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Effective osmolarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226736/the-effect-of-major-adverse-renal-cardiovascular-event-marce-incidence-procedure-volume-and-unit-cost-on-the-hospital-savings-resulting-from-contrast-media-use-in-inpatient-angioplasty
#1
Eric Keuffel, Peter A McCullough, Thomas M Todoran, Emmanouil S Brilakis, Swetha R Palli, Michael P Ryan, Candace Gunnarsson
OBJECTIVE: Determine the net economic impact of switching from low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM) to iso-osmolar contrast media (IOCM; iodixanol) in patients undergoing inpatient coronary or peripheral angioplasty in the United States (US). METHODS: A budget impact model (BIM) was developed from a hospital perspective. Nationally representative procedural and contrast media prevalence rates, along with MARCE (major adverse renal cardiovascular event) incidence and episode-related cost data were derived from Premier Hospital Data (October 2014 to September 2015)...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223651/effects-of-the-rigid-gas-permeable-contact-lense-use-on-tear-and-ocular-surface-among-keratoconus-patients
#2
Cansu Yuksel Elgin, Guzin Iskeleli, Ovgu Aydin
PURPOSE: To investigate changes in tear and ocular surface of patients with keratoconus using rigid gas permeable contact lenses (RGPCL) and compare them against keratoconus patients who were not using lenses as well as a control group of healthy subjects. METHODS: 24 keratoconus patients using RGPCL (Group 1) 22 patients who were not using lenses (Group 3) and 21 healthy subjects (Group 3) were included in the study. Subjective complaints about the subjects' eyes have been investigated using the ocular-surface disease index (OSDI)...
December 6, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215563/response-of-ustilago-maydis-against-the-stress-caused-by-three-polycationic-chitin-derivatives
#3
Dario Rafael Olicón-Hernández, Cristina Uribe-Alvarez, Salvador Uribe-Carvajal, Juan Pablo Pardo, Guadalupe Guerra-Sánchez
Chitosan is a stressing molecule that affects the cells walls and plasma membrane of fungi. For chitosan derivatives, the action mode is not clear. In this work, we used the yeast Ustilago maydis to study the effects of these molecules on the plasma membrane, focusing on physiologic and stress responses to chitosan (CH), oligochitosan (OCH), and glycol-chitosan (GCH). Yeasts were cultured with each of these molecules at 1 mg·mL-1 in minimal medium. To compare plasma membrane damage, cells were cultivated in isosmolar medium...
December 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215176/protective-role-of-the-hog-pathway-against-the-growth-defect-caused-by-impaired-biosynthesis-of-complex-sphingolipids-in-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#4
Yutaro Yamaguchi, Yuka Katsuki, Seiya Tanaka, Ryotaro Kawaguchi, Hiroto Denda, Takuma Ikeda, Kouichi Funato, Motohiro Tani
Complex sphingolipids play critical roles in various cellular events in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To identify genes that are related to the growth defect caused by disruption of complex sphingolipid biosynthesis, we screened for suppressor mutations and multicopy suppressor genes that confer resistance against repression of AUR1 encoding inositol phosphorylceramide synthase. From the results of this screening, we found that the activation of high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway is involved in suppression of growth defect caused by impaired biosynthesis of complex sphingolipids...
December 7, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211350/the-angiotensin-ii-receptors-type-1-blockage-affects-the-urinary-bladder-activity-in-hyperosmolar-induced-detrusor-overactivity-in-rats-preliminary-results
#5
Kajetan Juszczak, Piotr Maciukiewicz
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II receptors play a role in the pathogenesis of urinary bladder dysfunction, especially in the case of bladder outlet obstruction. The function of these receptors in the detrusor overactivity (DO) still remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: The study aims to investigate some of the mechanisms through which hyperosmolarity induces urinary bladder overactivity. The effect of angiotensin II receptor type 1 - AT1 (telmisartan) on urinary bladder function in physiological state and in hyperosmolar-induced DO in rat model was explored...
October 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206865/regulation-of-potassium-dependent-atpase-kdp-operon-of-deinococcus-radiodurans
#6
Pratiksha Dani, Aman Kumar Ujaoney, Shree Kumar Apte, Bhakti Basu
The genome of D. radiodurans harbors genes for structural and regulatory proteins of Kdp ATPase, in an operon pattern, on Mega plasmid 1. Organization of its two-component regulatory genes is unique. Here we demonstrate that both, the structural as well as regulatory components of the kdp operon of D. radiodurans are expressed quickly as the cells experience potassium limitation but are not expressed upon increase in osmolarity. The cognate DNA binding response regulator (RR) effects the expression of kdp operon during potassium deficiency through specific interaction with the kdp promoter...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196933/osmolyte-type-and-the-osmolarity-level-affect-chondrogenesis-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#7
Sorour Ahmadyan, Mahboubeh Kabiri, Hana Hanaee-Ahvaz, Ali Farazmand
The inductive effects of increased osmolarity on chondrogenesis are well approved. However, the effects of the osmolyte agent invoked to induce hyperosmolarity are largely neglected. Herein, we scrutinized how hyperosmotic conditions acquired by addition of different osmolytes would impact chondrogenesis. We briefly assessed whether such conditions would differentially affect hypertrophy and angiogenesis during MSC chondrogenesis. Chondrogenic and hypertrophic marker expression along with VEGF secretion during adipose-derived (AD)-MSC chondrogenesis under three osmolarity levels (350, 450, and 550 mOsm) using three different osmolytes (NaCl, sorbitol, and PEG) were assessed...
November 10, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176449/can-appropriate-systemic-treatment-help-protect-the-cornea-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-multidisciplinary-approach-to-autoimmune-ocular-involvement
#8
Manuel J Amador-Patarroyo, Emilio Jalil-Florencia, Oscar Otero-Marquez, Nicolás Molano-Gonzalez, Ruben D Mantilla, Adriana Rojas-Villarraga, Juan-Manuel Anaya, Carmen Barraquer-Coll
PURPOSE: To correlate rheumatologic with ophthalmic and laboratory findings in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to identify what effect these have on development of ocular disease. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 172 eyes of 86 patients with RA. Patients were examined by a group of rheumatologists. Sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected. All patients underwent complete ophthalmologic examination including corneal topography and endothelial cell count...
November 22, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156946/chondroprotection-in-models-of-cartilage-injury-by-raising-the-temperature-and-osmolarity-of-irrigation-solutions
#9
Noha M Eltawil, Saima Ahmed, Luke H Chan, A Hamish R W Simpson, Andrew C Hall
Objectives During arthroscopic or open joint surgery, articular cartilage may be subjected to mechanical insults by accident or design. These may lead to chondrocyte death, cartilage breakdown and posttraumatic osteoarthritis. We have shown that increasing osmolarity of routinely used normal saline protected chondrocytes against injuries that may occur during orthopedic surgery. Often several liters of irrigation fluid are used during an orthopedic procedure, which is usually kept at room temperature, but is sometimes chilled...
January 1, 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125939/regulation-of-microbial-growth-by-turgor-pressure
#10
REVIEW
Enrique R Rojas, Kerwyn Casey Huang
Rapid changes in environmental osmolarity are a natural aspect of microbial lifestyles. The change in turgor pressure resulting from an osmotic shock alters the mechanical forces within the cell envelope, and can impact cell growth across a range of timescales, through a variety of mechanical mechanisms. Here, we first summarize measurements of turgor pressure in various organisms. We then review how the combination of microfluidic flow cells and quantitative image analysis has driven discovery of the diverse ways in which turgor pressure mechanically regulates bacterial growth, independent of the effect of cytoplasmic crowding...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122172/the-c2h2-transcription-factor-vdmsn2-controls-hyphal-growth-microsclerotia-formation-and-virulence-of-verticillium-dahliae
#11
Longyan Tian, Jun Yu, Yonglin Wang, Chengming Tian
Verticillium dahliae is a notorious pathogen that causes vascular wilt disease in numerous plant species worldwide. The fungus produces melanized microsclerotia, which helps it survive adverse environmental conditions that it may encounter within its hosts and in the soil. Previously, we determined that the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway is involved in the environmental stress response of V. dahliae. In this study, we investigated the function of VdMsn2, a homologue of the yeast C2H2 transcription factor Msn2, which is predicted to function as a downstream player in the HOG pathway...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117715/iso-osmolar-contrast-media-and-adverse-renal-and-cardiac-events-after-percutaneous-cardiovascular-intervention
#12
Peter A McCullough, Guy David, Thomas M Todoran, Emmanouil S Brilakis, Michael P Ryan, Candace Gunnarsson
AIM: To assess the relationship between type of contrast media (CM), iso-osmolar contrast media (IOCM) or low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM), and major adverse renal and cardiovascular events (MARCE). MATERIALS & METHODS: Coronary or peripheral angioplasty visits were stratified into CM cohorts: IOCM or LOCM. Multivariable regression analysis used hospital fixed effects to assess the relationship between MARCE events and type of CM. RESULTS: Among 333,533 visits (357 hospitals), the incidence of MARCE was 7...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106544/effects-of-adult-female-rat-androgenization-on-brain-morphology-and-metabolomic-profile
#13
Carmen Perez-Laso, Sebastián Cerdan, Carme Junque, Ángel Gómez, Esperanza Ortega, Mireia Mora, Carlos Avendaño, Esther Gómez-Gil, María Cruz Rodríguez Del Cerro, Antonio Guillamon
Androgenization in adult natal women, as in transsexual men (TM), affects brain cortical thickness and the volume of subcortical structures. In order to understand the mechanism underlying these changes we have developed an adult female rat model of androgenization. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy were used to monitor brain volume changes, white matter microstructure and ex vivo metabolic profiles over 32 days in androgenized and control subjects. Supraphysiological doses of testosterone prevents aging decrease of fractional anisotropy values, decreased general cortical volume and the relative concentrations of glutamine (Gln) and myo-Inositol (mI)...
July 6, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101191/tinkering-with-osmotically-controlled-transcription-allows-enhanced-production-and-excretion-of-ectoine-and-hydroxyectoine-from-a-microbial-cell-factory
#14
Laura Czech, Sebastian Poehl, Philipp Hub, Nadine Stoeveken, Erhard Bremer
Ectoine and hydroxyectoine are widely synthesized by members of the Bacteria and a few Archaea as potent osmostress protectants. We have studied the salient features of the osmostress-responsive promoter directing the transcription of the ectoine/hydroxyectoine biosynthetic gene cluster from the plant-roots-associated bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri by transferring it into Escherichia coli, an enterobacterium that does not produce ectoines naturally. Using ect-lacZ reporter fusions, we found that the heterologous ect promoter reacted with exquisite sensitivity in its transcriptional profile to graded increases in sustained high salinity, responded to a true osmotic signal, and required the build-up of an osmotically effective gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane for its induction...
November 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079824/wrky43-regulates-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-content-and-seed-germination-under-unfavourable-growth-conditions
#15
Katja Geilen, Mareike Heilmann, Stefan Hillmer, Maik Böhmer
Seed germination and postgerminative growth of Arabidopsis thaliana and various other plant species are arrested in response to unfavourable environmental conditions by signalling events involving the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). In this study, we showed that loss of the seed-specific WRKY DNA-BINDING PROTEIN 43 (WRKY43) conferred increased tolerance towards high salt, high osmolarity and low temperature during seed germination in Arabidopsis. The wrky43 loss of function lines displayed increased inhibition of seed germination in response to exogenous ABA; whereas lines overexpressing WRKY43 were more tolerant towards exogenous ABA...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078721/the-role-of-osmolarity-adjusting-agents-in-the-regulation-of-encapsulated-cell-behavior-to-provide-a-safer-and-more-predictable-delivery-of-therapeutics
#16
Ainhoa Gonzalez-Pujana, Aitor Rementeria, Francisco Javier Blanco, Manoli Igartua, Jose Luis Pedraz, Edorta Santos-Vizcaino, Rosa Maria Hernandez
Transplantation of cells within alginate microspheres has been extensively studied for sustained drug delivery. However, the lack of control over cell behavior represents a major concern regarding the efficacy and the safety of the therapy. Here, we demonstrated that when formulating the biosystem, an adequate selection of osmolarity adjusting agents significantly contributes to the regulation of cell responses. Our data showed that these agents interact in the capsule formation process, influencing the alginate crosslinking degree...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994806/solubility-of-hydrophobic-compounds-in-aqueous-solution-using-combinations-of-self-assembling-peptide-and-amino-acid
#17
Shaun Pacheco, Shan-Yu Fung, Mingyao Liu
Self-assembling peptides (SAPs) are promising vehicles for the delivery of hydrophobic therapeutics for clinical applications; their amphipathic properties allow them to dissolve hydrophobic compounds in the aqueous environment of the human body. However, self-assembling peptide solutions have poor blood compatibility (e.g., low osmolarity), hindering their clinical application through intravenous administrations. We have recently developed a generalized platform for hydrophobic drug delivery, which combines SAPs with amino acid solutions (SAP-AA) to enhance drug solubility and increase formulation osmolarity to reach the requirements for clinical uses...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986196/effect-of-composition-of-simulated-intestinal-media-on-the-solubility-of-poorly-soluble-compounds-investigated-by-design-of-experiments
#18
Cecilie Maria Madsen, Kung-I Feng, Andrew Leithead, Nicole Canfield, Søren Astrup Jørgensen, Anette Müllertz, Thomas Rades
The composition of the human intestinal fluids varies both intra- and inter-individually. This will influence the solubility of orally administered drug compounds, and hence, the absorption and efficacy of compounds displaying solubility limited absorption. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) composition on the solubility of poorly soluble compounds. Using a Design of Experiments (DoE) approach, a set of 24 SIF was defined within the known compositions of human fasted state intestinal fluid...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980568/-peripheral-corneal-cross-linking-p-cxl-for-ultrathin-corneas-with-severe-keratoconus-a-new-technique
#19
M Abbondanza, V De Felice, G Abbondanza
Corneal cross-linking (CXL) is aimed at halting the progression of keratoconus and is widely considered to be the golden standard in its treatment. It is usually contraindicated, however, in patients with corneal thickness of less than 400 µm, leaving the ophthalmic surgeon no option, but to perform transepithelial CXL (epi-on), usually regarded as less effective. We report a novel approach for ultrathin corneas with severe keratoconus - peripheral corneal cross-linking (P-CXL), in which corneal epithelium is still removed but the apex of the cornea is left untouched...
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971631/intravitreal-ziv-aflibercept-clinical-effects-and-economic-impact
#20
Sumit Randhir Singh, Avantika Dogra, Michael Stewart, Taraprasad Das, Jay Chhablani
During the past decade, drugs that inhibit the actions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have become standard-of-care treatment for a variety of chorioretinal vascular conditions. The off-label, intravitreal use of ziv-aflibercept (Zaltrap) has provided clinicians with an additional cost-effective drug. The commercial preparation of ziv-aflibercept contains the same aflibercept (VEGF-trap) molecule as Eylea but has a much higher osmolarity (1000 mOsm/kg vs 300 mOsm/kg). Initial concerns regarding cytotoxicity and long-term safety of intravitreal ziv-aflibercept have been largely negated after a series of publications failed to identify adverse ocular and systemic side effects...
October 3, 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
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