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Effective osmolarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526694/measuring-osmosis-and-hemolysis-of-red-blood-cells
#1
Lauren K Goodhead, Frances M MacMillan
Since the discovery of the composition and structure of the mammalian cell membrane, biologists have had a clearer understanding of how substances enter and exit the cell's interior. The selectively permeable nature of the cell membrane allows the movement of some solutes and prevents the movement of others. This has important consequences for cell volume and the integrity of the cell and, as a result, is of utmost clinical importance, for example in the administration of isotonic intravenous infusions. The concepts of osmolarity and tonicity are often confused by students as impermeant isosmotic solutes such as NaCl are also isotonic; however, isosmotic solutes such as urea are actually hypotonic due to the permeant nature of the membrane...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502385/the-effects-of-blood-glucose-regulation-on-tear-function-tests-in-diabetic-patients
#2
S Kan, U Acar, M Kizilgul, E Beyazyildiz, A B Cankaya, O Ozcelik, M Ozbek
PURPOSE: To investigate whether blood glucose regulation in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) has an influence on the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) score and tear function tests such as tear film osmolarity (TFO), tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer tests. METHODS: Fifty diabetic patients with a fasting blood glucose (FBG) level greater than 200mg/dL and HbA1c level greater than 10% were recruited for this prospective study. All of the patients underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination including OSDI questionnaire, TFO test, TBUT test and Schirmer test initially...
May 11, 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493157/determination-of-the-biofilm-production-capacities-and-characteristics-of-members-belonging-to-bacillaceae-family
#3
Arzu Coleri Cihan, Basar Karaca, Beste Piril Ozel, Tugba Kilic
The biofilm characteristics of many endospore-forming bacilli, especially the thermophiles are still unclear. In this study, a detailed identification and description of biofilm production characteristics of totally 145 isolates and reference strains belonging to Bacillaceae family, displaying thermophilic (n = 115), facultative thermophilic (n = 24) and mesophilic (n = 6) growth from genera Anoxybacillus, Geobacillus, Thermolongibacillus, Aeribacillus, Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus and Bacillus were presented...
June 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455771/cadmium-and-zinc-activate-adaptive-mechanisms-in-nicotiana-tabacum-similar-to-those-observed-in-metal-tolerant-plants
#4
Rosario Vera-Estrella, María F Gómez-Méndez, Julio C Amezcua-Romero, Bronwyn J Barkla, Paul Rosas-Santiago, Omar Pantoja
Tobacco germinated and grew in the presence of high concentrations of cadmium and zinc without toxic symptoms. Evidence suggests that these ions are sequestered into the vacuole by heavy metal/H (+) exchanger mechanisms. Heavy metal hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance are traits shared by a small set of plants which show specialized physiological and molecular adaptations allowing them to accumulate and sequester toxic metal ions. Nicotiana tabacum was used to test its potential as a metal-accumulator in a glass house experiment...
April 28, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452574/water-transport-through-the-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-under-different-osmotic-conditions-is-dependent-on-li-cadherin-trans-interaction
#5
Agnes Weth, Carsten Dippl, Yasmin Striedner, Irene Tiemann-Boege, Yana Vereshchaga, Nikola Golenhofen, Britta Bartelt-Kirbach, Werner Baumgartner
In the intestine water has to be reabsorbed from the chymus across the intestinal epithelium. The osmolarity within the lumen is subjected to high variations meaning that water transport often has to take place against osmotic gradients. It has been hypothesized that LI-cadherin is important in this process by keeping the intercellular cleft narrow facilitating the buildup of an osmotic gradient allowing water reabsorption. LI-cadherin is exceptional among the cadherin superfamily with respect to its localization along the lateral plasma membrane of epithelial cells being excluded from adherens junction...
January 24, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431436/enhanced-tearing-by-electrical-stimulation-of-the-anterior-ethmoid-nerve
#6
Mark Brinton, Andrea L Kossler, Zara M Patel, James Loudin, Manfred Franke, Christopher N Ta, Daniel Palanker
Purpose: Electrical neurostimulation enhances tear secretion, and can be applied to treatment of dry eye disease. Using a chronic implant, we evaluate the effects of stimulating the anterior ethmoid nerve on the aqueous, lipid, and protein content of secreted tears. Methods: Neurostimulators were implanted beneath the nasal mucosa in 13 New Zealand white rabbits. Stimulations (2.3-2.8 mA pulses of 75-875 μs in duration repeated at 30-100 Hz for 3 minutes) were performed daily, for 3 weeks to measure changes in tear volume (Schirmer test), osmolarity (TearLab osmometer), lipid (Oil-Red-O staining), and protein (BCA assay, mass spectrometry)...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430937/high-sugar-but-not-high-fat-food-activates-supraoptic-oxytocin-neurones-in-the-male-rat
#7
Catherine Hume, Nancy Sabatier, John Menzies
Oxytocin is a potent anorexigen and is believed to have a role in satiety signalling. We developed rat models to study the activity of oxytocin neurones in response to voluntary consumption or oral gavage of foods using c-Fos immunohistochemistry and in vivo electrophysiology.Using c-Fos expression as an indirect marker of neural activation, we showed that the percentage of magnocellular oxytocin neurones expressing c-Fos increased with voluntary consumption of sweetened condensed milk (SCM). To model the effect of food in the stomach, we gavaged anaesthetised rats with SCM...
April 19, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427825/molecular-mechanisms-of-the-yeast-adaptive-response-and-tolerance-to-stresses-encountered-during-ethanol-fermentation
#8
REVIEW
Choowong Auesukaree
During ethanol fermentation, yeast cells encounter various stresses including sugar substrates-induced high osmolarity, increased ethanol concentration, oxygen metabolism-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS), and elevated temperature. To cope with these fermentation-associated stresses, appropriate adaptive responses are required to prevent stress-induced cellular dysfunctions and to acquire stress tolerances. This review will focus on the cellular effects of these stresses, molecular basis of the adaptive response to each stress, and the cellular mechanisms contributing to stress tolerance...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424671/functional-characterization-and-conditional-regulation-of-the-type-vi-secretion-system-in-vibrio-fluvialis
#9
Yuanming Huang, Pengcheng Du, Meng Zhao, Wei Liu, Yu Du, Baowei Diao, Jie Li, Biao Kan, Weili Liang
Vibrio fluvialis is an emerging foodborne pathogen of increasing public health concern. The mechanism(s) that contribute to the bacterial survival and disease are still poorly understood. In other bacterial species, type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are known to contribute to bacterial pathogenicity by exerting toxic effects on host cells or competing bacterial species. In this study, we characterized the genetic organization and prevalence of two T6SS gene clusters (VflT6SS1 and VflT6SS2) in V. fluvialis. VflT6SS2 harbors three "orphan" hcp-vgrG modules and was more prevalent than VflT6SS1 in our isolates...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421628/comparison-of-the-nephrotoxic-effects-of-iodixanol-versus-iohexol-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure-undergoing-coronary-angiography-or-angioplasty
#10
Tao Song, Min Song, Zhiming Ge, Yong Li, Peimiao Shi, Menghan Sun
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this clinical trial is to compare iodixanol with iohexol for the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction who are currently undergoing coronary angiography or angioplasty. METHODS: The clinical trial included 220 consecutive patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction undergoing coronary angiography or angioplasty. Study participants were administered either iodixanol (n = 110) or iohexol (n = 110)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Interventional Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417586/icu-mortality-is-increased-with-high-admission-serum-osmolarity-in-all-patients-other-than-those-admitted-with-pulmonary-diseases-and-hypoxia
#11
Shailesh Bihari, Shivesh Prakash, Sandra L Peake, Michael Bailey, David Pilcher, Andrew Bersten
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: High serum osmolarity has been shown to be lung protective. There is lack of clinical studies evaluating the impact on outcomes such as mortality. We aimed to examine the effect of serum osmolarity on intensive care unit (ICU) mortality in critically ill patients METHODS: Data from January 2000 to December 2012 was accessed using the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) Clinical Outcomes and Resource Evaluation (CORE) database. A total of 509 180 patients were included...
April 17, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399019/pathophysiology-and-implications-of-intradialytic-hypertension
#12
Peter Noel Van Buren
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intradialytic hypertension occurs regularly in 10--15% of hemodialysis patients. A large observational study recently showed that intradialytic hypertension of any magnitude increased mortality risk comparable to the most severe degrees of intradialytic hypotension. The present review review discusses the most recent evidence underlying the pathophysiology of intradialytic hypertension and implications for its management. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with intradialytic hypertension typically have small interdialytic weight gains, but bioimpedance spectroscopy shows these patients have significant chronic extracellular volume excess...
April 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395333/ovine-uterine-space-restriction-causes-dysregulation-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-in-fetal-kidneys%C3%A2
#13
Rachel A Kranch-Shorthouse, Adam S Bauer, Ronald R Magness, Gladys E Lopez, Jeffrey L Segar, Sharon E Blohowiak, Pamela J Kling
In ovine pregnancy, uterine space restriction (USR) resulting from decreased space for placental attachment caused intrauterine growth restriction and impaired nephrogenesis. The fetal kidney renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in nephrogenesis, fluid balance, and iron deposition. Angiotensin II exerts its effects via multiple receptors: angiotensin II 1-8 receptor type 1 (AT 1 R) and type 2 (AT 2 R), and angiotensin II 1-7 Mas receptor (MASR). Objective: : To test the hypothesis that ovine USR is associated with dysregulation of the fetal renal RAS...
January 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384103/emulsion-of-chloramphenicol-an-overwhelming-approach-for-ocular-delivery
#14
Kalpesh C Ashara, Ketan V Shah
BACKGROUND: Ophthalmic formulations of chloramphenicol have poor bioavailability of chloramphenicol in the ocular cavity. AIM: The present study aimed at exploring the impact of different oil mixtures in the form of emulsion on the permeability of chloramphenicol after ocular application. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Selection of oil mixture and ratio of the components was made by an equilibrium solubility method. An emulsifier was chosen according to its emulsification properties...
March 1, 2017: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382626/use-of-radiocontrast-agents-in-ckd-and-esrd
#15
Jehan Z Bahrainwala, Amanda K Leonberg-Yoo, Michael R Rudnick
Contrast exposure in a population with chronic kidney disease (CKD) requires additional consideration given the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) after exposure to iodinated contrast as well as systemic injury with exposure to gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA). Strategies to avoid CIN, and manage patients after exposure, including extracorporeal removal of contrast media, may differ among an advanced CKD population as compared to a general population. There is strong evidence to support the use of isotonic volume expansion and the lowest dose of low-osmolar or iso-osmolar contrast media possible to decrease CIN...
April 5, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375679/dual-phase-iontophoresis-for-the-delivery-of-antisense-oligonucleotides
#16
Daniel J Gibson, Sonal S Tuli, Gregory S Schultz
In support of ongoing research in the study of corneal and skin wound healing, we sought to improve on previously published results by using iontophoresis to deliver RNA interference-based oligonucleotides. By using a electromechanics-based approach, we were able to devise a two-phase solution that separated the buffering solution from the antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) solution. The separation was obtained by making the drug solution a higher density than the buffer, leading it to sink directly onto the tissue surface...
April 4, 2017: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373878/promotion-of-germination-using-hydroxamic-acid-inhibitors-of-9-cis-epoxycarotenoid-dioxygenase
#17
Sajjad Z Awan, Jake O Chandler, Peter J Harrison, Martin J Sergeant, Timothy D H Bugg, Andrew J Thompson
Abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits seed germination and the regulation of ABA biosynthesis has a role in maintenance of seed dormancy. The key rate-limiting step in ABA biosynthesis is catalyzed by 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED). Two hydroxamic acid inhibitors of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), D4 and D7, previously found to inhibit CCD and NCED in vitro, are shown to have the novel property of decreasing mean germination time of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seeds constitutively overexpressing LeNCED1...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368991/ocular-surface-parameters-predicting-patient-satisfaction-after-a-single-vectored-thermal-pulsation-procedure-for-management-of-symptomatic-meibomian-gland-dysfunction
#18
Allister Gibbons, Daniel Waren, Nilufer Yesilirmak, Kendra Davis, Felipe Valenzuela, Juan C Murillo, Victor L Perez
PURPOSE: To evaluate the ocular surface parameters that could predict patient satisfaction after single application of vectored thermal pulsation (VTP). METHODS: This is a retrospective interventional case series; it included consecutive patients who underwent bilateral VTP for management of symptomatic meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Patients received a full ocular surface evaluation. The outcome was patient subjective improvement during the first 3-4 months after 3 follow-up visits...
June 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367524/effects-of-adjuvant-omega-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-on-dry-eye-syndrome-following-cataract-surgery-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
Mehrdad Mohammadpour, Shima Mehrabi, Narges Hassanpoor, Reza Mirshahi
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplement on qualitative and quantitative subjective (ocular surface disease index [OSDI]) and objective (Schirmer's test, tear break up time [TBUT], and tear osmolarity) dry eye indices after cataract surgery. METHODS: In this randomized clinical study, 61 eyes of 48 patients complaining of new onset dry eye symptoms after phacoemulsification were enrolled. Subjects were randomly allocated into two groups using urn randomization...
March 2017: Journal of Current Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366362/femtosecond-laser-assisted-laser-in-situ-keratomileusis-versus-photorefractive-keratectomy-effect-on-ocular-surface-condition
#20
Paola Sauvageot, Gemma Julio, Juan Alvarez de Toledo, Victor Charoenrook, Rafael I Barraquer
PURPOSE: To compare ocular surface characteristics in eyes after femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). SETTING: Centro de Oftalmologia Barraquer, Barcelona, Spain. DESIGN: Prospective comparative observational study. METHODS: Patients with myopia who had femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK or PRK were included. Tear osmolarity, the Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, Schirmer I, corneal sensitivity, tear breakup time (TBUT), and corneal fluorescein staining were evaluated preoperatively and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively...
February 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
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