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Effective osmolarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648981/glibenclamide-produces-region-dependent-effects-on-cerebral-edema-in-a-combined-injury-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-and-hemorrhagic-shock-in-mice
#1
Ruchira Jha, Bradley J Molyneaux, Travis C Jackson, Jessica Wallisch, Seo-Young Park, Samuel M Poloyac, Vincent A Vagni, Keri L Janesko-Feldman, Keito Hoshitsuki, Margaret Beth Minnigh, Patrick M Kochanek
Cerebral edema is critical to morbidity/mortality in TBI and is worsened by hypotension. Glibenclamide may reduce cerebral edema by inhibiting sulfonylurea receptor-1 (Sur1); its effect on diffuse cerebral edema exacerbated by hypotension/resuscitation is unknown. We aimed to determine if glibenclamide improves pericontusional and/or diffuse edema in controlled cortical impact (CCI, 5m/s, 1 mm-depth)+hemorrhagic shock (HS, 35 minutes), and compare its effects in CCI alone. C57/BL6 mice were divided into 5 groups (n=10/group): naïve, CCI+vehicle, CCI+glibenclamide, CCI+HS+vehicle, and CCI+HS+glibenclamide...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600506/prediabetes-directly-deteriorates-into-diabetic-ketoacidosis-and-hyperosmolar-hyperglycemic-syndrome-triggered-by-acute-pancreatitis-a-case-report-illustrating-a-chicken-and-egg-paradigm-in-ketosis-prone-diabetes
#2
Runbo Song, Shanjin Cao
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic crises occur most often in patients with type 1 diabetes and occasionally in type 2 diabetes, especially under stressful conditions. However, a diabetic crisis occurring directly from prediabetes is an unusual phenomenon. CASE REPORT: A 45-year-old woman presented with postprandial left upper quadrant abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. She had a past medical history of prediabetes with impaired fasting glucose and HbA1c 6.4%. On admission, routine laboratory tests showed high anion gap metabolic acidosis (pH 6...
March 29, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568414/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-gb-lp4-and-identification-of-evolutionarily-divergent-genes-in-high-osmolarity-environment
#3
Jaehoon Jung, Kwondo Kim, DongAhn Yoo, Chanho Lee, Jungsun Kang, Kyungjin Cho, Dae-Kyung Kang, Woori Kwak, Sook Hee Yoon, Hawsun Sohn, Heebal Kim, Seoae Cho
Lactobacillus plantarum is one of the widely-used probiotics and there have been a large number of advanced researches on the effectiveness of this species. However, the difference between previously reported plantarum strains, and the source of genomic variation among the strains were not clearly specified. In order to understand further on the molecular basis of L. plantarum on Korean traditional fermentation, we isolated the L. plantarum GB-LP4 from Korean fermented vegetable and conducted whole genome assembly...
2018: Genes & Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565833/role-of-the-extremolytes-ectoine-and-hydroxyectoine-as-stress-protectants-and-nutrients-genetics-phylogenomics-biochemistry-and-structural-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Laura Czech, Lucas Hermann, Nadine Stöveken, Alexandra A Richter, Astrid Höppner, Sander H J Smits, Johann Heider, Erhard Bremer
Fluctuations in environmental osmolarity are ubiquitous stress factors in many natural habitats of microorganisms, as they inevitably trigger osmotically instigated fluxes of water across the semi-permeable cytoplasmic membrane. Under hyperosmotic conditions, many microorganisms fend off the detrimental effects of water efflux and the ensuing dehydration of the cytoplasm and drop in turgor through the accumulation of a restricted class of organic osmolytes, the compatible solutes. Ectoine and its derivative 5-hydroxyectoine are prominent members of these compounds and are synthesized widely by members of the Bacteria and a few Archaea and Eukarya in response to high salinity/osmolarity and/or growth temperature extremes...
March 22, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547469/quantitative-assessment-of-dry-eye-parameters-after-muller-s-muscle-conjunctival-resection
#5
Sana Ali Bautista, Edward J Wladis, Robert L Schultze
PURPOSE: Muller's muscle-conjunctival resection (MMCR) is a highly effective technique to correct upper eyelid ptosis. However, several authorities have raised concerns about the possibility of postoperative ocular surface dryness. This study was performed to assess the impact of MMCR on clinically meaningful parameters of the ocular surface. METHODS: In adult patients, tear break-up time, lipid layer thickness, and osmolarity were measured via direct observation, interferometry, and impedance measurements before surgery and 3 months after surgery in patients who underwent MMCR...
March 14, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541862/do-independent-geriatric-outpatients-with-nocturnal-polyuria-profit-from-desmopressin
#6
W Weinrebe, S Käbe-Frisch, I Füsgen, M Karaman, E Johannsdottir, S Rupp
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of desmopressin and placebo in independent geriatric outpatients with nocturnal polyuria (NP). METHODS: A prospective, randomized, single-center, national, double blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose, parallel group comparative trial was carried out. The study included 110 geriatric outpatients, 55 patients per treatment group using desmopressin acetate nasal spray (strength: 0.1 mg/ml) once daily of 10 μg/spray blast or placebo...
March 14, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532218/acanthamoeba-of-three-morphological-groups-and-distinct-genotypes-exhibit-variable-and-weakly-inter-related-physiological-properties
#7
Cynara Oliveira Possamai, Ana Carolina Loss, Adriana Oliveira Costa, Aloisio Falqueto, Cinthia Furst
Free-living amoeba of the genus Acanthamoeba can eventually act as parasites, causing infections in humans. Some physiological characteristics of Acanthamoeba have been related to the grade of pathogenicity, allowing inferences about the pathogenic potential. The main goal of this study was to characterize isolates of Acanthamoeba obtained in Brazil and evaluate properties associated with their pathogenicity. A total of 39 isolates obtained from keratitis cases (n = 16) and environmental sources (n = 23) were classified into morphological groups and genotyped by sequencing the 18S rDNA fragments ASA...
March 12, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520873/beyond-the-physico-chemical-barrier-glycerol-and-xylitol-markedly-yet-differentially-alter-gene-expression-profiles-and-modify-signalling-pathways-in-human-epidermal-keratinocytes
#8
Edit Páyer, Judit Szabó-Papp, Lídia Ambrus, Attila Gábor Szöllősi, Mónika Andrási, Shabtay Dikstein, Lajos Kemény, István Juhász, Andrea Szegedi, Tamás Bíró, Attila Oláh
Polyols (e.g. glycerol, xylitol) are implicated as moisturizers of the skin and other epithelial tissues. However, we lack information about their exact cellular mechanisms and their effects on the gene expression profiles. Therefore, in this study, we aimed at investigating the effects of glycerol and xylitol on human epidermal keratinocytes. The polyols (identical osmolarities; xylitol: 0.0045%-0.45%; glycerol: 0.0027%-0.27%) did not alter cellular viability or intracellular calcium concentration. However, they exerted differential effects on the expression of certain genes and signalling pathways...
March 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516859/stress-effects-of-amyloodiniosis-in-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata
#9
Márcio Moreira, Marcelino Herrera, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira, Jose Ignacio Navas Triano, Florbela Soares
Amyloodiniosis is a parasitological disease caused by one of the most common and important parasitic dinoflagellates in fish, Amyloodinium ocellatum (Brown), that represents a major bottleneck for gilthead seabream semi-intensive aquaculture in Southern Europe. In this experiment, we analyzed some metabolic, osmoregulatory and stress indicators to elucidate some of the physiological responses of gilthead sea bream when exposed to an A. ocellatum outbreak. We observed significant differences between Control and Infection groups in the cortisol, lactate and gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity levels but that glucose, osmolarity, pH and total protein did not present such differences...
March 5, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510226/exploring-topical-anti-glaucoma-medication-effects-on-the-ocular-surface-in-the-context-of-the-current-understanding-of-dry-eye
#10
Aaron B C Wong, Michael T M Wang, Kevin Liu, Zak J Prime, Helen V Danesh-Meyer, Jennifer P Craig
PURPOSE: To assess tear film parameters, ocular surface characteristics, and dry eye symptomology in patients receiving topical anti-glaucoma medications. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with a diagnosis of open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension, receiving unilateral topical anti-glaucoma medication for at least 6 months, were recruited in a cross-sectional, investigator-masked, paired-eye comparison study. Tear film parameters, ocular surface characteristics, and dry eye symptomology of treated and fellow eyes were evaluated and compared...
March 3, 2018: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501694/effects-on-haematological-and-serum-biochemical-parameters-of-pangasianodon-hypophthalmus-to-an-experimental-infection-of-thaparocleidus-sp-monogenea-dactylogyridae
#11
Saurav Kumar, R P Raman, K Pani Prasad, P P Srivastava, Sanath Kumar, K V Rajendran
Monogenea (gill parasite) is a major problem in aquaculture that reduces the growth of cultured fish and adversely affects the economy. The present study was performed to evaluate the impact of various degrees of Thaparocleidus sp. (dactylogyrids, monogenean) infestation on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. A standard cohabitation study, following complete randomized design in triplicate, was conducted to obtain low, moderate and high degrees of infestation in P...
March 1, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458112/compatible-osmolytes-modulate-mitochondrial-function-in-a-marine-osmoconformer-crassostrea-gigas-thunberg-1793
#12
Eugene P Sokolov, Inna M Sokolova
Salinity is an important environmental factor affecting physiology of marine organisms. Osmoconformers such as marine mollusks maintain metabolic function despite changes of the osmolarity and composition of the cytosol during salinity shifts. Currently, metabolic responses to the salinity-induced changes of the intracellular milieu are not well understood. We studied the effects of osmolarity (450 vs. 900 mOsm) and compatible osmolytes (70-590 mM of taurine or betaine) on isolated gill mitochondria of a marine osmoconformer, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas...
February 16, 2018: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457534/comparing-hydrogels-for-human-nucleus-pulposus-cell-regeneration-role-of-osmolarity-during-expansion
#13
Anita Krouwels, Ferry Melchels, Mattie H P Van Rijen, F Cumhur Oner, Wouter Dhert, M Tryfonidou, Laura Creemers
Hydrogels can facilitate nucleus pulposus regeneration, either for clinical application or research into mechanisms of regeneration. However, many different hydrogels and culture conditions for human degenerated nucleus pulposus (NP) have been employed, making literature data difficult to compare. Therefore, we compared six different hydrogels of natural polymers and investigated the role of serum in the medium and of osmolarity during expansion or redifferentation in an attempt to provide comparators for future studies...
February 17, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457271/does-the-temperature-of-an-artificial-tear-affect-its-comfort
#14
Etty Bitton, Vanessa Crncich, Noemie Brunet
BACKGROUND: Refrigerated eye-drops have been advocated in cases of ocular allergies to provide a soothing effect upon instillation. This notion continues to be promoted by practitioners for artificial tears (AT) in the management of dry eye (DE) with little support in the literature. To further substantiate claims of a soothing effect of cold eye-drops, the aim of this study was to determine if refrigeration of an AT enhanced the subjective comfort upon instillation. METHODS: Participants with mild to moderate DE participated in an open label contralateral study of two weeks duration...
February 18, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456121/establishment-of-colonic-dialysis-model-in-uremic-rats-by-right-nephrectomy-and-left-partial-nephrectomy
#15
Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh, Nastaran Sabetkish, Shabnam Sabetkish
BACKGROUND: Conventional treatments for patients suffering with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has several disadvantages, highlighting the importance of other reproducible modalities such as colonic dialysis (CD). OBJECTIVES: The aim was to establish a CD model in uremic rats and evaluate the effect of two different peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions. METHODS: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. After right nephrectomy and left partial nephrectomy, a Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) stoma was created...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452970/effect-of-tear-supplements-on-signs-symptoms-and-inflammatory-markers-in-dry-eye
#16
Eilidh Martin, Katherine M Oliver, E Ian Pearce, Alan Tomlinson, Peter Simmons, Suzanne Hagan
PURPOSE: Three tear supplements were compared for their effects on the signs, symptoms and inflammatory status of subjects with dry eye disease. Assessments were made before and after both 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. METHODS: In this masked, randomized, 3-way crossover trial, eighteen dry eye subjects were recruited. At each visit, symptoms, tear evaporation rate, stability and osmolarity were measured and tear samples were analyzed for 7 inflammatory markers, using multiplex immunoassays...
February 13, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452185/an-injectable-chitosan-chondroitin-sulfate-hydrogel-with-tunable-mechanical-properties-for-cell-therapy-tissue-engineering
#17
Yasaman Alinejad, Atma Adoungotchodo, Eve Hui, Fatemeh Zehtabi, Sophie Lerouge
Chitosan (CH) hydrogels with remarkable mechanical properties and rapid gelation rate were recently synthesized by combining sodium hydrogen carbonate (SHC) with another weak base, such as beta-glycerophosphate (BGP). To improve their biological responses, in the present study, chondroitin sulfate (CS) was added to these CH hydrogels. Hydrogel characteristics in terms of pH and osmolarity as well as rheological, mechanical, morphological and swelling properties were studied in the absence and presence of CS...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408241/major-adverse-renal-and-cardiac-events-following-coronary-angiography-and-cardiac-surgery
#18
Kristen M Tecson, David Brown, James W Choi, Georges Feghali, Gonzalo V Gonzalez-Stawinski, Baron L Hamman, Robert Hebeler, Stuart R Lander, Brian Lima, Srini Potluri, Jeffrey M Schussler, Robert C Stoler, Carlos Velasco, Peter A McCullough
BACKGROUND: Patients at high risk for developing post-procedural complications may receive iodixanol, an iso-osmolar contrast, during coronary angiography to minimize the risk of renal toxicity. For those who additionally require cardiac surgery, the wait-time between angiography and surgery may be a modifiable factor capable of mitigating poor surgical outcomes; however, there have been inconsistsent reports regarding the optimal wait-time. We sought to determine the effects of wait time between angiogram and cardiac surgery, as well as contrast induced acute injury (CI-AKI) on the development of major adverse renal and cardiac events (MARCE)...
February 2, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388864/the-effect-of-low-dose-aspirin-on-dry-eye-parameters-and-ocular-surface-disease-index-questionnaire
#19
Alper Yazıcı, Esin Sarı, Erkan Ayhan, Gözde Şahin, Nesime Setge Tıskaoğlu, Taha Gürbüzer, Hüseyin Kurt, Sıtkı Samet Ermiş
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) on tear film parameters and dry eye disease. METHODS: Fifty-seven patients using low-dose aspirin regularly for antiaggregant purposes as well as 49 controls, who required antiaggregant treatment but who had not yet started, were included in the study. Tear osmolarity, tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer and Oxford grading of ocular surface staining were performed on all patients and dry eye symptomatology was assessed using the ocular surface disease index questionnaire (OSDI)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349645/the-incidence-and-the-prognostic-impact-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-acute-myocardial-infarction-patients-current-preventive-strategies
#20
Evangelos Kaltsas, George Chalikias, Dimitrios Tziakas
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most common complications during hospitalization in various clinical settings. The goal of this review was to assess the incidence of AKI in acute myocardial infarction patients (AMI), how this incidence is affected by the diverse definitions, and if there is variability in the reported rates over recent years. Additionally, we sought to appraise the impact of AKI on short- and long-term prognosis of these patients. Finally, we report on the current preventive measures as they are suggested in the current guidelines of various societies, we comment on the evidence that support them, and we review the literature for other proposed therapeutic strategies, which either failed to prove their efficacy or they are not adequately confirmed yet...
February 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
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