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Effective osmolarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914989/ompr-regulator-of-burkholderia-multivorans-controls-mucoid-to-nonmucoid-transition-and-other-cell-envelope-properties-associated-with-persistence-in-the-cystic-fibrosis-lung
#1
Inês N Silva, Filipa D Pessoa, Marcelo J Ramires, Mário R Santos, Jörg D Becker, Vaughn S Cooper, Leonilde M Moreira
Bacteria from the Burkholderia cepacia complex grow in different natural and man-made environments and are feared opportunistic pathogens that cause chronic respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Previous studies showed that Burkholderia mucoid clinical isolates grown under stress conditions give rise to nonmucoid variants devoid of the exopolysaccharide cepacian. Here, we have determined that a major cause of the nonmucoid morphotype involves nonsynonymous mutations and small indels in the ompR gene encoding a response regulator of a two-component regulatory system...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904607/water-in-the-human-body-an-anesthesiologist-s-perspective-on-the-connection-between-physicochemical-properties-of-water-and-physiologic-relevance
#2
REVIEW
Efraín Riveros-Perez, Ricardo Riveros
The unique structure and multifaceted physicochemical properties of the water molecule, in addition to its universal presence in body compartments, make water a key player in multiple biological processes in human physiology. Since anesthesiologists deal with physiologic processes where water molecules are critical at different levels, and administer medications whose pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics depend on interaction with water molecules, we consider that exploration of basic science aspects related to water and its role in physiology and pharmacology is relevant to the practice of anesthesiology...
February 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885815/cell-volume-changes-as-revealed-by-fluorescence-microscopy-global-vs-local-approaches
#3
Thuraya Awadová, Helena Pivoňková, Zuzana Heřmanová, Denisa Kirdajová, Miroslava Anděrová, Jan Malínský
BACKGROUND: Several techniques for cell volume measurement using fluorescence microscopy have been established to date. In this study, we compare the performance of three different approaches which allow for estimations of the cell volume changes in biological samples containing individual fluorescently labeled cells either in culture or in the tissue context. The specific requirements, limitations and advantages of individual approaches are discussed. NEW METHOD: Global morphometric data are quantitatively compared with local information about the overall cell volume, represented by the concentration of a mobile fluorophore accumulated within the monitored cell...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860548/comparison-of-iohexol-and-iodixanol-induced-nephrotoxicity-mitochondrial-damage-and-mitophagy-in-a-new-contrast-induced-acute-kidney-injury-rat-model
#4
Wei Cheng, Fei Zhao, Cheng-Yuan Tang, Xu-Wei Li, Min Luo, Shao-Bin Duan
Recent progress in angiography and interventional therapy has revived interest in comparison of nephrotoxicity of low-or iso-osmolar contrast media, but detailed mechanisms and effective treatments of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) remain elusive. We established a new model of CI-AKI and compared the nephrotoxicity of iohexol and iodixanol with a focus on renal oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and mitophagy. Our results showed that 48-h dehydration plus furosemide injection before iohexol administration successfully induced CI-AKI in rats...
June 2, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849773/extended-low-oxygen-transmissibility-contact-lens-use-induces-alterations-in-the-concentration-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-enzymes-and-electrolytes-in-tear-fluid
#5
Luis Fernando Barba Gallardo, Martín Humberto Muñoz Ortega, Javier Ventura Juarez, Liseth Rubí Aldaba Muruato, Esperanza Sánchez Alemán, Eduardo Emmanuel Valdez Morales, Sugela Susana Blancas Zugarazo, Jose Rafael Villafan Bernal
Prolonged and continuous use of contact lenses for as long as 3 or 4 weeks is common in Mexico due to the low socioeconomic status, poor patient education and self-neglect. Furthermore, wearing contact lenses with low oxygen permeability is common due to their low cost. Thus, patients seek ophthalmologic evaluation due to signs and symptoms of overuse such as red eye, discomfort and tearing. In the present study, the effect of wearing soft contact lenses with a low oxygen permeability on the tear fluid composition after 1 day, 1 week and 1 month without removing them was examined...
May 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849514/iso-osmolar-iodixanol-induces-less-increase-in-circulating-endothelial-microparticles-in-vivo-and-less-endothelial-apoptosis-in-vitro-compared-with-low-osmolar-iohexol
#6
Beijian Zhang, Yi Zhang, Bo Liu, Lu Fang, Yigang Li, Shu Meng
Background and Aims: There is no consensus on whether iodixanol is superior to iohexol. This study aimed to compare the effects of iodixanol and iohexol on circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs) in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), and also their cytotoxic effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro . Methods: 100 CAD patients with DM were randomly assigned to receive iso-osmolar contrast medium iodixanol (group I) or low-osmolar iohexol (group II) during coronary angioplasty...
2018: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801627/effect-of-salinity-on-locomotor-performance-and-thermal-extremes-of-metamorphic-andean-toads-rhinella-spinulosa-from-monte-desert-argentina
#7
Eduardo Sanabria, Lorena Quiroga, Cristina Vergara, Mariana Banchig, Cesar Rodriguez, Emanuel Ontivero
Rhinella spinulosa is distributed from Peru to Argentina (from 1200 to 5000 m elevation), inhabiting arid mountain valleys of the Andes, characterized by salty soils. The variations in soil salinity, caused by high evapotranspiration of water, can create an osmotic constraint and high thermal oscillations for metamorphsed Andean toad (R. spinulosa), affecting their thermoregulation and extreme thermal tolerances. We investigated the changes in thermal tolerance parameters (critical thermal maximum and crystallization temperature) of a population of metamorphosed R...
May 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800587/effects-of-amphipathic-profile-regularization-on-structural-order-and-interaction-with-membrane-models-of-two-highly-cationic-branched-peptides-with-%C3%AE-sheet-propensity
#8
Ilaria Serra, Mariano Casu, Matteo Ceccarelli, Paula Gameiro, Andrea C Rinaldi, Mariano Andrea Scorciapino
Antimicrobial peptides attracted increasing interest in last decades due to the rising concern of multi-drug resistant pathogens. Dendrimeric peptides are branched molecules with multiple copies of one peptide functional unit bound to the central core. Compared to linear analogues, they usually show improved activity and lower susceptibility to proteases. Knowledge of structure-function relationship is fundamental to tailor their properties. This work is focused on SB056, the smallest example of dendrimeric peptide, whose amino acid sequence is WKKIRVRLSA...
May 22, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777963/red-wolf-canis-rufus-sperm-quality-and-quantity-is-affected-by-semen-collection-method-extender-components-and-post-thaw-holding-temperature
#9
Ashley D Franklin, William T Waddell, Karen L Goodrowe
Cryopreserving genetic resources is becoming increasingly important for species management. In the zoo-based red wolf (Canis rufus) population, inbreeding continues to increase in the absence of new founders. Through banking sperm, we preserve genetic diversity and create the ability to decrease inbreeding accumulation in the future. The quality and quantity of banked sperm can be affected by cryopreservation media and semen collection methods. This study's objectives were to further optimize semen extender used for red wolf sperm cryopreservation, investigate effects of post-thaw holding temperature, and to determine if urethral catheterization is an effective method for semen collection in this species...
May 16, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739983/acute-physiology-and-neurologic-outcomes-after-brain-injury-in-scop-phlpp1-ko-mice
#10
Travis C Jackson, C Edward Dixon, Keri Janesko-Feldman, Vincent Vagni, Shawn E Kotermanski, Edwin K Jackson, Patrick M Kochanek
Suprachiasmatic nucleus circadian oscillatory protein (SCOP) (a.k.a. PHLPP1) regulates long-term memory consolidation in the brain. Using a mouse model of controlled cortical impact (CCI) we tested if (1) brain tissue levels of SCOP/PHLPP1 increase after a traumatic brain injury (TBI), and (2) if SCOP/PHLPP1 gene knockout (KO) mice have improved (or worse) neurologic outcomes. Blood chemistry (pH, pCO2 , pO2 , pSO2 , base excess, sodium bicarbonate, and osmolarity) and arterial pressure (MAP) differed in isoflurane anesthetized WT vs...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713822/improving-viscosity-and-stability-of-a-highly-concentrated-monoclonal-antibody-solution-with-concentrated-proline
#11
Jessica J Hung, Barton J Dear, Aileen K Dinin, Ameya U Borwankar, Sumarth K Mehta, Thomas T Truskett, Keith P Johnston
PURPOSE: To explain the effects of the osmolyte proline on the protein-protein interactions (PPI), viscosity and stability of highly concentrated antibody solutions in contrast to other neutral osmolytes. METHODS: The viscosity of ~225 mg/mL mAb solutions was measured with proline, glycine and trehalose as a function of pH and co-solute concentration up to 1.3 M. The stability was assessed via turbidity as well as size exclusion chromatography after 4 weeks storage at 40°C...
April 30, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702077/phosphosulindac-is-efficacious-in-an-improved-concanavalin-a-based-rabbit-model-of-chronic-dry-eye-disease
#12
Robert A Honkanen, Liqun Huang, Gang Xie, Basil Rigas
Dry eye disease (DED) currently has no satisfactory treatment partly because of the lack of informative animal models. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory phosphosulindac (PS) for the treatment of DED using a new rabbit model of DED based on the concanavalin A (Con A) acute DED model: we injected all lacrimal glands with Con A weekly under ultrasound guidance, which prolonged DED to >3 weeks, and thoroughly assessed efficacy with tear break-up time (TBUT), tear osmolarity, Schirmer test, and tear lactoferrin levels...
April 10, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700925/effect-of-a-punctal-plug-on-ocular-surface-disease-in-patients-using-topical-prostaglandin-analogues-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Justin C Sherwin, Gokulan Ratnarajan, Babar Elahi, Anna Bilkiewicz-Pawelec, John F Salmon
IMPORTANCE: Ocular surface disease (OSD) is common and can reduce treatment compliance and quality of life. BACKGROUND: To determine whether a punctal plug improves OSD and reduces intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients using prostaglandin analogue monotherapy. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty eligible subjects aged >18 years with symptomatic OSD from glaucoma clinics were invited to participate...
April 26, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700692/mannitol-and-hypertonic-saline-reduce-swelling-and-modulate-inflammatory-markers-in-a-rat-model-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#14
David L Schreibman, Caron M Hong, Kaspar Keledjian, Svetlana Ivanova, Solomiya Tsymbalyuk, Volodymyr Gerzanich, J Marc Simard
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) leaves most survivors dependent at follow-up. The importance of promoting M2-like microglial responses is increasingly recognized as a key element to ameliorate brain injury following ICH. The osmotherapeutic agents, mannitol and hypertonic saline (HTS), which are routinely used to reduce intracranial pressure, have been shown to reduce neuroinflammation in experimental ischemic and traumatic brain injury, but anti-inflammatory effects of osmotherapies have not been investigated in ICH...
April 26, 2018: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700115/cox-2-expression-mediated-by-calcium-tonebp-signaling-axis-under-hyperosmotic-conditions-serves-osmoprotective-function-in-nucleus-pulposus-cells
#15
Hyowon Choi, Weera Chaiyamongkol, Alexandra C Doolittle, Zariel I Johnson, Shilpa S Gogate, Zachary R Schoepflin, Irving M Shapiro, Makarand V Risbud
The nucleus pulposus (NP) of intervertebral discs experiences dynamic changes in tissue osmolarity because of diurnal loading of the spine. TonEBP/NFAT5 is a transcription factor that is critical in osmoregulation as well as survival of NP cells in the hyperosmotic milieu. The goal of this study was to investigate whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is osmoresponsive and dependent on TonEBP, and whether it serves an osmoprotective role. NP cells up-regulated COX-2 expression in hyperosmotic media. The induction of COX-2 depended on elevation of intracellular calcium levels and p38 MAPK pathway, but independent of calcineurin signaling as well as MEK/ERK and JNK pathways...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687326/are-iso-osmolar-as-compared-to-low-osmolar-contrast-media-cost-effective-in-patients-undergoing-cardiac-catheterization-an-economic-analysis
#16
Swapnil Hiremath, Ayub Akbari, George A Wells, Benjamin J W Chow
PURPOSE: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury is a prominent complication following cardiac catheterization, though the risk has progressively decreased in recent times with appropriate risk stratification and use of safer contrast agents. Despite data supporting further lowering of risk with the iso-osmolar agent, iodixanol, uptake has lagged, perhaps due to increased upfront cost of this agent. We undertook an economic analysis to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a strategy utilizing iodixanol compared to using a low-osmolar contrast agent...
April 23, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675272/topical-osmoprotectant-for-the-management-of-postrefractive-surgery-induced-dry-eye-symptoms-a-randomised-controlled-double-blind-trial
#17
R M Hazarbassanov, N G T Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, J N Barros, J A P Gomes
Background: Dry eye disease (DED) is one of the most common complications following refractive surgery. Purpose: Evaluate the efficacy of an osmoprotective eye drop (Optive®) for the management of induced DED in refractive surgery patients. Design: Double-masked randomised controlled trial. Methods: Twenty-two refractive surgery patients oriented to apply FreshTears (FT; n = 13) or Optive (Op; n = 9), topically, QID, for 3 months...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661284/pyruvate-in-reduced-osmolarity-oral-rehydration-salt-corrected-lactic-acidosis-in-sever-scald-rats
#18
Rui Liu, Shu-Ming Wang, Zong-Yu Li, Wen Yu, Hui-Ping Zhang, Fang-Qiang Zhou
BACKGROUND: A novel pyruvate-based oral rehydration salt (Pyr-ORS) was demonstrated of superiority over bicarbonate- or citrate-based one to preserve organ function and correct lactic acidosis in rehydration of lethal shock in animals. This study further compared these effects between low-osmolar Pyr-ORS and equimolar citrate-based counterpart. METHODS: Eighty rats, using a fatal burn shock model, were randomized into four groups (two subgroups per group: n = 10): the sham group (group SR), Pyr-ORS group (group PR), WHO-ORS III group (group CR), and no rehydration group...
June 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648981/glibenclamide-produces-region-dependent-effects-on-cerebral-edema-in-a-combined-injury-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-and-hemorrhagic-shock-in-mice
#19
Ruchira M Jha, Bradley J Molyneaux, Travis C Jackson, Jessica S Wallisch, Seo-Young Park, Samuel Poloyac, Vincent A Vagni, Keri L Janesko-Feldman, Keito Hoshitsuki, M Beth Minnigh, Patrick M Kochanek
Cerebral edema is critical to morbidity/mortality in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is worsened by hypotension. Glibenclamide may reduce cerebral edema by inhibiting sulfonylurea receptor-1 (Sur1); its effect on diffuse cerebral edema exacerbated by hypotension/resuscitation is unknown. We aimed to determine if glibenclamide improves pericontusional and/or diffuse edema in controlled cortical impact (CCI) (5m/sec, 1 mm depth) plus hemorrhagic shock (HS) (35 min), and compare its effects in CCI alone. C57BL/6 mice were divided into five groups (n = 10/group): naïve, CCI+vehicle, CCI+glibenclamide, CCI+HS+vehicle, and CCI+HS+glibenclamide...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600506/prediabetes-directly-deteriorates-into-diabetic-ketoacidosis-and-hyperosmolar-hyperglycemic-syndrome-triggered-by-acute-pancreatitis-a-case-report-illustrating-a-chicken-and-egg-paradigm-in-ketosis-prone-diabetes
#20
Runbo Song, Shanjin Cao
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic crises occur most often in patients with type 1 diabetes and occasionally in type 2 diabetes, especially under stressful conditions. However, a diabetic crisis occurring directly from prediabetes is an unusual phenomenon. CASE REPORT: A 45-year-old woman presented with postprandial left upper quadrant abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. She had a past medical history of prediabetes with impaired fasting glucose and HbA1c 6.4%. On admission, routine laboratory tests showed high anion gap metabolic acidosis (pH 6...
March 29, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
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