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Effective osmolarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809582/iodixanol-versus-iopromide-at-coronary-ct-angiography-lumen-opacification-and-effect-on-heart-rhythm-the-randomized-isocor-trial
#1
Marisa M Lubbers, Marc Kock, André Niezen, Tjebbe Galema, Marcel Kofflard, Tobias Bruning, Henriette S Kooij, Hanneke van Valen, Marcel Dijkshoorn, Ronald Booij, Anthony Padmos, Alain Vogels, Ricardo P J Budde, Koen Nieman
Purpose To show that equal coronary lumen opacification can be achieved with iso- and low-osmolar contrast media when it is injected at the same iodine delivery rate with contemporary cardiac computed tomographic (CT) protocols and to investigate the cardiovascular effect of iso-osmolar contrast media and the image quality achieved. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained for the Effect of Iso-osmolar Contrast Medium on Coronary Opacification and Heart Rhythm in Coronary CT Angiography, or IsoCOR, trial...
August 15, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809443/characterisation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-valproic-acid-loaded-nanoemulsion-for-improved-brain-bioavailability
#2
Suk Fei Tan, Brian P Kirby, Johnson Stanslas, Hamidon Bin Basri
OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to investigate the potential of formulated valproic acid-encapsulated nanoemulsion (VANE) to improve the brain bioavailability of valproic acid (VPA). METHODS: Valproic acid-encapsulated nanoemulsions were formulated and physically characterised (osmolarity, viscosity, drug content, drug encapsulation efficiency). Further investigations were also conducted to estimate the drug release, cytotoxic profile, in-vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, pharmacokinetic parameter and the concentration of VPA and VANE in blood and brain...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806208/systemic-hypotension-following-intravenous-administration-of-nonionic-contrast-medium-during-computed-tomography-iopromide-versus-iodixanol
#3
Gerlig Widmann, Reto Bale, Hanno Ulmer, Daniel Putzer, Peter Schullian, Franz-Josef Wiedermann, Wolfgang Lederer
BACKGROUND: In light of the increasing number of radiologic interventions performed under general anesthesia, the effects of contrast media (CM) on circulation and organ perfusion are of paramount importance. The objectives of this study were to systematically quantify effects on blood pressure, heart rate, and kidney function following intravenous administration of nonionic CM with normal and low osmolality. METHODS: In this controlled, double-blinded phase IV clinical trial, 40 consecutive patients were randomly assigned to receive repeated measures of either low-osmolar iopromide or iso-osmolar iodixanol...
August 10, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797224/the-adaptive-landscape-of-wildtype-and-glycosylation-deficient-populations-of-the-industrial-yeast-pichia-pastoris
#4
Josef W Moser, Iain B H Wilson, Martin Dragosits
BACKGROUND: The effects of long-term environmental adaptation and the implications of major cellular malfunctions are still poorly understood for non-model but biotechnologically relevant species. In this study we performed a large-scale laboratory evolution experiment with 48 populations of the yeast Pichia pastoris in order to establish a general adaptive landscape upon long-term selection in several glucose-based growth environments. As a model for a cellular malfunction the implications of OCH1 mannosyltransferase knockout-mediated glycosylation-deficiency were analyzed...
August 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782653/a-maximal-incremental-effort-alters-tear-osmolarity-depending-on-the-fitness-level-in-military-helicopter-pilots
#5
Jesús Vera Vilchez, Raimundo Jimenez, Iker Madinabeitia, Nerijus Masiulis, David Cárdenas
PURPOSE: Fitness level modulates the physiological responses to exercise for a variety of indices. While intense bouts of exercise have been demonstrated to increase tear osmolarity (Tosm), it is not known if fitness level can affect the Tosm response to acute exercise. This study aims to compare the effect of a maximal incremental test on Tosm between trained and untrained military helicopter pilots. METHODS: Nineteen military helicopter pilots (ten trained and nine untrained) performed a maximal incremental test on a treadmill...
August 4, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771380/antioxidant-and-osmoprotecting-activity-of-taurine-in-dry-eye-models
#6
Claudio Bucolo, Annamaria Fidilio, Chiara Bianca Maria Platania, Federica Geraci, Francesca Lazzara, Filippo Drago
PURPOSE: To assess the protective effects of ophthalmic formulations based on taurine (TAU) and sodium hyaluronate (SH) in ocular surface. METHODS: Rabbit corneal epithelial cells [Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea (SIRC)] were subjected to oxidative stress (1 mM H2O2) and treated with the following formulations: 0.2% SH, 0.4% SH, 0.4% SH +0.5% TAU. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated by commercial kit. Dry eye was induced by atropine sulfate and topical treatment was carried out with the following formulations: 0...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767637/osmotic-pressure-alters-time-dependent-recovery-behavior-of-the-intervertebral-disc
#7
Semih E Bezci, Grace D O'Connell
STUDY DESIGN: Disc recovery behavior under hypo- and hyper-osmotic pressure OBJECTIVE.: To evaluate the effect of osmotic pressure on the unloaded recovery response of healthy discs SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: The intervertebral disc is a poroviscoelastic material that experiences large fluctuations in water composition throughout a diurnal loading cycle. Fluid flow out of the disc occurs through mechanical loading, while fluid flow into the disc occurs through passive diffusion due to an imbalance of ions between the disc and its surrounding environment...
August 1, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730896/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-potential-mechanisms-for-the-benefit-of-capsaicin-and-hot-water-hydrotherapy-in-treatment
#8
John R Richards, Jeff M Lapoint, Guillermo Burillo-Putze
INTRODUCTION: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is a clinical disorder that has become more prevalent with increasing use of cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids, and which is difficult to treat. Standard antiemetics commonly fail to alleviate the severe nausea and vomiting characteristic of the syndrome. Curiously, cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome patients often report dramatic relief of symptoms with hot showers and baths, and topical capsaicin. OBJECTIVES: In this review, we detail the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of capsaicin and explore possible mechanisms for its beneficial effect, including activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and neurohumoral regulation...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728128/radionuclide-biokinetics-in-the-russian-sturgeon-and-phylogenetic-consistencies-with-cartilaginous-and-bony-marine-fishes
#9
Ross A Jeffree, Scott J Markich, Francois Oberhaensli, Jean-Louis Teyssie
The biokinetics of eight radionuclides ((241)Am, (109)Cd, (134)Cs, (75)Se, (54)Mn, (110m)Ag, (65)Zn, (60)Co) absorbed from the aquatic medium by juvenile Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) were experimentally determined in fresh (0.42‰) and brackish (9.0‰) waters, of a similar salinity range to the Caspian Sea, and in conjunction with chemical speciation modelling. Uptake and loss rate constants were determined for each radionuclide for a 14 day exposure at each salinity and during 28 days of exposure to radionuclide-free conditions...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713335/a-novel-regulatory-cascade-involving-blur-ycgz-and-lon-controls-the-expression-of-escherichia-coli-ompf-porin
#10
Valérie Duval, Kimberly Foster, Jennifer Brewster, Stuart B Levy
In Escherichia coli, OmpF is an important outer membrane protein, which serves as a passive diffusion pore for small compounds including nutrients, antibiotics, and toxic compounds. OmpF expression responds to environmental changes such as temperature, osmolarity, nutrients availability, and toxic compounds via complex regulatory pathways involving transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Our study identified a new regulatory cascade that controls the expression of OmpF porin. This pathway involves BluR, a transcriptional regulator repressing the expression of the ycgZ-ymgABC operon...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694094/intracorneal-melatonin-delivery-using-2-hydroxypropyl-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-ophthalmic-solution-for-granular-corneal-dystrophy-type-2
#11
Jun-Hyun Ahn, Hyun-Do Kim, Sharif-Md Abuzar, Ji-Yeon Lee, Su-Eon Jin, Eung Kweon Kim, Sung-Joo Hwang
Melatonin (MT), an effective antioxidant, has therapeutic implications for granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2) treatment. Eye drop formulations containing cyclodextrins (CDs) were studied with the objective of improving MT solubility, stability, and ocular absorption, while decreasing eye irritation. MT complexes with αCD, βCD, γCD, and 2-hydroxypropyl-βCD (HPβCD) were characterized by phase solubility studies, which demonstrated Higuchi's AL-type phase solubility profiles. The MT/HPβCD complex showed the highest MT solubility (2...
July 8, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682297/wound-biofilm-current-perspectives-and-strategies-on-biofilm-disruption-and-treatments
#12
Robert J Snyder, Greg Bohn, Jason Hanft, Larry Harkless, Paul Kim, Larry Lavery, Greg Schultz, Randy Wolcott
The presence of bio lm remains a challenging factor that contributes to the delayed healing of many chronic wounds. The major threat of chronic wound bio lms is their substantial protection from host immunities and extreme tolerance to antimicrobial agents. To help guide the development of wound treatment strategies, a panel of experts experienced in clinical and laboratory aspects of biofilm convened to discuss what is understood and not yet understood about biofilms and what is needed to better identify and treat chronic wounds in which biofilm is suspected...
June 2017: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673338/sustained-hyperosmolarity-increses-tgf-%C3%A3-1-and-egr-1-expression-in-the-rat-renal-medulla
#13
Miklós M Mózes, Petra Szoleczky, László Rosivall, Gábor Kökény
BACKGROUND: Although TGF-ß and the transcription factor Egr-1 play an important role in both kidney fibrosis and in response to acute changes of renal medullary osmolarity, their role under sustained hypo- or hyperosmolar conditions has not been elucidated. We investigated the effects of chronic hypertonicity and hypotonicity on the renal medullary TGF-ß and Egr-1 expression. METHODS: Male adult Sprague Dawley rats (n = 6/group) were treated with 15 mg/day furosemide, or the rats were water restricted to 15 ml/200 g body weight per day...
July 3, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663708/osmotic-concentration-in-three-races-of-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-l-under-environmental-conditions-of-arid-zone
#14
Hussain Ali, Abdulaziz S Alqarni, Ayman A Owayss, Awad M Hassan, Brian H Smith
Hemolymph osmolarity has great effect on honey bee health, especially in arid and semi-arid zones. It regulates water and nutrients in stressed tissues. Osmotic concentration in three races (Apis mellifera ligustica, A. m. carnica and A. m. jemenitica) of Apis mellifera was tested in central Saudi Arabia during spring and summer seasons in 2015. Newly emerged bee workers were first marked and later their hemolymph was extracted after intervals of 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days. A significant positive correlation between age and osmolarity was found in all three races during spring and summer seasons...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627956/evaluating-the-effects-of-botulinum-toxin-a-on-tear-metrics-in-patients-with-hemifacial-spasm
#15
Yasmin Poustchi Mali, Robert L Schultze, Edward J Wladis
Hemifacial spasm has been previously shown to result in dry eye and ocular surface diseases. This study was performed to assess the impact of chemodenervation with botulinum toxin on clinically-relevant metrics of tears. Tear osmolarity and lipid layer thickness were measured in patients with hemifacial spasm after they achieved relief from hemifacial spasm via botulinum toxin injections. Twelve eyes of 6 patients with hemifacial spasm (2 men and 4 women; mean age 55.5 years) were assessed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and IRB approval...
June 19, 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619721/hagfish-slime-exudate-stabilization-and-its-effect-on-slime-formation-and-functionality
#16
L J Böni, R Zurflüh, M Widmer, P Fischer, E J Windhab, P A Rühs, S Kuster
Hagfish produce vast amounts of slime when under attack. The slime is the most dilute hydrogel known to date, and is a highly interesting material for biomaterial research. It forms from a glandular secrete, called exudate, which deploys upon contact with seawater. To study slime formation ex vivo and to characterize its material properties, stabilization of the sensitive slime exudate is crucial. In this study, we compared the two main stabilization methods, dispersion in high osmolarity citrate/PIPES (CP) buffer and immersion in oil, and tested the influence of time, temperature and pH on the stability of the exudate and functionality of the slime...
July 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614813/polycystic-kidney-disease-and-the-vasopressin-pathway
#17
Maatje D A van Gastel, Vicente E Torres
Vasopressin, also known as arginine vasopressin or antidiuretic hormone, plays a pivotal role in maintaining body homeostasis. Increased vasopressin concentrations, measured by its surrogate copeptin, have been associated with disease severity as well as disease progression in polycystic kidney disease (PKD), and in experimental studies vasopressin has been shown to directly regulate cyst growth. Blocking vasopressin effects on the kidney via the vasopressin V2-receptor and lower circulating vasopressin concentration are potential treatment opportunities that have been the subject of study in PKD in recent years...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606910/na-k-pump-inactivation-subsarcolemmal-na-measurements-and-cytoplasmic-ion-turnover-kinetics-contradict-restricted-na-spaces-in-murine-cardiac-myocytes
#18
Fang-Min Lu, Donald W Hilgemann
Decades ago, it was proposed that Na transport in cardiac myocytes is modulated by large changes in cytoplasmic Na concentration within restricted subsarcolemmal spaces. Here, we probe this hypothesis for Na/K pumps by generating constitutive transsarcolemmal Na flux with the Na channel opener veratridine in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Using 25 mM Na in the patch pipette, pump currents decay strongly during continuous activation by extracellular K (τ, ∼2 s). In contradiction to depletion hypotheses, the decay becomes stronger when pump currents are decreased by hyperpolarization...
July 3, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603715/contrast-induced-nephropathy-in-renal-transplant-recipients-a-single-center-experience
#19
Bassam G Abu Jawdeh, Anthony C Leonard, Yuvraj Sharma, Swapna Katipally, Adele R Shields, Rita R Alloway, E Steve Woodle, Charuhas V Thakar
BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in native kidneys is associated with a significant increase in mortality and morbidity. Data regarding CIN in renal allografts are limited, however. We retrospectively studied CIN in renal allografts at our institution: its incidence, risk factors, and effect on long-term outcomes including allograft loss and death. METHODS: One hundred thirty-five renal transplant recipients undergoing 161 contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans or coronary angiograms (Cath) between years 2000 and 2014 were identified...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595161/non-linear-actions-of-physiological-agents-finite-disarrangements-elicit-fitness-benefits
#20
REVIEW
Filip Sedlic, Zdenko Kovac
Finite disarrangements of important (vital) physiological agents and nutrients can induce plethora of beneficial effects, exceeding mere attenuation of the specific stress. Such response to disrupted homeostasis appears to be universally conserved among species. The underlying mechanism of improved fitness and longevity, when physiological agents act outside their normal range is similar to hormesis, a phenomenon whereby toxins elicit beneficial effects at low doses. Due to similarity with such non-linear response to toxins described with J-shaped curve, we have coined a new term "mirror J-shaped curves" for non-linear response to finite disarrangement of physiological agents...
May 18, 2017: Redox Biology
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