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Eirini Sarrou, Ioannis Ganopoulos, Aliki Xanthopoulou, Domenico Masuero, Stefan Martens, Panagiotis Madesis, Athanasios Mavromatis, Paschalina Chatzopoulou
As a result of this work, we were able to characterize seven indigenous to Greece Salvia officinalis populations using genetic and metabolomic tools. These tools can be used to select the most promising genotypes, capable to design future breeding programs for high valuable varieties. An initial investigation was carried out to compare the genetic and metabolic diversity in S. officinalis grown in Greece and to discern the relationship between the two sets of data. Analysis of inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) revealed significant genetic differences among seven sage populations, which were grouped into three main clusters according to an UPGMA ISSR data-based dendrogram and Principle Coordinate Analysis...
March 17, 2017: Planta
Lorenzo Boggia, Giuseppe Pignata, Barbara Sgorbini, Maria Laura Colombo, Arianna Marengo, Manuela Casale, Silvana Nicola, Carlo Bicchi, Patrizia Rubiolo
A. umbelliformis, commonly known as "white génépi", is characterized by a volatile fraction rich in - and β- thujone, two monoterpenoids; under EU regulations these are limited to 35 mg/L in Artemisia-based beverages , because of their recognized activity on human central nervous system. This study reports the results of an investigation to define the geographical origin and thujone content of individual plants of A. umbelliformis from different geographical sites, cultivated experimentally at a single site, and to predict the thujone content in the resulting liqueurs, through their volatile fraction...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Justine E Giffen, Ashton D Lesiak, A John Dane, Robert B Cody, Rabi A Musah
INTRODUCTION: The Salvia genus contains numerous economically important plants that have horticultural, culinary and nutraceutical uses. They are often similar in appearance, making species determination difficult. Species identification of dried Salvia products is also challenging since distinguishing plant morphological features are no longer present. OBJECTIVE: The development of a simple high-throughput method of analysis of fresh and dried Salvia leaves that would permit rapid species-level identification and detection of diagnostic biomarkers...
January 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Lillian C Becker, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen
Cosmetic ingredients derived from Achillea millefolium function in cosmetics as skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous, skin-conditioning agents-humectants, and fragrance ingredients. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed relevant animal and human data to determine their safety in cosmetics and raised concerns about cosmetics containing linalool, thujone, quercetin, hydroquinone, or α-peroxyachifolid. Because final product formulations may contain multiple botanicals, each containing similar constituents of concern, formulators are advised to be aware of these components and to avoid reaching levels that may be hazardous to consumers...
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
Diego A Sampietro, Analía de Los A Gomez, Cristina M Jimenez, Emilio F Lizarraga, Zharkyn A Ibatayev, Yerlan M Suleimen, Cesar A Catalán
The composition of essential oils from leaves of Kazakhstan medicinal plants was analysed by GC-MS. The major compounds identified were 1,8-cineole (34.2%), myrcene (19.1%) and α-pinene (9.4%) in Ajania fruticulosa; 1,8-cineole (21.0%), β-thujone (11.0%), camphor (8.5%), borneol (7.3%) and α-thujone (6.5%), in Achillea nobilis; camphor (47.3%), 1,8-cineole (23.9%), camphene (9.8%) and β-thujone (6.0%) in Artemisia terrae-albae; 1,8-cineole(55.8%) and β-pinene (6.2%) in Hyssopus ambiguus; α-thuyene(46...
November 23, 2016: Natural Product Research
Campana Raffaella, Luca Casettari, Laura Fagioli, Marco Cespi, Giulia Bonacucina, Wally Baffone
Food safety is a fundamental concern for both consumers and the food industry, especially as the numbers of reported cases of food-associated infections continue to increase. Industrial surfaces can provide a suitable substrate for the development and persistence of bacterial organized in biofilms that represent a potential source of food contamination. The negative consumer perception of chemical disinfectants has shifted the attention to natural substances, such as plant extracts. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using the essential oils (EOs) in the fight against S...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Alexandra Kodadová, Zuzana Vitková, Jarmila Oremusová, Petra Herdová, Anton Ťažký, Peter Mikuš
This work was aimed at a progressive formulation of drugs into chitosan hydrogels. It was taken into consideration that a therapeutic effect of the drugs could be enhanced by a combination of natural compounds with chemical (synthetic) drugs. In this work, sage essential oil (SEO) bicyclic monoterpenes with antiflogistic, antiseptic, and antimycotic properties were combined with terbinafine (TB) having a strong antimycotic activity. Detail optimization of the hydrogel-drugs composition (SEO monoterpenes, TB, chitosan, and polysorbate 80 concentrations), based on permeation experiment and UV absorption/GC-MS analysis of permeated species (eucalyptol, camphor, borneol, thujone, TB) in dialysates, was made...
January 1, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Irene Thamm, Johannes Richers, Michael Rychlik, Konrad Tiefenbacher
The short synthesis of α-thujone relies on the functionalization of the readily available dimethylfulvene. Furthermore, the three main metabolites of the natural product were also synthesized. Since d6-acetone can be used as a starting material, the route developed allows for the facile incorporation of isotopic labels which are required for detecting and quantifying trace amounts via GC/MS analysis.
September 22, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Richard Karban, Patrick Grof-Tisza, James D Blande
Plants that are damaged by herbivores emit complex blends of volatile compounds that often cause neighboring branches to induce resistance. Experimentally clipped sagebrush foliage emits volatiles that neighboring individuals recognize and respond to. These volatiles vary among individuals within a population. Two distinct types are most common with either thujone or camphor as the predominate compound, along with other less common types. Individuals respond more effectively to cues from the same type, suggesting that some of the informative message is contained in the compounds that differentiate the types...
August 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Benoit Bach, Marilyn Cleroux, Mayra Saillen, Patrik Schönenberger, Stephane Burgos, Julien Ducruet, Armelle Vallat
The concentrations of α/β-thujone and the bitter components of Artemisia absinthium were quantified from alcoholic wormwood extracts during four phenological stages of their harvest period. A solid-phase micro-extraction method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine the concentration of the two isomeric forms of thujone. In parallel, the combination of ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry allowed to quantify the compounds absinthin, artemisetin and dihydro-epi-deoxyarteannuin B...
December 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Mohammed El-Amin Said, Marcello Militello, Sergio Saia, Luca Settanni, Aurora Aleo, Caterina Mammina, Isabelle Bombarda, Pierre Vanloot, Christian Roussel, Nathalie Dupuy
Aerial parts of Artemisia arborescens were collected from different sites of the Mediterranean area (southwestern Algeria and southern Italy) and the chemical composition of their essential oil (EO) extracted by hydrodistillation was studied by both gas chromatography (GC) equipped with an enantioselective capillary column and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The EOs obtained were tested against several Listeria monocytogenes strains. Using GC and GC/MS, 41 compounds were identified, accounting for 96.0 - 98...
August 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Francesca Santomauro, Rosa Donato, Cristiana Sacco, Gabriella Pini, Guido Flamini, Anna Rita Bilia
Candida spp. are often the cause of infection in immune-compromised individuals. They are characterized by a strong resistance to antimicrobial drugs and disinfectants. The activity of Artemisia annua essential oil against Candida spp. was determined by vapour contact and microdilution assay. The oil was characterized by the presence of oxygenated monoterpenes (more than 75 % of the constituents), mainly represented by the irregular monoterpene artemisia ketone (ca. 22 %), and the widespread monoterpenes 1,8 cineole (ca...
July 2016: Planta Medica
Jack D Williams, Jessica A Yazarians, Chelcie C Almeyda, Kristin A Anderson, Gregory R Boyce
The discovery of the (+)-α-thujone and (-)-β-thujone stereoisomers in the essential oil of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and dietary supplements is documented for the first time. The detection was accomplished using a chiral resolution protocol of racemic α-/β-thujone on headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Because the previously unreported stereoisomers, (+)-α-thujone and (-)-β-thujone, are not commercially available, a three-step synthesis of racemic thujone from commercially available starting materials was developed...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
María Elisa Mariani, Mariela E Sánchez-Borzone, Daniel A García
The cyclic ketones, thujone and dihydrocarvone, are lipophilic components of essential oils extracted from different plants, which have proven insecticidal activity. The GABAA receptor is activated by the neurotransmitter GABA and is the action site of widely used neurotoxic pesticides. Many compounds that regulate GABAA receptor function interact with membrane lipids, causing changes in their physical properties and consequently, in the membrane dynamic characteristics that modulate receptor macromolecules...
2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Angelo Torres, Yosselyn Vargas, Daniel Uribe, Cristian Carrasco, Cristian Torres, René Rocha, Carlos Oyarzún, Rody San Martín, Claudia Quezada
The most aggressive type of brain tumor is glioblastoma multiforme, which to date remains incurable. Thuja occidentalis is used in homeopathy for the treatment of cancer, however, its mechanism of action remains unknown. We set out to study the effects of thujone fractions of Thuja on glioblastoma using in vitro and in vivo models. We found that the α/ β-thujone fraction decrease the cell viability and exhibit a potent anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects in vitro. In vivo assays showed that α /β-thujone promotes the regression of neoplasia and inhibits the angiogenic markers VEGF, Ang-4 and CD31 into the tumor...
May 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Michal P Dybowski, Andrzej L Dawidowicz
Absinthe is a strong spirit beverage, mostly green in color, containing besides ethyl alcohol (main component), alcoholic macerate of wormwood and other plants such as star anise and fennel seed. Due to the potential risks associated with the presence of α- and β-thujone many countries have implemented strict rules limiting the content of these congeners in alcohol products. The presented paper describes a simple and sensitive method for the determination of α- and β-thujone in human serum using Solid Phase Extraction as a sample preparation method combined with GC/MS analysis...
February 2016: Forensic Science International
Mohammed El-Amin Said, Pierre Vanloot, Isabelle Bombarda, Jean-Valère Naubron, El Montassir Dahmane, Ahmed Aamouche, Marion Jean, Nicolas Vanthuyne, Nathalie Dupuy, Christian Roussel
An unprecedented methodology was developed to simultaneously assign the relative percentages of the major chiral compounds and their prevailing enantiomeric form in crude essential oils (EOs). In a first step the infrared (IR) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of the crude essential oils were recorded and in a second step they were modelized as a linear weighted combination of the IR and VCD spectra of the individual spectra of pure enantiomer of the major chiral compounds present in the EOs...
January 15, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Yu Zhou, Jun-quan Liu, Zhong-hai Zhou, Xiao-ting Lv, Yong-qiang Chen, Lei-qing Sun, Fu-xing Chen
Thujone is a monoterpene ketone natural substance found mainly in wormwood and sage. Previous studies have shown that Thujone has various pharmacological effects, such as anti-tumor, analgesic, and insecticide. The effect of α-Thujone to human immune cells is still unknown. Our study focuses on investigating the effects and mechanism of α-Thujone to CD3AK (anti- CD3 antibody induced activated killer) cells proliferation and cytotoxicity to colon cancer cell lines. With cell proliferation and FCM assay, it is found that α-Thujone could significantly enhance CD3AK cell proliferation and expression of CD107a in a dose-dependent manner...
January 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Biljana Nikolić, Bojana Vasilijević, Dragana Mitić-Ćulafić, Branka Vuković-Gačić, Jelena Knežević-Vukćević
Genotoxic/antigenotoxic, mutagenic/antimutagenic and cytotoxic effects of monoterpenes camphor, eucalyptol and thujone were determined in bacteria and mammalian cells using alkaline comet assay, Escherichia coli K12 reversion test and MTT assay, respectively. When applied in low doses (up to 200 μM in bacterial assay and 50 μM in comet assay) monoterpenes protected repair proficient E. coli and Vero cells against UV-induced mutagenesis and 4NQO-induced DNA strand breaks, respectively. Antimutagenic response was not detected in nucleotide excision repair (NER) deficient bacteria...
December 5, 2015: Chemico-biological Interactions
Rosaria Costa, Salvatore Ragusa, Marina Russo, Giovanna Certo, Flavio A Franchina, Antonio Zanotto, Elisa Grasso, Luigi Mondello, Maria Paola Germanò
Artemisia arborescens, also known as tree wormwood, is a typical species of the Mediterranean flora. It has been used in folk medicine for its antispasmodic, anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory, and abortifacient properties. In the current study, the application of multidimensional comprehensive gas chromatography (GC×GC), allowed to obtain a detailed fingerprint of the essential oil from A. arborescens aerial parts, highlighting an abundant presence of chamazulene followed by camphor, β-thujone, myrcene, and α-pinene...
January 5, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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