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Effective osmolarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903631/genomics-of-compensatory-adaptation-in-experimental-populations-of-aspergillus-nidulans
#1
Jeremy R Dettman, Nicolas Rodrigue, Sijmen E Schoustra, Rees Kassen
Knowledge of the number and nature of genetic changes responsible for adaptation is essential for understanding and predicting evolutionary trajectories. Here, we study the genomic basis of compensatory adaptation to the fitness cost of fungicide resistance in experimentally evolved strains of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans The original selection experiment tracked the fitness recovery of lines founded by an ancestral strain that was resistant to fludioxonil, but paid a fitness cost in the absence of the fungicide...
November 30, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899518/variable-mr-and-pathologic-patterns-of-hemorrhage-after-iodinated-contrast-infusion-in-mca-occlusion-reperfusion-model
#2
Humberto Morales, Aigang Lu, Yuko Kurosawa, Joseph F Clark, Thomas Tomsick
OBJECTIVE: To examine the hypothesis that IA reperfusion with iso-osmolar iodixanol, low-osmolar iopamidol, or saline causes different effects on MR signal changes and pathologic cut-brain section related to hemorrhagic transformation (HT) or iodinated radiographic contrast media (IRCM) deposition. METHODS: Infarct was induced in 30 rats by middle cerebral artery suture occlusion. Reperfusion was performed after 5 hours with iso-osmolar iodixanol (n=9), low-osmolar iopamidol (n=12) or saline (n=9)...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882134/expression-of-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-in-low-osmolar-contrast-induced-nephropathy-in-rats-and-the-effect-of-n-acetylcysteine
#3
Wen-Hua Li, Lin Wang, Hai-Yan He, Jing Chen, Ya-Ren Yu
Serum creatinine (Scr), which is a conventional indicator of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), is unable to reflect the damage of kidney promptly. The present study aimed to investigate the value of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in kidney and serum of CIN rats to observe whether NGAL can be used as a superior indicator of CIN. Furthermore, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was used to assess its effect on CIN. A total of 120 adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=30/group): CIN rats (CIN), normal rats treated with NAC (NAC), CIN rats treated with NAC (NAC+CIN) and the control group (CON)...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878040/effect-of-contrast-media-on-urinary-cytopathology-specimens
#4
Sebastian Frees, Samir Bidnur, Michael Metcalfe, Peter Raven, Claudia Chavez-Munoz, Igor Moskalev, Ladan Fazli, Alan So
INTRODUCTION: Urological dogma dictates that washings collected from the urinary tract for cytological assessment must be performed without interference from contrast agents that may alter cellular integrity and diagnostic interpretation. In practice, the initial contrast used to outline the upper tracts is commonly discarded with subsequent saline washings sent for cytology. We hypothesize that contrast washings do not affect the morphology of urothelial carcinoma cells or the integrity of cytology interpretation...
August 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872062/fludioxonil-induces-drk1-a-fungal-group-iii-hybrid-histidine-kinase-to-dephosphorylate-its-downstream-target-ypd1
#5
Stephanie M Lawry, Brad Tebbets, Iain Kean, Douglas Stewart, Joel Hetelle, Bruce S Klein
Novel anti-fungal drugs and targets are urgently needed. Group III hybrid histidine kinases (HHKs) represent an appealing new therapeutic drug target because they are widely expressed in fungi but absent in humans. We investigated the mode of action of the widely utilized, effective fungicide fludioxonil. The drug acts in an HHK-dependent manner by constitutive activation of the HOG (high osmolarity glycerol) pathway, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Herein, we report a new mode of drug action that entails conversion of the HHK from a kinase into a phosphatase...
November 21, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861309/pilot-study-of-corneal-sensitivity-and-its-association-in-keratoconus
#6
Preeji S Mandathara, Fiona J Stapleton, Jim Kokkinakis, Mark D P Willcox
PURPOSE: To evaluate corneal sensitivity and its association with other clinical parameters in keratoconus. METHODS: Twenty-four subjects with keratoconus aged between 18 and 65 years were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Ocular symptoms, corneal topography, tear variables such as tear osmolarity, volume and lower tear meniscus height, ocular surface staining, central sensitivity threshold (CST), and corneal subepithelial nerve mapping were obtained. Association between central CST and other clinical variables was examined using the Spearman correlation coefficient...
November 16, 2016: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861262/tear-film-osmolarity-in-response-to-long-term-orthokeratology-treatment
#7
Amelia Nieto-Bona, María Nombela-Palomo, Gema Felipe-Márquez, Miguel A Teus
PURPOSE: To compare tear film osmolarity (TFO) measurements in non-contact lens (CL) wearers and wearers of hydrogel or overnight orthokeratology (OK) CLs, and to assess possible effects of long-term OK on TFO. METHODS: Overall, 108 subjects with moderate myopia participated in 2 experiments, and TFO was measured using the TearLab osmolarity system. In experiment 1, TFO measurements were made in 77 right eyes of 23 non-CL wearers, 26 hydrogel wearers, and 28 OK wearers...
November 16, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845866/a-canola-oil-supplemented-diet-prevents-type-i-diabetes-caused-lipotoxicity-and-renal-dysfunction-in-a-rat-model
#8
Edgar Cano-Europa, Rocio Ortiz-Butron, Estela Melendez Camargo, María Miriam Esteves-Carmona, Rosa Maria Oliart-Ros, Vanessa Blas-Valdivia, Margarita Franco-Colin
We investigated the effect of a canola oil-supplemented diet on the metabolic state and diabetic renal function of a type I diabetes experimental model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) normoglycemic+chow diet, (2) normoglycemic+a canola oil-supplemented chow diet, (3) diabetic+chow diet, and (4) diabetic+a canola oil-supplemented chow diet. For 15 weeks, animals were fed a diet of Purina rat chow alone or supplemented with 30% canola oil. Energetic intake, water intake, body weight, and adipose tissue fat pad were measured; renal function, electrolyte balance, glomerular filtration rate, and the plasmatic concentration of free fatty acids, cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose were evaluated...
November 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821094/outcomes-risk-factors-and-health-burden-of-contrast-induced-acute-kidney-injury-an-observational-study-of-one-million-hospitalizations-with-image-guided-cardiovascular-procedures
#9
Pierre Aubry, Georges Brillet, Laura Catella, Aurélie Schmidt, Stève Bénard
BACKGROUND: Despite the use of low-osmolar contrast media that have significantly reduced the occurrence of severe adverse reactions, contrast-induced (CI) acute kidney injury (AKI) remains the third cause of AKI in hospitals. We sought to estimate the frequency of CI-AKI among hospitalized patients undergoing image-guided cardiovascular procedures, to quantify the effect of risk factors on the development of this complication and to assess relative organizational and economic burden in healthcare...
November 8, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811278/the-effects-of-transdermal-testosterone-and-oestrogen-therapy-on-dry-eye-in-postmenopausal-women-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-pilot-study
#10
Blanka Golebiowski, Noor Badarudin, John Eden, Leanne Gerrand, Jennifer Robinson, Jinzhu Liu, Ulrike Hampel, Jingjing You, Fiona Stapleton
AIMS: Sex hormones could provide a future treatment avenue for dry eye post menopause. However, there are few well-controlled studies. This study investigates the impact of testosterone and oestrogen on dry eye symptoms and signs in postmenopausal women. METHODS: A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted involving 40 women with dry eye (age 63.9±5.1 years, 13.2±6.3 years post menopause). Ten women were assigned to each of four treatment groups: transdermal testosterone, oestradiol, testosterone/oestradiol combination and placebo...
November 3, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800634/the-acute-toxicity-of-major-ion-salts-to-ceriodaphnia-dubia-ii-empirical-relationships-in-binary-salt-mixtures
#11
Russell J Erickson, David R Mount, Terry L Highland, J Russell Hockett, Dale J Hoff, Correne T Jenson, Teresa J Norberg-King, Kira N Peterson
Many human activities increase concentrations of major geochemical ions (Na(+1) , K(+1) , Ca(+2) , Mg(+2) , Cl(-1) , SO4(-2) , and HCO3(-1) /CO3(-2) ) in fresh water systems, and can thereby adversely affect aquatic life. Such effects involve several toxicants, multiple toxicity mechanisms, various ion interactions, and widely varying ion compositions across different waterbodies. Previous studies of individual salt toxicities have defined some useful relationships, but adding single salts to waters results in atypical compositions and does not fully address mixture toxicity...
November 1, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796907/formulation-optimization-characterization-and-pharmacokinetics-of-progesterone-intravenous-lipid-emulsion-for-traumatic-brain-injury-therapy
#12
Jin Zhao, Quan Yuan, WeiHui Cai, Pan Sun, LiYan Ding, Fang Jin
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and disability throughout the world. Progesterone (PROG) plays an important role in neurologic treatment. The aim of this study was to develop a progesterone formulation with good physical and chemical stability. Progesterone intravenous lipid emulsion (PILE) was prepared based on one-factor-at-a-time experiments and orthogonal design. The optimal PILE was evaluated for mean particle size, particle size distribution, zeta potential, morphology, pH, osmolarity, entrapment efficiency, storage stability, and pharmacokinetics in ICR mice compared with the commercial progesterone products...
October 27, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788256/p2y1-receptor-signaling-contributes-to-high-salt-induced-priming-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#13
Philipp Prager, Margrit Hollborn, Anja Steffen, Peter Wiedemann, Leon Kohen, Andreas Bringmann
BACKGROUND: Systemic hypertension is a risk factor of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a chronic inflammatory disease. Acute hypertension is caused by increased extracellular osmolarity after intake of dietary salt (NaCl). We determined in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells whether high extracellular NaCl alters the gene expression of inflammasome-associated proteins, and whether autocrine/paracrine purinergic (P2) receptor signaling contributes to the NaCl-induced NLRP3 gene expression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765342/systematic-review-and-meta-analyses-of-the-effect-of%C3%A2-lipid-emulsion-on-microbial-growth-in-parenteral-nutrition
#14
REVIEW
P D Austin, K S Hand, M Elia
BACKGROUND: As lipid in parenteral nutrition (PN) purportedly enhances microbial growth, recommendations limit infusion of lipid PN (or lipid emulsion) from a single container to 24h (48h for lipid-free PN). However, the associated evidence base is ambiguous. AIM: To examine factors affecting microbial growth in PN. METHODS: A systematic review with meta-analyses examined effects of nutrients on microbial growth in PN infusates over a 48-h period using the growth ratio {GR=log10[colony-forming units (cfu)/mL at 48h/cfu/mL at time zero]}...
December 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748714/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-gadolinium-based-contrast-agent-immediate-reactions
#15
James R Costello, Bobby Kalb, Diego R Martin
Since their clinical introduction in 1988, gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have demonstrated an excellent safety profile with a reported acute adverse reaction rate ranging from 0.01% to 2%. By comparison, the acute adverse reaction rate of low osmolar nonionic computed tomography contrast agents (CTCs) ranges from 0.7% to 3.1%. Many of the risk factors associated with CTC reactions (drug allergies, asthma, atopy, prior contrast reaction) also point toward an increased incidence of acute adverse events to GBCAs...
December 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739821/unified-model-of-brain-tissue-microstructure-dynamically-binds-diffusion-and-osmosis-with-extracellular-space-geometry
#16
Mohsen Yousefnezhad, Morteza Fotouhi, Kaveh Vejdani, Padideh Kamali-Zare
We present a universal model of brain tissue microstructure that dynamically links osmosis and diffusion with geometrical parameters of brain extracellular space (ECS). Our model robustly describes and predicts the nonlinear time dependency of tortuosity (λ=sqrt[D/D^{*}]) changes with very high precision in various media with uniform and nonuniform osmolarity distribution, as demonstrated by previously published experimental data (D = free diffusion coefficient, D^{*} = effective diffusion coefficient). To construct this model, we first developed a multiscale technique for computationally effective modeling of osmolarity in the brain tissue...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663039/low-osmolar-diet-and-adjusted-water-intake-for-vasopressin-reduction-in-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-a%C3%A2-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Osama W Amro, Jessica K Paulus, Farzad Noubary, Ronald D Perrone
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) affects millions of people worldwide. Vasopressin promotes disease progression. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial with equal (1:1) allocation. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: This trial examined the effect of combining a low-osmolar (low-sodium [1,500mg/d], low-protein [0.8g per kilogram of body weight]) diet and adjusted water intake on vasopressin secretion in 34 patients with ADPKD...
December 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648932/varied-incidence-of-immediate-adverse-reactions-to-low-osmolar-non-ionic-iodide-radiocontrast-media-used-in-computed-tomography
#18
S R Kim, J H Lee, K H Park, H J Park, J W Park
BACKGROUND: Low-osmolar non-ionic radiocontrast media (RCMs) are commonly used throughout hospitals. However, the incidence of immediate adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to various low-osmolar non-ionic RCMs is not well studied. We compared the incidence of immediate ADRs among different low-osmolar non-ionic RCMs used in computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Severance Hospital has collected data for adverse reactions occurring in-hospital using an internally developed system...
September 20, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641535/response-to-comment-on-the-effects-of-hemodialysis-on-tear-osmolarity
#19
COMMENT
Muhittin Taskapili, Kubra Serefoglu Cabuk, Rukiye Aydin, Kursat Atalay, Ahmet Kirgiz, Dede Sit, Hasan Kayabasi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633335/chromatin-decondensation-is-accompanied-by-a-transient-increase-in-transcriptional-output
#20
Viola Vaňková Hausnerová, Christian Lanctôt
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The levels of chromatin condensation usually correlate inversely with the levels of transcription. The mechanistic links between chromatin condensation and RNA polymerase II activity remain to be elucidated. In the present work, we sought to experimentally determine whether manipulation of chromatin condensation levels can have a direct effect on transcriptional activity. RESULTS: We generated a U-2-OS cell line in which the nascent transcription of a reporter gene could be imaged alongside chromatin compaction levels in living cells...
September 16, 2016: Biology of the Cell
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