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Ex vivo expansion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456538/an-uncoupling-of-canonical-phenotypic-markers-and-functional-potency-of-ex-vivo-expanded-natural-killer-cells
#1
Nicole A P Lieberman, Kole DeGolier, Kristen Haberthur, Harrison Chinn, Kara W Moyes, Myriam N Bouchlaka, Kirsti L Walker, Christian M Capitini, Courtney A Crane
Recent advances in cellular therapies for patients with cancer, including checkpoint blockade and ex vivo -expanded, tumor-specific T cells, have demonstrated that targeting the immune system is a powerful approach to the elimination of tumor cells. Clinical efforts have also demonstrated limitations, however, including the potential for tumor cell antigenic drift and neoantigen formation, which promote tumor escape and recurrence, as well as rapid onset of T cell exhaustion in vivo . These findings suggest that antigen unrestricted cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells, may be beneficial for use as an alternative to or in combination with T cell based approaches...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452580/measuring-integrated-hiv-dna-ex-vivo-and-in-vitro-provides-insights-about-how-reservoirs-are-formed-and-maintained
#2
REVIEW
Marilia Rita Pinzone, Una O'Doherty
The identification of the most appropriate marker to measure reservoir size has been a great challenge for the HIV field. Quantitative viral outgrowth assay (QVOA), the reference standard to quantify the amount of replication-competent virus, has several limitations, as it is laborious, expensive, and unable to robustly reactivate every single integrated provirus. PCR-based assays have been developed as an easier, cheaper and less error-prone alternative to QVOA, but also have limitations. Historically, measuring integrated HIV DNA has provided insights about how reservoirs are formed and maintained...
February 17, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449437/dynamic-clonal-progression-in-xenografts-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-with-intrachromosomal-amplification-of-chromosome-21
#3
Paul B Sinclair, Helen H Blair, Sarra L Ryan, Lars Buechler, Joanna Cheng, Jake Clayton, Rebecca Hanna, Shaun Hollern, Zoe Hawking, Matthew Bashton, Claire J Schwab, Lisa Jones, Lisa J Russell, Helen Marr, Peter Carey, Christina Halsey, Olaf Heidenreich, Anthony V Moorman, Christine J Harrison
Intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 is a heterogeneous chromosomal rearrangement occurring in 2% of childhood precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. There are no cell lines with iAMP21 and these abnormalities are too complex to faithfully engineer in animal models. As a resource for future functional and pre-clinical studies, we have created xenografts from intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 leukemia patient blasts and characterised them by in-vivo and ex-vivo luminescent imaging, FLOW immunophenotyping, and histological and ultrastructural analysis of bone marrow and the central nervous system...
February 15, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431006/cell-density-dependent-cytological-stage-profile-and-its-application-for-a-screen-of-cytostatic-agents-active-towards-leukemic-stem-cells
#4
Jan Jakub Lica, Grzegorz Jan Grabe, Mateusz Heldt, Majus Misiak, Patrycja Bloch, Marcin Serocki, Marta Switalska, Joanna Wietrzyk, Maciej Baginski, Andrzej Hellmann, Edward Borowski, Andrzej Skladanowski
Proliferation and expansion of leukemia is driven by Leukemic Stem Cells (LSCs). Multidrug resistance (MDR) of LSCs is one of the main reasons of failure and relapses in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) treatment. Here we show that maintaining HL-60 at low cell culture density or applying a 240-day treatment with anthrapyridazone (BS-121) increased the percentage of primitive cells which include LSCs determining the overall stage profile. This change manifested in: morphology, expression of both cell surface markers and redox-state proteins as well as mitochondrial potential...
February 12, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404520/liver-tissue-engineering-from-implantable-tissue-to-whole-organ-engineering
#5
REVIEW
Giuseppe Mazza, Walid Al-Akkad, Krista Rombouts, Massimo Pinzani
The term "liver tissue engineering" summarizes one of the ultimate goals of modern biotechnology: the possibility of reproducing in total or in part the functions of the liver in order to treat acute or chronic liver disorders and, ultimately, create a fully functional organ to be transplanted or used as an extracorporeal device. All the technical approaches in the area of liver tissue engineering are based on allocating adult hepatocytes or stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells within a three-dimensional structure able to ensure their survival and to maintain their functional phenotype...
February 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402963/fast-assessment-of-lipid-content-in-arteries-in-vivo-by-intravascular-photoacoustic-tomography
#6
Yingchun Cao, Ayeeshik Kole, Jie Hui, Yi Zhang, Jieying Mai, Mouhamad Alloosh, Michael Sturek, Ji-Xin Cheng
Intravascular photoacoustic tomography is an emerging technology for mapping lipid deposition within an arterial wall for the investigation of the vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques to rupture. By converting localized laser absorption in lipid-rich biological tissue into ultrasonic waves through thermoelastic expansion, intravascular photoacoustic tomography is uniquely capable of imaging the entire arterial wall with chemical selectivity and depth resolution. However, technical challenges, including an imaging catheter with sufficient sensitivity and depth and a functional sheath material without significant signal attenuation and artifact generation for both photoacoustics and ultrasound, have prevented in vivo application of intravascular photoacoustic imaging for clinical translation...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401466/ex-vivo-expansion-of-alveolar-macrophages-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-the-resected-lungs-of-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#7
Elena Ufimtseva, Natalya Eremeeva, Ekaterina Petrunina, Tatiana Umpeleva, Svetlana Karskanova, Sergey Bayborodin, Diana Vakhrusheva, Marionella Kravchenko, Sergey Skornyakov
Tuberculosis (TB), with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) as the causative agent, remains to be a serious world health problem. Traditional methods used for the study of Mtb in the lungs of TB patients do not provide information about the number and functional status of Mtb, especially if Mtb are located in alveolar macrophages. We have developed a technique to produce ex vivo cultures of cells from different parts of lung tissues surgically removed from patients with pulmonary TB and compared data on the number of cells with Mtb inferred by the proposed technique to the results of bacteriological and histological analyses used for examination of the resected lungs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399145/lentiviral-delivery-of-ctla-4-shrna-improves-the-expansion-of-cytokine-induced-killer-cells-and-enhances-cytotoxic-activity-in-vitro
#8
Tao Rui, Xiangdong Cheng, Hao Wu, Fuwei Wang, Zaiyuan Ye, Guoqing Wu
Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are in vitro-expanded cells harboring potent toxicity against tumor cells. Recently, it was identified that the cytotoxicity and proliferation of CIK cells are restricted by a prolonged CIK cell culture period. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) serves a negative role in T cell activation and proliferation. This study aims to determine whether CTLA-4 expression is associated with the inhibition of CIK cells. CIK cells were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and CTLA-4 shRNA (shCTLA-4) lentivirus was applied to knockdown CTLA-4 expression in CIK cells...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397689/dual-roles-of-graphene-oxide-to-attenuate-inflammation-and-elicit-timely-polarization-of-macrophage-phenotypes-for-cardiac-repair
#9
Jin Han, Yong Sook Kim, Min-Young Lim, Han Young Kim, Saerom Kong, Mikyung Kang, Yeon Woong Choo, Ju Hee Jun, Seungmi Ryu, Hye-Yun Jeong, Jooyeon Park, Gun-Jae Jeong, Jong-Chan Lee, Gwang Hyeon Eom, Youngkeun Ahn, Byung-Soo Kim
Development of localized inflammatory environments by M1 macrophages in the cardiac infarction region exacerbates heart failure after myocardial infarction (MI). Therefore, the regulation of inflammation by M1 macrophages and their timely polarization toward regenerative M2 macrophages suggest an immunotherapy. Particularly, controlling cellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which cause M1 differentiation, and developing M2 macrophage phenotypes in macrophages propose a therapeutic approach. Previously, stem or dendritic cells were used in MI for their anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective potentials and showed inflammation modulation and M2 macrophage progression for cardiac repair...
February 7, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395050/slow-your-roll-inhibiting-setd7-activity-permits-ex%C3%A2-vivo-expansion-of-muscle-stem-cells
#10
Ryo Fujita, Colin Crist
Muscle stem cell regenerative capacity is rapidly lost during ex vivo culture. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Judson et al. (2018) show that inhibition of cytoplasmic SETD7, a lysine methyltransferase, potently expands naive, undifferentiated mouse and human muscle stem cells by restricting their progression through the myogenic program.
February 1, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394956/establishment-of-xenogeneic-serum-free-culture-methods-for-handling-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-using-clinically-oriented-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-conditions
#11
Mai Mochizuki, Taka Nakahara
BACKGROUND: Currently, ex-vivo handling of stem cells, including transport after harvest and therapeutic preparation, is generally done in culture media containing fetal bovine serum (FBS), which promotes cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. However, because of safety concerns associated with the use of FBS, including potential transmission of zoonotic agents and transplant rejection because of the incorporation of foreign proteins into the stem cells, there is a need for xenogeneic serum-free culture media for clinical handling of stem cells...
February 3, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392885/ex-vivo-expansion-of-cd34-cd90-cd49f-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-from-non-enriched-umbilical-cord-blood-with-azole-compounds
#12
Sudipto Bari, Qixing Zhong, Xiubo Fan, Zhiyong Poon, Alvin Soon Tiong Lim, Tse Hui Lim, Niraja Dighe, Shang Li, Gigi Ngar Chee Chiu, Christina Li Lin Chai, William Ying Khee Hwang
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplants in adults have slower hematopoietic recovery compared to bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood (PB) stem cells mainly due to low number of total nucleated cells and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC). As such in this study, we aimed to perform ex vivo expansion of UCB HSPC from non-enriched mononucleated cells (MNC) using novel azole-based small molecules. Freshly-thawed UCB-MNC were cultured in expansion medium supplemented with small molecules and basal cytokine cocktail...
February 2, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391249/spatial-and-single-cell-transcriptional-profiling-identifies-functionally-distinct-human-dermal-fibroblast-subpopulations
#13
Christina Philippeos, Stephanie Telerman, Bénédicte Oulès, Angela O Pisco, Tanya J Shaw, Raul Elgueta, Giovanna Lombardi, Ryan R Driskell, Mark Soldin, Magnus D Lynch, Fiona M Watt
Previous studies have shown that mouse dermis is comprised of functionally distinct fibroblast lineages. To explore the extent of fibroblast heterogeneity in human skin we have used a combination of comparative spatial transcriptional profiling of human and mouse dermis and single cell transcriptional profiling of human dermal fibroblasts. We show that there are at least four distinct fibroblast populations in adult human skin, not all of which are spatially segregated. We define markers permitting their isolation and show that although marker expression is lost in culture, different fibroblast subpopulations retain distinct functionality in terms of Wnt signalling, responsiveness to IFNγ and ability to support human epidermal reconstitution when introduced into decellularised dermis...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386194/improving-t-cell-expansion-and-function-for-adoptive-t-cell-therapy-using-ex-vivo-treatment-with-pi3k%C3%AE-inhibitors-and-vip-antagonists
#14
Christopher T Petersen, Mojibade Hassan, Anna B Morris, Jasmin Jeffery, Kunhee Lee, Neera Jagirdar, Ashley D Staton, Sunil S Raikar, Harold T Spencer, Todd Sulchek, Christopher R Flowers, Edmund K Waller
Adoptive therapy with ex vivo-expanded genetically modified antigen-specific T cells can induce remissions in patients with relapsed/refractory cancer. The clinical success of this therapy depends upon efficient transduction and expansion of T cells ex vivo and their homing, persistence and cytotoxicity following reinfusion. Lower rates of ex vivo expansion and clinical response using anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have been seen in heavily pretreated lymphoma patients compared with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients and motivate the development of novel strategies to enhance ex vivo T cell expansion and their persistence in vivo...
February 13, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382685/proteomic-profiling-reveals-the-transglutaminase-2-externalization-pathway-in-kidneys-after-unilateral-ureteric-obstruction
#15
Giulia Furini, Nina Schroeder, Linghong Huang, David Boocock, Alessandra Scarpellini, Clare Coveney, Elisa Tonoli, Raghavendran Ramaswamy, Graham Ball, Claudia Verderio, Timothy S Johnson, Elisabetta A M Verderio
Increased export of transglutaminase-2 (TG2) by tubular epithelial cells (TECs) into the surrounding interstitium modifies the extracellular homeostatic balance, leading to fibrotic membrane expansion. Although silencing of extracellular TG2 ameliorates progressive kidney scarring in animal models of CKD, the pathway through which TG2 is secreted from TECs and contributes to disease progression has not been elucidated. In this study, we developed a global proteomic approach to identify binding partners of TG2 responsible for TG2 externalization in kidneys subjected to unilateral ureteric obstruction (UUO) using TG2 knockout kidneys as negative controls...
January 30, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380193/the-emu-oil-emulsified-in-egg-lecithin-and-butylated-hydroxytoluene-enhanced-the-proliferation-stemness-gene-expression-and-in-vitro-wound-healing-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#16
Khatereh Saei Arezoumand, Effat Alizadeh, Mohammad Esmaeillou, Maryam Ghasemi, Shahriar Alipour, Younes Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Nosratollah Zarghami
In recent decades, mesenchymal stem cells originated from adipose tissue (adipose-derived stem cells, ASCs) have gained increased attention for production of cell-based therapeutics. Emu oil as a natural compound showed antioxidant effects in previous studies. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of crude emu oil on the proliferation, cell cycle progression, stemness genes expression, and in vitro wound healing potential of ASCs. An emulsion of emu oil was prepared using egg lecithin and butylated hydroxytoluene to improve bioavailability and solubility of emu oil in the expansion medium...
January 29, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377410/inhibition-of-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-activity-expands-multipotent-myeloid-progenitor-cells-with-vascular-regenerative-function
#17
Tyler T Cooper, Stephen E Sherman, Miljan Kuljanin, Gillian I Bell, Gilles A Lajoie, David A Hess
Blood-derived progenitor cell transplantation holds potential for the treatment of severe vascular diseases. Human umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells purified using high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH hi ) activity demonstrate pro-angiogenic functions following intramuscular (i.m.) transplantation into immunodeficient mice with hind-limb ischemia. Unfortunately, UCB ALDH hi cells are rare and prolonged ex vivo expansion leads to loss of high ALDH-activity and diminished vascular regenerative function...
January 27, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377004/antagonism-of-ppar-%C3%AE-signaling-expands-human-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-by-enhancing-glycolysis
#18
Bin Guo, Xinxin Huang, Man Ryul Lee, Sang A Lee, Hal E Broxmeyer
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) quiescently reside in bone marrow niches and have the capacity to self-renew or differentiate to form all of the blood cells throughout the lifespan of an animal. Allogeneic HSC transplantation is a life-saving treatment for malignant and nonmalignant disorders. HSCs isolated from umbilical cord blood (CB) are used for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but due to the limited numbers of HSCs in single units of umbilical CB, a number of methods have been proposed for ex vivo expansion of human HSCs...
January 29, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376823/the-genome-of-the-hi5-germ-cell-line-from-trichoplusia-ni-an-agricultural-pest-and-novel-model-for-small-rna-biology
#19
Yu Fu, Yujing Yang, Han Zhang, Gwen Farley, Junling Wang, Kaycee A Quarles, Zhiping Weng, Phillip D Zamore
We report a draft assembly of the genome of Hi5 cells from the lepidopteran insect pest, Trichoplusia ni, assigning 90.6% of bases to one of 28 chromosomes and predicting 14,037 protein-coding genes. Chemoreception and detoxification gene families reveal T. ni-specific gene expansions that may explain its widespread distribution and rapid adaptation to insecticides. Transcriptome and small RNA data from thorax, ovary, testis, and the germline-derived Hi5 cell line show distinct expression profiles for 295 microRNA- and >393 piRNA-producing loci, as well as 39 genes encoding small RNA pathway proteins...
January 29, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376452/devices-for-ex-vivo-heart-and-lung-perfusion
#20
Dean P Schraufnagel, Robert J Steffen, Patrick R Vargo, Tamer Attia, Haytham Elgharably, Saad M Hasan, Alejandro Bribriesco, Per Wierup
The number of organs available for heart and lung transplantation is far short of the number that is needed to meet demand. Perfusion and ventilation of donor organs after procurement has led to exciting advances in the field of cardiothoracic transplantation. The clinical implications of this technology allows for techniques to evaluate the quality of an organ, active rehabilitation of organs after procurement and prior to implantation, and increased time between organ procurement and implantation. This ex-vivo perfusion technique has also been referred to in the lay press as the 'heart in a box' or 'lung in a box...
January 29, 2018: Expert Review of Medical Devices
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