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Effective osmolarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994806/solubility-of-hydrophobic-compounds-in-aqueous-solution-using-combinations-of-self-assembling-peptide-and-amino-acid
#1
Shaun Pacheco, Shan-Yu Fung, Mingyao Liu
Self-assembling peptides (SAPs) are promising vehicles for the delivery of hydrophobic therapeutics for clinical applications; their amphipathic properties allow them to dissolve hydrophobic compounds in the aqueous environment of the human body. However, self-assembling peptide solutions have poor blood compatibility (e.g., low osmolarity), hindering their clinical application through intravenous administrations. We have recently developed a generalized platform for hydrophobic drug delivery, which combines SAPs with amino acid solutions (SAP-AA) to enhance drug solubility and increase formulation osmolarity to reach the requirements for clinical uses...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986196/effect-of-composition-of-simulated-intestinal-media-on-the-solubility-of-poorly-soluble-compounds-investigated-by-design-of-experiments
#2
Cecilie Maria Madsen, Kung-I Feng, Andrew Leithead, Nicole Canfield, Søren Astrup Jørgensen, Anette Müllertz, Thomas Rades
The composition of the human intestinal fluids varies both intra- and inter-individually. This will influence the solubility of orally administered drug compounds, and hence, the absorption and efficacy of compounds displaying solubility limited absorption. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) composition on the solubility of poorly soluble compounds. Using a Design of Experiments (DoE) approach, a set of 24 SIF was defined within the known compositions of human fasted state intestinal fluid...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980568/-peripheral-corneal-cross-linking-p-cxl-for-ultrathin-corneas-with-severe-keratoconus-a-new-technique
#3
M Abbondanza, V De Felice, G Abbondanza
Corneal cross-linking (CXL) is aimed at halting the progression of keratoconus and is widely considered to be the golden standard in its treatment. It is usually contraindicated, however, in patients with corneal thickness of less than 400 µm, leaving the ophthalmic surgeon no option, but to perform transepithelial CXL (epi-on), usually regarded as less effective. We report a novel approach for ultrathin corneas with severe keratoconus - peripheral corneal cross-linking (P-CXL), in which corneal epithelium is still removed but the apex of the cornea is left untouched...
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971631/intravitreal-ziv-aflibercept-clinical-effects-and-economic-impact
#4
Sumit Randhir Singh, Avantika Dogra, Michael Stewart, Taraprasad Das, Jay Chhablani
During the past decade, drugs that inhibit the actions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have become standard-of-care treatment for a variety of chorioretinal vascular conditions. The off-label, intravitreal use of ziv-aflibercept (Zaltrap) has provided clinicians with an additional cost-effective drug. The commercial preparation of ziv-aflibercept contains the same aflibercept (VEGF-trap) molecule as Eylea but has a much higher osmolarity (1000 mOsm/kg vs 300 mOsm/kg). Initial concerns regarding cytotoxicity and long-term safety of intravitreal ziv-aflibercept have been largely negated after a series of publications failed to identify adverse ocular and systemic side effects...
October 3, 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964684/comparison-of-the-influence-of-corneo-scleral-and-scleral-lenses-on-ocular-surface-and-tear-film-metrics-in-a-presbyopic-population
#5
Edouard Lafosse, Daniel Monsálvez Romín, José-Juan Esteve-Taboada, James S Wolffsohn, Cristian Talens-Estarelles, Santiago García-Lázaro
PURPOSE: To assess and compare the effect of the corneo-scleral lenses (C-ScL) and scleral lenses (ScL) on tear film parameters and central corneal thickness (CCT) in healthy presbyopic subjects. METHODS: Thirty subjects wore two contact lenses (CLs), randomly assigned, of neutral power, but of different diameters, 12.7mm (C-ScL) and 18mm (ScL) and being equal in the others parameters: material (HS100) and centre thickness (0.29mm). At baseline, 20min after insertion and at 8h, the tear meniscus area (TMA) and CCT was measured (with optical coherence tomography) as well as tear osmolarity...
September 27, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964459/current-radiographic-iodinated-contrast-agents
#6
REVIEW
Maria Vittoria Spampinato, Ahad Abid, Maria Gisele Matheus
Millions of radiologic examinations requiring the use of iodinated contrast are performed yearly in North America. Triiodobenzoic acid, the contrast agent molecule currently in use, is a benzene ring covalently bonded to the 3 iodine atoms. Iodinated contrast media can be divided in 4 categories: ionic monomers, ionic dimers, nonionic monomer, and nonionic dimers. Currently, second- and third-generation nonionic low-osmolar and iso-osmolar contrast media are used in clinical practice. The search for a safer and more effective iodinated contrast agents remains an ongoing challenge and important research topic...
November 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962936/hypotonicity-promotes-epithelial-gap-closure-by-lamellipodial-protrusion
#7
REVIEW
T Chen, H Zhao, L Gao, L Song, F Yang, J Du
The closure of gaps within epithelia is an essential part of many physiological and pathological processes, such as embryonic development, organ remodeling and wound healing. Emerging evidence proved that the physical microenvironment plays important roles in cell behaviors. However, the effect of osmolarity of extracellular medium on gap closure is least understood. Using a gap closure model of epithelial cells, we found that hypotonic condition significantly facilitated the process of gap closure. Moreover, instead of actomyosin ring, enhanced migration leading by lamellipodia primarily contributed to the rapid gap closure in hypotonic condition...
September 26, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952256/-physical-fingerprint-for-quality-control-of-reduning-injection
#8
Rui-Si Wu, Tao Liu, Pan-Pan Qin, Ling Yong, Qiang Kou, Yan Zheng
The method of physical fingerprint spectrum for Reduning injection (RI) was proposed in this paper to improve its quality standards based on the strong correlation between physicochemical properties of drugs, their safety, effectiveness and stability. The quality of RI was studied by the thought and method of physical chemistry. The physical fingerprint spectrum was visually showed by the radar map, and consisted of eight indexes (pH, conductivity, turbidity, refractive index, osmolarity, surface tension, relative density, and kinematic viscosity)...
February 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939039/hyperosmolarity-evokes-histamine-release-from-ileum-mucosa-by-stimulating-a-cholinergic-pathway
#9
Banqin Wang, Ning An, Abdul Sami Shaikh, Haoyi Wang, Ling Xiao, Hongwei Liu, Jingxin Li, Dongbo Zhao
Changes in extracellular osmolarity lead to alteration in cellular volume. In the study, we examined the effects of hyperosmolarity on short-circuit currents (Isc) in the rat ileum using the Ussing chamber technique. Mucosal exposure to 20 mM glucose evoked a decrease of ISC in the rat ileum, which was antagonized by the stretch-activated channel blocker GdCl3, TTX and atropine, respectively. In contrast, it was not blocked by phlorizin, a Na(+)-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 inhibitor. Furthermore, the unabsorbed substances, such as sucrose, lactulose or urea, also induced a decrease of ISC in rat ileum...
November 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937831/impact-of-smoking-on-the-ocular-surface-tear-function-and-tear-osmolarity
#10
Serdar Aktaş, Mehmet Tetikoğlu, Ahmet Koçak, Metin Kocacan, Hatice Aktaş, Hacı Murat Sağdık, Fatih Özcura
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effects of cigarette smoking on the ocular surface, tear function, and tear osmolarity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 50 smokers with at least 5 years of heavy smoking (defined as 1 pack/day) and 51 nonsmoking, healthy individuals were enrolled. Tear osmolarity was measured with an osmometer (TearLab(™) Osmolarity System). Ocular surface examinations involved corneal fluorescein staining, measurement of the tear film breakup time (TBUT), the Schirmer 1 test, measurement of corneal sensitivity with a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer, and conjunctival impression cytology...
September 22, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928059/garlic-extract-increases-non-clipped-kidney-tubular-natriuresis-and-diuresis-in-the-2-kidney-1-clip-rat-model-significance-in-hypertension
#11
Khaled K Al-Qattan, Martha Thomson, Muslim Ali
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II (AngII) is a potent modulator of vascular tone and renal clearance function. Raw garlic aqueous extract (RGAE) inhibits angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) dipeptidase activity and therefore AngII generation in the 2-kidney, 1-clip rat model (2K-1Cr). OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of RGAE on the non-clipped kidney clearance function and blood pressure (BP) in the 2 K-1Cr. METHOD: 2K-1Cr were anesthetized, cannulated and instrumentalized and the acute effect during the first hour post-administration of a single intravenous dose of RGAE (30mg/100gb...
September 12, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914421/acid-base-safety-during-the-course-of-a-very-low-calorie-ketogenic-diet
#12
Diego Gomez-Arbelaez, Ana B Crujeiras, Ana I Castro, Albert Goday, Antonio Mas-Lorenzo, Ana Bellon, Cristina Tejera, Diego Bellido, Cristobal Galban, Ignacio Sajoux, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, Felipe F Casanueva
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK) diets have been consistently shown to be an effective obesity treatment, but the current evidence for its acid-base safety is limited. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the acid-base status of obese patients during the course of a VLCK diet. METHOD: Twenty obese participants undertook a VLCK diet for 4 months. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, and venous blood gases were obtained on four subsequent visits: visit C-1 (baseline); visit C-2, (1-2 months); maximum ketosis; visit C-3 (2-3 months), ketosis declining; and visit C-4 at 4 months, no ketosis...
September 15, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890616/clinical-and-practical-implications-of-storage-media-used-for-tooth-avulsion
#13
REVIEW
Vineet Is Khinda, Gurpreet Kaur, Gurlal S Brar, Shiminder Kallar, Heena Khurana
Replantation is being widely accepted as an effective treatment option for an avulsed tooth. However, the long-term fate of replanted teeth is unpredictable; it is dependent on various factors, such as the time interval between avulsion and replantation, extra-alveolar storage period (dry storage or storage media), the vitality status of pulp or periodontal tissues and the type and period of splinting. The appropriate use of storage media is an important clinical factor affecting the postoperative prognosis of avulsed teeth following replantation...
April 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888166/sub-lethal-effects-of-waterborne-exposure-to-copper-nanoparticles-compared-to-copper-sulphate-on-the-shore-crab-carcinus-maenas
#14
Lisa M Rossbach, Benjamin J Shaw, Dawid Piegza, William F Vevers, Andrew J Atfield, Richard D Handy
The toxicity of soluble copper (Cu) to marine organisms is reasonably well described. However, the hazard of Cu engineered nanomaterial (ENMs) is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to compare the toxicity of Cu ENMs to Cu as CuSO4 in the shore crab, Carcinus maenas. The crabs were exposed via the water using a semi-static approach to 0.2 or 1mgL(-1) of Cu ENMs or 1mgL(-1) of Cu as CuSO4. Gills, hepatopancreas, chela muscle and haemolymph were collected at days 0, 4 and 7 for the body burden of Cu, histology and biochemical analysis [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total glutathione (GSH)]...
August 10, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876961/vitamin-d-replacement-improves-tear-osmolarity-in-patients-with-vitamin-d-deficiency
#15
Muhammed Kizilgul, Seyfullah Kan, Ozgur Ozcelik, Selvihan Beysel, Mahmut Apaydin, Bekir Ucan, Erman Cakal
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is a common health problem worldwide. Many parts of the human eye, including the epithelium of the cornea, lens, ciliary body, and retinal pigment epithelium, as well as the corneal endothelium, ganglion cell layer, and retinal photoreceptors, contain vitamin D receptor (VDR). Dry eye is also a common health problem. An adequate tear film is required for maintaining health and function of the eye. Tear hyperosmolarity is considered to be the cause of ocular surface inflammation, symptoms, and tissue damage...
September 6, 2017: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853743/evaluation-and-review-of-body-fluids-saliva-sweat-and-tear-compared-to-biochemical-hydration-assessment-markers-within-blood-and-urine
#16
REVIEW
M Villiger, R Stoop, T Vetsch, E Hohenauer, M Pini, P Clarys, F Pereira, R Clijsen
Evaluating and testing hydration status is increasingly requested by rehabilitation, sport, military and performance-related activities. Besides commonly used biochemical hydration assessment markers within blood and urine, which have their advantages and limitations in collection and evaluating hydration status, there are other potential markers present within saliva, sweat or tear. This literature review focuses on body fluids saliva, sweat and tear compared to blood and urine regarding practicality and hydration status influenced by fluid restriction and/or physical activity...
August 30, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851933/intravenous-fluid-challenge-decreases-intracellular-volume-a-bioimpedance-spectroscopy-based-crossover-study-in-healthy-volunteers
#17
Matthäus Ernstbrunner, Barbara Kabon, Oliver Zotti, Markus Zeitlinger, Carolin Berner, Georg Hinterholzer, Marcus Säemann, Florian Frommlet, Edith Fleischmann, Manfred Hecking
The effects of intravenous fluid therapy on fluid compartments and hemodynamics of the human body remain enigmatic. We therefore tested the efficacy of bioimpedance spectroscopy in a crossover study, where 15 males received 0.5 ml/kg/min ELO-MEL-isoton (osmolarity = 302 mosmol/l) during 60 minutes, or nothing at all. In group "Fluid", fluid load increased from -0.2 ± 1.0 l extracellular volume at baseline to its maximum of 1.0 ± 0.9 l in minute 70, and remained continuously elevated throughout minute 300...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842881/tethered-particle-motion-analysis-of-the-dna-binding-properties-of-architectural-proteins
#18
Ramon A van der Valk, Niels Laurens, Remus T Dame
Architectural DNA binding proteins are key to the organization and compaction of genomic DNA inside cells. Tethered Particle Motion (TPM) permits analysis of DNA conformation and detection of changes in conformation induced by such proteins at the single molecule level in vitro. As many individual protein-DNA complexes can be investigated in parallel, these experiments have high throughput. TPM is therefore well suited for characterization of the effects of protein-DNA stoichiometry and changes in physicochemical conditions (pH, osmolarity, and temperature)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809582/iodixanol-versus-iopromide-at-coronary-ct-angiography-lumen-opacification-and-effect-on-heart-rhythm-the-randomized-isocor-trial
#19
Marisa M Lubbers, Marc Kock, André Niezen, Tjebbe Galema, Marcel Kofflard, Tobias Bruning, Henriette S Kooij, Hanneke van Valen, Marcel Dijkshoorn, Ronald Booij, Anthony Padmos, Alain Vogels, Ricardo P J Budde, Koen Nieman
Purpose To show that equal coronary lumen opacification can be achieved with iso- and low-osmolar contrast media when it is injected at the same iodine delivery rate with contemporary cardiac computed tomographic (CT) protocols and to investigate the cardiovascular effect of iso-osmolar contrast media and the image quality achieved. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained for the Effect of Iso-osmolar Contrast Medium on Coronary Opacification and Heart Rhythm in Coronary CT Angiography, or IsoCOR, trial...
August 15, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809443/characterisation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-valproic-acid-loaded-nanoemulsion-for-improved-brain-bioavailability
#20
Suk Fei Tan, Brian P Kirby, Johnson Stanslas, Hamidon Bin Basri
OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to investigate the potential of formulated valproic acid-encapsulated nanoemulsion (VANE) to improve the brain bioavailability of valproic acid (VPA). METHODS: Valproic acid-encapsulated nanoemulsions were formulated and physically characterised (osmolarity, viscosity, drug content, drug encapsulation efficiency). Further investigations were also conducted to estimate the drug release, cytotoxic profile, in-vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, pharmacokinetic parameter and the concentration of VPA and VANE in blood and brain...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
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