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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211875/a-hyaluronan-hydrogel-scaffold-based-xeno-free-culture-system-for-ex-vivo-expansion-of-human-corneal-epithelial-stem-cells
#1
D Chen, Y Qu, X Hua, L Zhang, Z Liu, S C Pflugfelder, D-Q Li
PurposeTo develop a hyaluronan hydrogel scaffold-based xeno-free culture system for ex vivo cultivation of human corneal epithelial stem cells (CESCs).Patients and MethodsCESCs were cultivated from donor limbal explants on the HyStem-C Hydrogel bio-scaffold in 12-well plates for 3 weeks. Group A used the traditional supplemented hormonal epidermal medium (SHEM) and group B used the defined SHEM (without fetal bovine serum and toxin A, adding 20% serum replacement). The growth and morphology of the cultured cells were assessed by phase contrast microscope...
February 17, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205414/avoidance-of-maternal-cell-contamination-and-overgrowth-in-isolating-fetal-chorionic-villi-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-human-term-placenta
#2
Varda S Sardesai, Abbas Shafiee, Nicholas M Fisk, Rebecca A Pelekanos
Human placenta is rich in mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC), with their origin widely presumed fetal. Cultured placental MSCs are confounded by a high frequency of maternal cell contamination. Our recent systematic review concluded that only a small minority of placental MSC publications report fetal/maternal origin, and failed to discern a specific methodology for isolation of fetal MSC from term villi. We determined isolation conditions to yield fetal and separately maternal MSC during ex vivo expansion from human term placenta...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191783/concise-review-the-potential-use-of-intestinal-stem-cells-to-treat-patients-with-intestinal-failure
#3
Sung Noh Hong, James C Y Dunn, Matthias Stelzner, Martín G Martín
Intestinal failure is a rare life-threatening condition that results in the inability to maintain normal growth and hydration status by enteral nutrition alone. Although parenteral nutrition and whole organ allogeneic transplantation have improved the survival of these patients, current therapies are associated with a high risk for morbidity and mortality. Development of methods to propagate adult human intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and pluripotent stem cells raises the possibility of using stem cell-based therapy for patients with monogenic and polygenic forms of intestinal failure...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188931/percutaneous-left-atrial-appendage-closure-improves-left-atrial-mechanical-function-through-frank-starling-mechanism
#4
Augustin Coisne, Rosario Pilato, François Brigadeau, Didier Klug, Christelle Marquie, Zouheir Souissi, Marjorie Richardson, Stéphanie Mouton, Anne-Sophie Polge, Patrizio Lancellotti, Dominique Lacroix, David Montaigne
BACKGROUND: Modifications in left atrial (LA) flow velocities after left atrial appendage (LAA) exclusion have been shown in animal and ex vivo models. In a substudy of the PROTECT AF, an objective improvement in quality of life was observed after LAA closure. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the impact of LAA closure on LA transport function METHODS: Comprehensive Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) evaluation (2D/3D, 2D speckle tracking) was prospectively performed before and after LAA closure (at discharge and 45 days after procedure) in 33 patients...
February 7, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187462/recombinant-tat-bmi-1-fusion-protein-induces-ex-vivo-expansion-of-human-umbilical-cord-blood-derived-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#5
Bruna Codispoti, Nicola Rinaldo, Emanuela Chiarella, Michela Lupia, Cristina Barbara Spoleti, Maria Grazia Marafioti, Annamaria Aloisio, Stefania Scicchitano, Marco Giordano, Giovanna Nappo, Valeria Lucchino, Malcolm A S Moore, Pengbo Zhou, Maria Mesuraca, Heather Mandy Bond, Giovanni Morrone
Transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is a well-established therapeutic approach for numerous disorders. HSCs are typically derived from bone marrow or peripheral blood after cytokine-induced mobilization. Umbilical cord blood (CB) represents an appealing alternative HSC source, but the small amounts of the individual CB units have limited its applications. The availability of strategies for safe ex vivo expansion of CB-derived HSCs (CB-HSCs) may allow to extend the use of these cells in adult patients and to avoid the risk of insufficient engraftment or delayed hematopoietic recovery...
February 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183349/hif-1%C3%AE-inhibitor-echinomycin-reduces-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-and-preserves-graft-versus-leukemia-effect
#6
Yushi Yao, Lei Wang, Jihao Zhou, Xinyou Zhang
BACKGROUND: Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) remains a major obstacle against favorable clinical outcomes following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). T helper cells including Th17 play key roles in aGVHD pathogenesis. Donor regulatory T cell (Tregs) adoptive therapy reduces aGVHD without weakening graft-versus-leukemia effect (GVL) in both mouse and human, although the purification and ex vivo expansion of Tregs in clinical scenarios remain costly and technically demanding...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173870/an-effective-ex-vivo-approach-for-inducing-endothelial-progenitor-cells-from-umbilical-cord-blood-cd34-cells
#7
Meng Qin, Xin Guan, Huihui Wang, Yu Zhang, Bin Shen, Qingyu Zhang, Wei Dai, Yupo Ma, Yongping Jiang
BACKGROUND: Transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs)/endothelial cells (ECs) has been used for the treatment of ischemic diseases and hemophilia A, due to their great capacity for producing factor VIII and for repairing vascular damage. We established an effective approach to stimulate the expansion and differentiation of EPCs for potential therapeutic applications. METHODS: CD34(+) cells isolated from human cord blood were cultured in a two-step system for 21 days...
February 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173869/characteristics-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-in-scleroderma-in-comparison-to-sex-and-age-matched-normal-controls-implications-for-regenerative-medicine
#8
Michelle Griffin, Caroline M Ryan, Omar Pathan, David Abraham, Christopher P Denton, Peter E M Butler
BACKGROUND: Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are emerging as an alternative stem cell source for cell-based therapies. Recent data suggest that autologous ADSC-enriched micrografting improves the effects of facial involvement in systemic sclerosis (SSc). We have extensively characterised ADSCs from SSc patients and compared their phenotype and function to healthy age- and sex-matched control ADSCs. METHODS: ADSCs were isolated and characterised from a cohort of six SSc patients (ADSC-SSc) and were compared to six healthy age- and sex-matched controls (ADSC-N)...
February 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171825/ex-vivo-expansion-of-cd3-depleted-cord-blood-mncs-in-the-presence-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-an-appropriate-strategy-to-provide-functional-nk-cells-applicable-for-cellular-therapy
#9
Ehteramolsadat Hosseini, Mehran Ghasemzadeh, Maedeh Kamalizad, Anthony P Schwarer
Considering umbilical cord blood (UCB) as a rich source of hematopoietic stem cells, we introduced a cost-effective approach to expand CD3(depleted) UCB-MNCs into functional NK cells. CD3(depleted) UCB-MNCs were expanded in the presence or absence of a feeder [bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) or osteoblasts], with or without cytokines and their differentiation into NK cells was determined by flow cytometry. NK cell function was quantified by LAMP-1/CD107a expression, TNF-α/IFN-γ release, and LDH release/PI staining in targets...
February 1, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170194/human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-expanded-under-ambient-oxygen-concentration-accumulate-oxidative-dna-lesions-and-experience-procarcinogenic-dna-replication-stress
#10
Rémy Bétous, Marie-Laure Renoud, Claire Hoede, Ignacio Gonzalez, Natalie Jones, Michel Longy, Luc Sensebé, Christophe Cazaux, Jean-Sébastien Hoffmann
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have led to growing interest in cell-based therapy because they can be easily harvested from an abundant tissue. ADSCs must be expanded in vitro before transplantation. This essential step causes concerns about the safety of adult stem cells in terms of potential transformation. Tumorigenesis is driven in its earliest step by DNA replication stress, which is characterized by the accumulation of stalled DNA replication forks and activation of the DNA damage response. Thus, to evaluate the safety of ADSCs during ex vivo expansion, we monitored DNA replication under atmospheric (21%) or physiologic (1%) oxygen concentration...
January 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166224/mesoderm-specific-stat3-deletion-affects-expression-of-sox9-yielding-sox9-dependent-phenotypes
#11
Michael D Hall, Caroline A Murray, Michael J Valdez, Alan O Perantoni
To date, mutations within the coding region and translocations around the SOX9 gene both constitute the majority of genetic lesions underpinning human campomelic dysplasia (CD). While pathological coding-region mutations typically result in a non-functional SOX9 protein, little is known about what mechanism(s) controls normal SOX9 expression, and subsequently, which signaling pathways may be interrupted by alterations occurring around the SOX9 gene. Here, we report the identification of Stat3 as a key modulator of Sox9 expression in nascent cartilage and developing chondrocytes...
February 6, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162915/simple-in-vitro-generation-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-g-expressing-t-regulatory-cells-through-pharmacological-hypomethylation-for-adoptive-cellular-immunotherapy-against-graft-versus-host-disease
#12
Panagiota Stamou, Dimitra Marioli, Alexandra L Patmanidi, Argyro Sgourou, Angeliki Vittoraki, Efthymia Theofani, Chryso Pierides, Stavros Taraviras, Paul A Costeas, Alexandros Spyridonidis
BACKGROUND: Major barriers in using classical FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in clinical practice are their low numbers in the circulation, the lack of specific cell surface markers for efficient purification and the loss of expression of Treg signature molecules and suppressive function after in vitro expansion or in a pro-inflammatory microenviroment. A surface molecule with potent immunosuppressive function is the human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G), which is normally expressed in placenta protecting the "semi-allogeneic" fetus from maternal immune attack...
February 2, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160049/prolylcarboxypeptidase-deficiency-is-associated-with-increased-blood-pressure-glomerular-lesions-and-cardiac-dysfunction-independent-of-altered-circulating-and-cardiac-angiotensin-ii
#13
Christoph Maier, Ines Schadock, Philipp K Haber, Jan Wysocki, Minghao Ye, Yashpal Kanwar, Christopher A Flask, Xin Yu, Brian D Hoit, Gregory N Adams, Alvin H Schmaier, Michael Bader, Daniel Batlle
: Prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) is a carboxypeptidase that cleaves angiotensin II (AngII) forming Ang(1-7). The impact of genetic PRCP deficiency on AngII metabolism, blood pressure (BP), kidney histology, and cardiac phenotype was investigated in two lines of PRCP-deficient mice: KST302 derived in C57BL/6 background and GST090 derived in FVB/N background. The GST090 line had increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) (113.7 ± 2.07 vs. WT 105.0 ± 1.23 mmHg; p < 0.01) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (ratio of diastolic left ventricular posterior wall dimension to left ventricular diameter 0...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152107/decellularized-extracellular-matrices-produced-from-immortal-cell-lines-derived-from-different-parts-of-the-placenta-support-primary-mesenchymal-stem-cell-expansion
#14
Gina D Kusuma, Shaun P Brennecke, Andrea J O'Connor, Bill Kalionis, Daniel E Heath
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) exhibit undesired phenotypic changes during ex vivo expansion, limiting production of the large quantities of high quality primary MSCs needed for both basic research and cell therapies. Primary MSCs retain many desired MSC properties including proliferative capacity and differentiation potential when expanded on decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) prepared from primary MSCs. However, the need to use low passage number primary MSCs (passage 3 or lower) to produce the dECM drastically limits the utility and impact of this technology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151729/numerical-simulation-of-microwave-ablation-incorporating-tissue-contraction-based-on-thermal-dose
#15
Dong Liu, Christopher L Brace
Tissue contraction plays an important role during high temperature tumor ablation, particularly during device characterization, treatment planning and imaging follow up. We measured such contraction in 18 ex vivo bovine liver samples during microwave ablation by tracking fiducial motion on CT imaging. Contraction was then described using a thermal dose dependent model and a negative thermal expansion coefficient based on the empirical data. FEM simulations with integrated electromagnetic wave propagation, heat transfer, and structural mechanics were evaluated using temperature-dependent dielectric properties and the negative thermal expansion models...
February 2, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151713/immune-therapies-in-multiple-myeloma
#16
EDITORIAL
Shaji K Kumar, Kenneth C Anderson
Treatment paradigms have changed rapidly for multiple myeloma, and immune therapies have taken center stage. Advances in therapies for myeloma have led to a dramatic improvement in the survival of patients with this incurable malignancy. The immune system is significantly impaired in patients with myeloma as a result of the disease leading to suppression of normal plasma cells as well the negative effects on cellular immunity. Given this scenario, immune approaches have not been successful until recently. Monoclonal antibodies directed against CD38 (daratumumab) and SLAMF7 (elotuzumab) are already in the clinic, and several other antibodies directed against different plasma cell antigens are under evaluation...
November 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148303/variation-in-human-dental-pulp-stem-cell-ageing-profiles-reflect-contrasting-proliferative-and-regenerative-capabilities
#17
Amr Alraies, Nadia Y A Alaidaroos, Rachel J Waddington, Ryan Moseley, Alastair J Sloan
BACKGROUND: Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are increasingly being recognized as a viable cell source for regenerative medicine. Although significant variations in their ex vivo expansion are well-established, DPSC proliferative heterogeneity remains poorly understood, despite such characteristics influencing their regenerative and therapeutic potential. This study assessed clonal human DPSC regenerative potential and the impact of cellular senescence on these responses, to better understand DPSC functional behaviour...
February 2, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146239/combined-pi3k-akt-and-smad2-activation-promotes-corneal-endothelial-cell-proliferation
#18
Alfonso L Sabater, Enrique J Andreu, María García-Guzmán, Tania López, Gloria Abizanda, Victor L Perez, Javier Moreno-Montañés, Felipe Prósper
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a culture method for expansion of corneal endothelial cells (CEC) based on the combined activation of PI3K/Akt and Smad2. Methods: Morphology, proliferation, and migration of cultured rabbit and nonhuman primate CEC were examined in the presence of the PI3K/Akt activators IGF-1 and heregulin beta in combination with the Smad2 activator activin A. Phenotypic characterization of CEC was performed at the RNA and protein levels...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140661/fabrication-and-characterization-of-shape-memory-polymers-based-bioabsorbable-biomedical-drug-eluting-stent
#19
Vratika C Sonawane, Mahesh P More, Abhijeet P Pandey, Pravin O Patil, Prashant K Deshmukh
Present investigation deals with, tacrolimus eluting, self-expandable, biodegradable stent fabricated by solvent casting method. The design was based on shape memory polymers, which possess the ability to memorize temporary shape that can substantially differ from their initial permanent shape. A set of biodegradable polymers blend was used such as poly-lactic acid (PLA) and poly-l-glycolic acid (PLGA) to study the shape memory effect of polymer. The prepared stent was assessed for various parameters like Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), In-vitro and Ex vivo expansion, Drug content, In-vitro drug release, Haemocompatibility, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Textural Characterization...
January 31, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129120/targeting-of-aberrant-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-6-integrin-expression-in-solid-tumors-using-chimeric-antigen-receptor-engineered-t-cells
#20
Lynsey M Whilding, Ana C Parente-Pereira, Tomasz Zabinski, David M Davies, Roseanna M G Petrovic, Y Vincent Kao, Shobhit A Saxena, Alex Romain, Jose A Costa-Guerra, Shelia Violette, Hiroaki Itamochi, Sadaf Ghaem-Maghami, Sabari Vallath, John F Marshall, John Maher
Expression of the αvβ6 integrin is upregulated in several solid tumors. In contrast, physiologic expression of this epithelial-specific integrin is restricted to development and epithelial re-modeling. Here, we describe, for the first time, the development of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that couples the recognition of this integrin to the delivery of potent therapeutic activity in a diverse repertoire of solid tumor models. Highly selective targeting αvβ6 was achieved using a foot and mouth disease virus-derived A20 peptide, coupled to a fused CD28(+)CD3 endodomain...
January 4, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
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