Dunn, Jodhbir S Mehta
Corneal tissue is the most transplanted of all body tissues. Currently, cadaveric donor tissues are used for transplantation. However, a global shortage of transplant grade material has prompted development of alternative, cell-based therapies for corneal diseases. Pluripotent stem cells are attractive sources of cells for regenerative medicine, because large numbers of therapeutically useful cells can be generated. However, a detailed understanding of how to differentiate clinically relevant cell types from stem cells is fundamentally required...
November 16, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235270/lamellar-keratoplasty-using-position-guided-surgical-needle-and-m-mode-optical-coherence-tomography
#10
Sungwon Shin, Jung Kweon Bae, Yujin Ahn, Hyeongeun Kim, Geonho Choi, Young-Sik Yoo, Choun-Ki Joo, Sucbei Moon, Woonggyu Jung
Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) is an emerging surgical technique for the restoration of corneal clarity and vision acuity. The big-bubble technique in DALK surgery is the most essential procedure that includes the air injection through a thin syringe needle to separate the dysfunctional region of the cornea. Even though DALK is a well-known transplant method, it is still challenged to manipulate the needle inside the cornea under the surgical microscope, which varies its surgical yield. Here, we introduce the DALK protocol based on the position-guided needle and M-mode optical coherence tomography (OCT)...
December 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226476/differences-in-the-activity-of-endogenous-bmp-signalling-impact-on-the-ability-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-differentiate-to-corneal-epithelial-like-cells
#11
Taty Anna Kamarudin, Sanja Bojic, Joseph Collin, Min Yu, Sameer Alharthi, Harley Buck, Alex Shortt, Lyle Armstrong, Francisco C Figueiredo, Majlinda Lako
Cornea is a clear outermost layer of the eye which enables transmission of light onto the retina. The transparent corneal epithelium is regenerated by limbal stem cells (LSCs), whose loss/dysfunction results in limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Ex vivo expansion of autologous LSCs obtained from patient's healthy eye followed by transplantation onto the LSCs damaged/deficient eye, has provided a successful treatment for unilateral LSCD. This however is not applicable to patient with total bilateral LSCD, where LSCs are lost/damaged from both eyes...
December 11, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208552/controlling-human-corneal-stromal-stem-cell-contraction-to-mediate-rapid-cell-and-matrix-organization-of-real-architecture-for-3-dimensional-tissue-equivalents
#12
Dev Mukhey, James Phillips, Julie T Daniels, Alvena K Kureshi
The architecture of the human corneal stroma consists of a highly organized extracellular matrix (ECM) interspersed with keratocytes. Their progenitor cells; corneal stromal stem cells (CSSC) are located at the periphery, in the limbal stroma. A highly organized corneal ECM is critical for effective transmission of light but this structure may be compromised during injury or disease, resulting in loss of vision. Re-creating normal organization in engineered tissue equivalents for transplantation often involves lengthy culture times that are inappropriate for clinical use or utilisation of synthetic substrates that bring complications such as corneal melting...
December 2, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198664/relatives-perception-after-tissue-donation-experience-results-of-a-postdonation-phone-survey
#13
R Roque, C Rodríguez-Villar, A Ruíz, D Paredes, R Gelpi, S Rodríguez, F J García, R Adalia
INTRODUCTION: Postmortem tissue donation (TD) requires the establishment of strategies for family approach to clearly explain the characteristics of multi-tissue donation. In a tertiary university hospital with a long tradition of tissue generation, we designed a survey to be applied to tissue donor families to evaluate global hospital care, care from Transplant Coordinators (TC), quality and content of information given about TD, experience, and motivations after TD process. METHODOLOGY: A prospective phone survey of 10 multiple-choice items was conducted to all TD relatives that agreed to donate one or more tissues...
December 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193851/survival-of-corneal-nerve-sheath-structures-in-organ-cultured-donor-corneas
#14
Virinder K Dhillon, Mohamed S Elalfy, Marco Messina, Mouhamed Al-Aqaba, Harminder S Dua
PURPOSE: To study the morphology of human corneal nerves in eye bank organ-cultured corneas and in corneal grafts post-transplantation. METHODS: Thirty-seven organ-cultured corneas were divided into: Group-A, anterior 300-400 μm of 20 corneas used for Descemets stripping endothelial keratoplasty, and Group-B, 17 full-thickness corneas unsuitable for transplantation. Corneas whole mounts were stained for nerves using acetylcholinesterase technique and examined by NanoZoomer digital pathology microscope...
November 29, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170974/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-amnion-membrane-transplantation-and-cross-linking-treatments-in-an-experimental-alkali-injury-model
#15
Sevgi Subasi, Ozgul Altintas, Murat Kasap, Nil Guzel, Gurler Akpinar, Suleyman Karaman
PURPOSE: In this study, by using a two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis-based experimental approach, we aimed at understanding the nature of alkali injuries and the underlying mechanisms. A secondary aim was to compare the effects of cross-linking (CXL) and amnion membrane transplantation (AMT) on corneal protein compositions at the end of the early repair phase after injured with alkali. METHOD: The right corneas of 24 rabbits were injured with a 1 N solution of NaOH...
November 23, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165417/-pterygium-etiology-pathogenesis-treatment
#16
S A Malozhen, S V Trufanov, D A Krakhmaleva
Pterygium is a degenerative condition characterized by fibrovascular outgrowth of conjunctiva over the cornea. Many theories exist that try to explain its pathogenesis. The current belief is that this disease is multifactorial with ultraviolet radiation being the most important trigger. Attention is also paid to such factors as tear film changes, cytokines and growth factors disbalance, immunologic disturbances, genetic mutations, and viral infections. Modern classifications consider the rate of fibrovascular growth, its progressive potential, and histological features...
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149984/corneal-xenotransplantation-from-pig-to-rhesus-monkey-no-signs-of-transmission-of-endogenous-porcine-retroviruses
#17
A Li, Y Zhang, Y Liu, Z Pan
BACKGROUND: Xenotransplantations of pig corneas have become an attractive alternative to human corneas. Such xenotransplantations carry the danger, however, of transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs). Here, we investigated whether porcine corneas harbor viral DNA and RNA and whether transplantation to a nonhuman primate would lead to host PERV infection. METHODS: Monkey vein endothelial cells (MVECs) were inoculated with porcine aortic endothelial cell (PAEC) supernatants, and DNA and total RNA of MVECs were tested for PERV by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assays...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149876/impact-of-donor-graft-quality-on-deep-anterior-lamellar-keratoplasty-dalk
#18
Friederike Schaub, Philip Enders, Werner Adler, Björn O Bachmann, Claus Cursiefen, Ludwig M Heindl
BACKGROUND: To evaluate main features of donor tissue that may influence clinical outcome or complication rate after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). METHODS: Donor tissue parameters of 84 consecutive corneal donor grafts used for big-bubble DALK surgery between June 2011 and December 2014 in 84 eyes of 84 patients with disorders of anterior corneal stroma were correlated to clinical outcome parameters of recipient eyes 12 months after surgery and 3 months after total suture removal...
November 17, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149239/label-free-in-vivo-imaging-of-corneal-lymphatic-vessels-using-microscopic-optical-coherence-tomography
#19
Jens Horstmann, Hinnerk Schulz-Hildebrandt, Felix Bock, Sebastian Siebelmann, Eva Lankenau, Gereon Hüttmann, Philipp Steven, Claus Cursiefen
Purpose: Corneal neovascularization, in particular lymphangiogenesis, is a limiting factor in corneal transplant survival. Novel treatment approaches focus on (selective) inhibition and regression of lymphatic vessels. Imaging clinically invisible corneal lymphatic vessels is a prerequisite for these strategies. Using a murine model, this study investigates whether corneal lymphatic vessels can be imaged using microscopic optical coherence tomography (mOCT). Methods: Corneal neovascularization was induced by intrastromal placement of 11...
November 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146208/glaucoma-associated-corneal-endothelial-cell-damage-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Ben J Janson, Wallace L Alward, Young H Kwon, Daniel I Bettis, John H Fingert, Lorraine M Provencher, Kenneth M Goins, Michael D Wagoner, Mark A Greiner
The corneal endothelium is critical in maintaining a healthy and clear cornea. Corneal endothelial cells have a significant reserve function, but preservation of these cells is paramount as they have limited regenerative capacity. Glaucoma is a prevalent disease, and damage to the corneal endothelium may be caused by the disease process itself as well as by its treatment. The mechanisms involved in glaucoma-associated damage to the corneal endothelium need further investigation. Understanding how glaucoma and glaucoma surgery impact the endothelium is important for protecting corneal clarity and visual acuity in all glaucoma patients, including those undergoing corneal transplant...
November 13, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
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