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Thujone toxicity

Francesca Santomauro, Rosa Donato, Cristiana Sacco, Gabriella Pini, Guido Flamini, Anna Rita Bilia
Candida spp. are often the cause of infection in immune-compromised individuals. They are characterized by a strong resistance to antimicrobial drugs and disinfectants. The activity of Artemisia annua essential oil against Candida spp. was determined by vapour contact and microdilution assay. The oil was characterized by the presence of oxygenated monoterpenes (more than 75 % of the constituents), mainly represented by the irregular monoterpene artemisia ketone (ca. 22 %), and the widespread monoterpenes 1,8 cineole (ca...
July 2016: Planta Medica
M S Abu-Darwish, C Cabral, M J Gonçalves, C Cavaleiro, M T Cruz, T Efferth, L Salgueiro
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGIC RELEVANCE: Artemisia herba-alba Asso ("desert wormwood" in English; "armoise blanche" in French; "shaih" in Arabic), is a medicinal and strongly aromatic plant widely used in traditional medicine by many cultures since ancient times. It is used to treat inflammatory disorders (colds, coughing, bronchitis, diarrhea), infectious diseases (skin diseases, scabies, syphilis) and others (diabetes, neuralgias). In Jordanian traditional medicine, this plant is used as antiseptic and against skin diseases, scabies, syphilis, fever as well as menstrual and nervous disorders...
November 4, 2015: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jürgen Hahn, Yulia B Monakhova, Julia Hengen, Matthias Kohl-Himmelseher, Jörg Schüssler, Harald Hahn, Thomas Kuballa, Dirk W Lachenmeier
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are advertised to tobacco users as a tool to decrease cigarette consumption and to reduce toxic exposure associated with conventional tobacco smoking. Little is known about the compounds contained in such products, their exposure and long-term health effects. METHODS: NMR spectroscopy was used to ascertain the content of several constituents of e-cigarette liquids including nicotine, solvents and some bioactive flavour compounds...
2014: Tobacco Induced Diseases
Kwang-Ho Kim, Chang-Geun Yi, Young-Joon Ahn, Soon Il Kim, Sang-Guei Lee, Jun-Ran Kim
BACKGROUND: This study was aimed at assessing the fumigant toxicity to adult Thrips palmi (a serious insect pest) and Orius strigicollis (a beneficial predator insect) of basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oil compounds and structurally related compounds using vapour-phase toxicity bioassays. RESULTS: Against adult T. palmi, linalool (LD50 0.0055 mg cm(-3) ) was the most toxic fumigant and was 15.2-fold more effective than dichlorvos (0.0837 mg cm(-3) ). Strong fumigant toxicity was also observed in pulegone (0...
September 2015: Pest Management Science
Abdelaziz Abbad, Ayoub Kasrati, Chaima Alaoui Jamali, Safia Zeroual, Touria Ba M'hamed, Robert Spooner-Hart, David Leach
The essential oils (EOs) of Artemisia herba alba, Rutachalepensis and Satureja calamintha aerial parts were analysed by GC/MS and the EOs were tested for their toxicity against two flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum. EO composition showed that the major compounds were pulegone, menthone and menthol for S. calamintha, camphor and β-thujone for A. herba alba and 2-undecanone for R. chalepensis. Contact bioassay showed that all EOs were toxic to adults of T. castaneum and T. confusum. Higher toxicity was found with the EOs from S...
2014: Natural Product Research
Alexandra Kodadová, Zuzana Vitková, Petra Herdová, Anton Ťažký, Jarmila Oremusová, Daniel Grančai, Peter Mikuš
This study deals with the formulation of natural drugs into hydrogels. For the first time, compounds from the sage essential oil were formulated into chitosan hydrogels. A sample preparation procedure for hydrophobic volatile analytes present in a hydrophilic water matrix along with an analytical method based on the gas chromatography coupled with the mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed and applied for the evaluation of the identity and quantity of essential oil components in the hydrogels and saline samples...
2015: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
E M Rivera, M P Cid, P Zunino, G Baiardi, N A Salvatierra
The convulsant effects of α-thujone are attributed to inhibitory actions on the GABAA receptor. We investigated, for the first time, the effects of α-thujone or β-thujone administrated centrally on the fear/anxiety behaviour of 3-day-old chicks in an Open Field and their modulation on the GABAA receptor. Higher doses were convulsant by eliciting a toxic and excitatory action, with the results showing that a dose of 78 nmol of either of the two diastereoisomers had an anxiogenic-like effect observed as an increased latency to ambulate and a reduced locomotor activity in an Open Field...
March 25, 2014: Brain Research
M Mojarrab, A Delazar, S Esnaashari, F Heshmati Afshar
The essential oils of the aerial parts of A. armeniaca and A. incana, collected from Arasbaran area (East Azarbaijan province, Iran) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. In total, 16 and 40 constituents were identified and quantified in the oils of A. armeniaca and A. incana representing 80.5% and 84.6% of the oils, respectively. The essential oil of A. armeniaca was mainly composed of non-terpene hydrocarbons (24.8%). The major components of the oil were α-pinene (10.7%), nonadecane (10...
January 2013: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
Suramya Waidyanatha, Jerry D Johnson, S Peter Hong, Veronica Godfrey Robinson, Seth Gibbs, Steven W Graves, Michelle J Hooth, Cynthia S Smith
Plants containing thujone have widespread use and hence have significant human exposure. α-Thujone caused seizures in rodents following gavage administration. We investigated the toxicokinetics of α-thujone in male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice following intravenous and gavage administration of α-thujone or a mixture of α- and β-thujone (which will be referred to as α,β-thujone). Absorption of α-thujone following gavage administration was rapid without any dose-, species-, sex- or test article-related effect...
September 1, 2013: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Olavi Pelkonen, Khaled Abass, Jacqueline Wiesner
Thujone, a major component of the notoriously famous absinthe drink, is neurotoxic, although the current view rather downgrades its risk to humans. In animal studies, thujone inhibits the gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A)) receptor causing excitation and convulsions in a dose-dependent manner, although there are uncertainties about the doses required in humans. Toxicity of thujone has been extensively studied. Neurotoxicity is the principal toxic outcome in acute and chronic studies. There is some equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity in rats...
February 2013: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Stephan G Walch, Dirk W Lachenmeier, Thomas Kuballa, Wolf Stühlinger, Yulia B Monakhova
A methodology that utilizes (1)H-NMR spectroscopy has been developed to simultaneously analyze toxic terpenes (thujone and camphor), major polyphenolic compounds, the total antioxidant capacity (ORAC) and the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) index in foods and medicines containing sage. The quantitative determination of rosmarinic acid (limit of detection (LOD) = 10 mg/L) and total thujone (LOD = 0.35 mg/L) was possible using direct integration of the signals. For other parameters (derivatives of rosmarinic acid, carnosol and flavone glycosides, ORAC and FC index), chemometric regression models obtained separately for alcohol-based tinctures (R(2) = 0...
2012: Analytical Chemistry Insights
Niko S Radulović, Milan S Dekić, Pavle J Ranđelović, Nikola M Stojanović, Aleksandra R Zarubica, Zorica Z Stojanović-Radić
Many plant species are used for medicinal purposes without the knowledge of their possible toxic effect. The ethnopharmacologically renowned genus Achillea L. (Asteraceae) is even more troublesome in this respect since different taxa are believed to have the same beneficial properties as A. millefolium. According to the median lethal i.p. dose (LD(50)=853 mg/kg, mice), the volatiles of Achillea umbellata Sibth. et Sm. are more toxic than the thujone-containing essential oils (LD(50)>960 mg/kg). A GC-MS analysis of A...
June 2012: Food and Chemical Toxicology
H Nahrevanian, B Esmaeili, M Kazemi, H Nazem, M Amini
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimalarial effects of Iranian flora Artemisia khorassanica against Plasmodium bergheiin vivo and pharmacochemistry of its natural components. METHODS: The aerial parts of Iranian flora A. khorasanica were collected at flowering stage from Khorassan Province, northeastern Iran in 2008. They were air-dried at room temperature; powder was macerated in methanol and the extract defatted in refrigerator, filtered, diluted with water, then eluted with n-hexane and finally non-polar components were identified through Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS)...
March 2010: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: α,β-Thujone is a component of the essential oils of some plants including wormwood, sage, and cedar. It is used in herbal medicines, food and flavoring, and notably as the principal ingredient of the liqueur absinthe. We studied the effects of α,β-thujone on male and female rats and mice to identify potential toxic or cancer-related hazards. METHOD: We deposited solutions containing α,β-thujone in methylcellulose through a tube directly into the stomach to groups of 50 male and female rats and mice five days per week for two years...
November 2011: National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series
Katerina Bousova, Klaus Mittendorf, Hamide Senyuva
A method was developed using automated headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with GC/MS/MS to simultaneously determine the presence of seven biologically active flavoring substances whose levels of use in processed foods is controlled by statutory limits. The method can be applied to identify and quantify the presence of 1,2-benzopyrone (coumarin), beta-asarone, 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene (estragole), menthofuran, 4-allyl-1 ,2-dimethoxybenzene (methyl eugenol), pulegone, and thujone at levels ranging from 0...
July 2011: Journal of AOAC International
Oya Halicioglu, Gorkem Astarcioglu, Isin Yaprak, Halil Aydinlioglu
Although it is widely believed that herbal products are beneficial to the health, some herbal products can result in serious adverse effects, such as epileptic seizures, especially in children who are particularly susceptible. Sage oil contains well-known convulsant substances such as thujone, camphor, and cineole in different proportions. We report 2 cases, those of a newborn and a toddler, who experienced generalized tonic-clonic seizures after accidental exposure to sage oil. No other causes of seizure were detected by our clinical inquiries in either of the patients...
October 2011: Pediatric Neurology
S Sertel, T Eichhorn, P K Plinkert, T Efferth
BACKGROUND: Every year there are several hundred thousand new cases of oral cancer worldwide. Clinical oncology is still challenged by toxicity and side effects of multimodal therapy strategies in which is associated with poor prognosis for patients. There is an urgent necessity to develop novel therapy strategies. As the majority of anticancer drugs are of natural origin, natural products represent a valuable source for the identification and development of novel treatment options for cancer...
December 2011: HNO
Taieb Tounekti, Sergi Munné-Bosch, A M Vadel, Chaker Chtara, Habib Khemira
The potential of four essential cations (K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Fe(2+)) to alleviate salt toxicity was studied in sage (Salvia officinalis L.) plants grown in pots. Two concentrations of the following chloride salts: KCl, CaCl₂, MgCl₂ and FeCl₃, were used together with 100mM NaCl to study the effects of these nutrients on plant growth, leaf essential oils (EOs) and phenolic diterpenes composition. The sage plants accumulated Na(+) in their leaves (includers); this has affected secondary metabolites' biosynthesis...
October 2010: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Zhi Long Liu, Quan Ru Liu, Sha Sha Chu, Guo Hua Jiang
In our screening program for new agrochemicals from local wild plants, Artemisia lavandulaefolia and A. sieversiana were found to possess insecticidal activity against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. The essential oils of the aerial parts of the two plants were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The main components of A. lavandulaefolia oil were caryophyllene (15.5%), beta-thujone (13.8%), eucalyptol (13.1%), and beta-farnesene (12.3%), and the principal compounds identified in A...
August 2010: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Dirk W Lachenmeier, Michael Uebelacker
Thujone is a natural substance found in plants commonly used in foods and beverages, such as wormwood and sage, as well as in herbal medicines. The current limits for thujone in food products are based on short-term animal studies from the 1960s, which provided evidence for a threshold-based mechanism, yet only allowed for the derivation of preliminary values for acceptable daily intakes (ADI) based on the no-observed effect level (NOEL). While the 2008 European Union Regulation on flavourings deregulated the food use of thujone, the European Medicines Agency introduced limits for the substance in 2009...
December 2010: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
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