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A E Munt, S R Partridge, M Allman-Farinelli
Young adults in Western countries are gaining weight faster than their parents and are more likely to gain weight than any other age cohort. Despite this, investigation into the complex young adults' food choice motives, which enable and prevent healthy eating, has not been widely investigated. A scoping review was conducted involving an extensive literature search of four major electronic databases: Medline, Embase, PsychInfo and CINAHL. Data were collected from 34 articles: study descriptions numerically analysed and key findings thematically analysed...
October 20, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Paolo Prandoni, Enrico Bernardi, Fabio Dalla Valle, Adriana Visonà, Pietro F Tropeano, Carlo Bova, Eugenio Bucherini, Md Shahidul Islam, Andrea Piccioli
Patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) may harbor occult cancer. Whether an extensive diagnostic work-up for cancer has additional value over a more limited screening for detection of underlying malignancy in these patients is controversial. We performed a randomized multicenter trial to assess if in patients with unprovoked VTE, a computed tomography (CT)-based diagnostic strategy including thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic CT in combination with fecal occult blood test yields a higher cancer detection rate than a nonstandardized testing approach based on physicians' clinical judgment and patients' preferences...
October 20, 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Matt Williams, Peter Treasure, David Greenberg, Andrew Brodbelt, Peter Collins
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that surgeons who perform more operations have better outcomes. However, in patients with brain tumours, all of the evidence comes from the USA. METHODS: We examined all English patients with an intracranial neoplasm who had an intracranial resection in 2008-2010. We included surgeons who performed at least six operations over 3 years, and at least one operation in the first and last 6 months of the period. RESULTS: The analysis data set comprised 9194 operations, 163 consultant neurosurgeons and 30 centres...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Michail Rovatsos, Martina Johnson Pokorná, Marie Altmanová, Lukáš Kratochvíl
Geckos in general show extensive variability in sex determining systems, but only male heterogamety has been demonstrated in the members of their legless family Pygopodidae. In the pioneering study published more than 45 years ago, multiple sex chromosomes of the type X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y were described in Burton's legless lizard (Lialisburtonis) based on conventional cytogenetic techniques. We conducted cytogenetic analyses including comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with selected cytogenetic markers in this species and the previously cytogenetically unstudied Papua snake lizard (Lialis jicari) to better understand the nature of these sex chromosomes and their differentiation...
October 21, 2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Keisuke Nakase, Hidemasa Nakaminami, Yuta Toda, Norihisa Noguchi
Determination of the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and the mutant selection window (MSW) of antimicrobial agents used to treat pathogenic bacteria is important in order to apply effective antimicrobial therapies. Here, we determined the MPCs of the major topical antimicrobial agents against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus which cause skin infections and compared their MSWs. Among the MPCs of nadifloxacin and clindamycin, the clindamycin MPC was determined to be the lowest against P...
October 21, 2016: Chemotherapy
Lori E Lowes, David Goodale, Ying Xia, Carl Postenka, Matthew M Piaseczny, Freeman Paczkowski, Alison L Allan
Metastasis is the cause of most prostate cancer (PCa) deaths and has been associated with circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The presence of ≥5 CTCs/7.5mL of blood is a poor prognosis indicator in metastatic PCa when assessed by the CellSearch® system, the "gold standard" clinical platform. However, ~35% of metastatic PCa patients assessed by CellSearch® have undetectable CTCs. We hypothesize that this is due to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and subsequent loss of necessary CTC detection markers, with important implications for PCa metastasis...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Si Yeol Song, Kyu-Pyo Kim, Seong-Yun Jeong, Jin Park, Jaesook Park, Joohee Jung, Hye Kyung Chung, Sa-Won Lee, Min Hyo Seo, Jung-Shin Lee, Kyung Hae Jung, Eun Kyung Choi
We assessed the efficacy of the polymeric nanoparticle containing docetaxel (PNP-DTX) in preclinical mouse models and determined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) through clinical study. Subcutaneous and orthotopic mouse models were dedicated. Tumor growth delay in orthotopic model and quantification of in vivo imaging in orthotopic model were evaluated. Phase I clinical study was a single-center, prospective, open-label trial in advanced solid tumors. PNP-DTX was injected intravenously and the starting dose was 20 mg/m2 escalated to 35 mg/m2, 45 mg/m2, 60 mg/m2 and 75 mg/m2...
October 14, 2016: Oncotarget
Yang Yang, Jiaomiao Pei, Guozhen Gao, Zheng Yang, Shuzhong Guo, Bo Yue, Jianhua Qiu
We conducted a network meta-analysis in order to compare different strategies for managing melanoma patients. Electronic databases were searched for eligible randomized trials that compared different strategies in efficacy and tolerability. Five interventions were associated with a significant improvement in PFS over chemotherapy (all HR < 1): Ipilimumab, Tremelimumab, Nivolumab, Pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg and Ipilimumab + Nivolumab. Three interventions exhibited significantly improved OS results over chemotherapy (all HR < 1): Ipilimumab, Nivolumab and Ipilimumab + Chemotherapy...
October 13, 2016: Oncotarget
Jenny Ling-Yu Chen, Yu-Sen Huang, Sung-Hsin Kuo, Ruey-Long Hong, Jenq-Yuh Ko, Pei-Jen Lou, Chun-Wei Wang
PURPOSE: To examine the survival outcomes and late toxicity profiles of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) vs. intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: Three hundred and seventy-four patients with newly diagnosed, non-metastatic, NPC who were curatively treated with 3DCRT between 2004 and 2006 and 481 patients treated with IMRT between 2007 and 2009 were analyzed. Patients were categorized as having advanced-stage disease (stage III, IVA, and IVB disease; n = 709) or early-stage disease (stage I and II; n = 146)...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Yuguang Zhao, Lei Yang, Di Wu, Hua He, Mengmeng Wang, Tingwen Ge, Yudi Liu, Huimin Tian, Jiuwei Cui, Lin Jia, Ziqiang Wan, Fujun Han
PURPOSE: We conducted two meta-analyses of ATM genetic polymorphisms and cancer risk in individuals with or without radiation exposure to determine whether there was a joint effect between the ATM gene and radiation exposure in carcinogenesis. RESULTS: rs1801516, which was the only ATM polymorphism investigated by more than 3 studies of radiation exposure, was eligible for the present study. The meta-analysis of 23333 individuals without radiation exposure from 24 studies showed no association between the rs1801516 polymorphism and cancer risk, without heterogeneity across studies...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Kari Branham, Hiroko Matsui, Pooja Biswas, Aditya A Guru, Michael Hicks, John J Suk, He Li, David Jakubosky, Tao Long, Amalio Telenti, Naoki Narai, John R Heckenlively, Kelly A Frazar, Paul A Sieving, Radha Ayyagari
While more than 250 genes are known to cause inherited retinal degenerations (IRD), nearly 40-50% of families have the genetic basis for their disease unknown. In this study we sought to identify the underlying cause of inherited retinal degeneration (IRD) in a family by whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis. Clinical characterization including standard ophthalmic examination, fundus photography, visual field testing, electroretinography, and review of medical and family history was performed. WGS was performed on affected and unaffected family members using Illumina HiSeq X10...
October 7, 2016: Physiological Genomics
Li Bo, Huchuan Cui, Zhengxian Fang, Tao Qun, Caoyun Xia
Resistance to taxol represents a major obstacle for long-term remission in ovarian cancer. Transforming Growth Factor-β-Activated Kinase 1 (TAK1) is a critical component in immune response pathway. However, the role of TAK1 in the development of chemoresistance in ovarian cancer remains unknown. Here, we showed that in vitro, taxol-resistant cells expressed higher TAK1, and the ratio of p-TAK1/TAK1 positively associated with taxol resistance in ovarian cancer cells. Inactivation of TAK1 by inhibitor 5Z-7-oxozeaenol or gene knockdown sensitized taxol cytotoxicity in vitro, promoting cell apoptosis and mitosis arrest...
October 17, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Y Nouma, W Ben Amar, M Zribi, S Bardaa, Z Hammami, S Maatoug
We report a case of a Tunisian footballer who was found dead abroad under suspicious circumstances. The cause of death was, originally, attributed to a lightning strike. The corpse was buried without/autopsy. Over thirty years later, the family requested the exhumation to verify the identity and the cause of death. The exhumation was performed in 2011. DNA profiling from teeth and femur bone samples confirmed the identity of the deceased. The dry bone study revealed defects in the skull and the pelvis evoking firearm injuries...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Amara Krag, Gregory L Holmes
Infantile spasms, one of the catastrophic epilepsies, can be a diagnostic challenge since the clinical manifestations may be subtle and may mimic benign conditions. Because of the rarity of the condition, primary care physicians and pediatricians may never see a case of infantile spasms during their career and may be unfamiliar with the seizure semiology. This is a serious issue since there is evidence that early diagnosis and treatment may improve outcome. Patients and families are increasingly using the internet more than their physician as a source of medical information about epilepsy...
October 17, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Ru-Qian He, Qing-Yi Zeng, Pan Zhu, Yi-Xin Bao, Rong-Yuan Zheng, Hui-Qin Xu
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of a seizure relapse and the high-risk period of recurrence after antiepileptic drug (AED) withdrawal and to determine the predictive factors for a seizure relapse in adult patients with focal epilepsy who were seizure-free for more than 2years. METHODS: Using the Wenzhou Epilepsy Follow-Up Registry Database, 200 adult patients with focal epilepsy were recruited, who were undergoing follow-up, met the inclusion criteria of this study, were seizure-free for more than 2years, began withdrawing between June 2003 and June 2014, and were followed up prospectively for at least 1year or until a seizure relapse...
October 17, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Yongbin Lu, Zhiyuan Cheng, Yaxue Zhao, Xiaoyu Chang, Cynthia Chan, Yana Bai, Ning Cheng
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Our study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-term treatment of statins for coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Efficacy outcomes included changes in blood lipids, risk of CHD mortality and all-cause mortality. Safety outcomes were evaluated by the risk of adverse events (AE). Bayesian network meta-analysis was used to compare the direct and indirect effects between different statins. RESULTS: The systematic review showed that levels of blood lipids decreased during statin treatment...
October 14, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Jillian Lye, Stephanie Parkinson, Nicola Diamond, Jenny Downs, Susan Morris
The strategy used to generate power for forward propulsion in walking and running has recently been highlighted as a marker of gait maturation and elastic energy recycling. This study investigated ankle and hip power generation as a propulsion strategy (PS) during the late stance/early swing phases of walking and running in typically developing (TD) children (15: six to nine years; 17: nine to 13years) using three-dimensional gait analysis. Peak ankle power generation at push-off (peakA2), peak hip power generation in early swing (peakH3) and propulsion strategy (PS) [peakA2/(peakA2+peakH3)] were calculated to provide the relative contribution of ankle power to total propulsion...
October 17, 2016: Human Movement Science
Wubing He, Lihong Chen, Lin Zheng, Liuping Luo, Lingyun Gao
BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs) and regulatory T (Treg) cells are crucial for inducing immune tolerance. However, the suppressive function of infused Treg cells and immature DCs (imDCs) following solid organ transplantation remains unclear. METHODS: ImDCs derived from DA-donor rats and Treg cells isolated from spleens of Lewis rats were prepared. A heterotopic liver transplantation model was established to examine the immune tolerance effects of infusion of Treg-imDCs, imDCs and Treg cells individually...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Sándor Beniczky, Ivana Rosenzweig, Michael Scherg, Todor Jordanov, Benjamin Lanfer, Göran Lantz, Pål Gunnar Larsson
PURPOSE: To determine the agreement between five different methods of ictal EEG source imaging, and to assess their accuracy in presurgical evaluation of patients with focal epilepsy. It was hypothesized that high agreement between methods was associated with higher localization-accuracy. METHODS: EEGs were recorded with a 64-electrode array. Thirty-eight seizures from 22 patients were analyzed using five different methods phase mapping, dipole fitting, CLARA, cortical-CLARA and minimum norm...
October 6, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
D Spasiano, A Siciliano, M Race, R Marotta, M Guida, R Andreozzi, F Pirozzi
Imidazole-based compounds are used as reagents for the manufacturing of other compounds including imidazolium-based ionic liquids, which have been recently proposed as a green alternative to conventional solvents. Since some imidazole-based compounds have been demonstrated to be harmful to aquatic organisms, the removal of imidazole, 1-methylimidazole, 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride and 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride from aqueous solutions was attempted by biological oxidation, direct UV254 photolysis, and UV254/H2O2 process at pH 5...
October 11, 2016: Water Research
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