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Vanessa Andreu, Annabel Levert, Anaïs Amiot, Anaïs Cousin, Nicolas Aveline, Cédric Bertrand
Five plant extracts traditionally used in organic and biodynamic farming for pest control and antifungal (downy mildew) disease management were selected after a farmer survey and analyzed for their chemical composition in LC-PDA-MS-MS and using adapted analytical method from food chemistry for determination of class of component (e.g., protein, sugar, lipids…). Their antifungal activity against Penicillium expansum, Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis allii, brown rot causing agents (Monilinia laxa and Monilinia fructigena), and grape downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) was examined in vitro...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Paul Eling, Alla Vein
This study focuses on two outstanding psychiatrists: the Frenchman Valentin Magnan (1835-1916) and the Russian Sergey Korsakov (1854-1900). Their international renown is primarily associated with their investigations into health consequences of alcohol consumption; they were pioneers in this field, and happened to know each other well. The similarities and differences are shown in social and scientific approaches adopted by these two scientists. In his work, Magnan focused mainly on absinthe and epilepsy; he considered alcoholism to be a hereditary mental disorder...
April 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
Haider Rahman, Marina Kim, Galen Leung, Jesse A Green, Seymour Katz
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is becoming more prevalent with the elderly being the fastest growing group. Parallel to this, there is an increasing interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Nearly half of patients with IBD have used CAM at one time. The elderly patients, however, are burdened by comorbid conditions, polypharmacy, and altered functional status. With increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine in our elderly patients with IBD, it is vital for the provider to provide counsel on drug-herb potential interactions...
December 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Ahmed Sultan, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Dmitro Isaev, Eslam El Nebrisi, Nurulain Syed, Nadia Khan, Christopher F Howarth, Bassem Sadek, Murat Oz
Effects of thujone, a major ingredient of absinthe, wormwood oil and some herbal medicines, were tested on the function of α7 subunit of the human nicotinic acetylcholine (α7 nACh) receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Thujone reversibly inhibited ACh (100μM)-induced currents with an IC50 value of 24.7μM. The effect of thujone was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve Ca2+ -dependent Cl- channels expressed endogenously in oocytes. Inhibition by thujone was not reversed by increasing ACh concentrations...
June 1, 2017: Toxicology
Mohammad Ali, Bilal Haider Abbasi, Nisar Ahmad, Haji Khan, Gul Shad Ali
The genus Artemisia has been utilized worldwide due to its immense potential for protection against various diseases, especially malaria. Artemisia absinthium, previously renowned for its utilization in the popular beverage absinthe, is gaining resurgence due to its extensive pharmacological activities. Like A. annua, this species exhibits strong biological activities like antimalarial, anticancer and antioxidant. Although artemisinin was found to be the major metabolite for its antimalarial effects, several flavonoids and terpenoids are considered to possess biological activities when used alone and also to synergistically boost the bioavailability of artemisinin...
November 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Benoit Bach, Marilyn Cleroux, Mayra Saillen, Patrik Schönenberger, Stephane Burgos, Julien Ducruet, Armelle Vallat
The concentrations of α/β-thujone and the bitter components of Artemisia absinthium were quantified from alcoholic wormwood extracts during four phenological stages of their harvest period. A solid-phase micro-extraction method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine the concentration of the two isomeric forms of thujone. In parallel, the combination of ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry allowed to quantify the compounds absinthin, artemisetin and dihydro-epi-deoxyarteannuin B...
December 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Michal P Dybowski, Andrzej L Dawidowicz
Absinthe is a strong spirit beverage, mostly green in color, containing besides ethyl alcohol (main component), alcoholic macerate of wormwood and other plants such as star anise and fennel seed. Due to the potential risks associated with the presence of α- and β-thujone many countries have implemented strict rules limiting the content of these congeners in alcohol products. The presented paper describes a simple and sensitive method for the determination of α- and β-thujone in human serum using Solid Phase Extraction as a sample preparation method combined with GC/MS analysis...
February 2016: Forensic Science International
Natacha Roudnitzky, Maik Behrens, Anika Engel, Susann Kohl, Sophie Thalmann, Sandra Hübner, Kristina Lossow, Stephen P Wooding, Wolfgang Meyerhof
The ability to taste bitterness evolved to safeguard most animals, including humans, against potentially toxic substances, thereby leading to food rejection. Nonetheless, bitter perception is subject to individual variations due to the presence of genetic functional polymorphisms in bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) genes, such as the long-known association between genetic polymorphisms in TAS2R38 and bitter taste perception of phenylthiocarbamide. Yet, due to overlaps in specificities across receptors, such associations with a single TAS2R locus are uncommon...
2015: PLoS Genetics
Thomas B Cole
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2015: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Ibolya Pezenhoffer, József Gerevich
Although in recent decades the literature has paid special attention to Vincent van Gogh's life, work and illness, there has still not been an examination of the connections between his trait aggression and his suicide. The present study traces, in the light of this trait aggression, the predictive factors that can be observed on the path leading to the artist's suicide. Biographical documents, case history data, as well as letters and the findings of earlier research have been used in the course of the analysis...
2015: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
Kalyan B Bhattacharyya, Saurabh Rai
Vincent Van Gogh is one of the most celebrated creative artists of all time. All his life, he was afflicted by some kind of neurological or psychiatric disorder, which remains a mystery even today. Many historians and his personal physicians believe that he suffered from epilepsy while others felt that he was affected by Ménière's disease. Features such as hypergraphia, atypical sexuality, and viscosity of thinking suggest the possibility of Gastaut-Geschwind phenomenon, a known complication of complex partial seizure...
January 2015: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Lucia D'Ulivo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2014: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Yves Chapuis
Absinthe (Artemisia absinthium) has been known for its medicinal properties since Antiquity. The Egyptians in 1600 BC, then Hippocrates, Galien, The Salerne School in 1649, and 18th-century physicians all recommended it for a variety of maladies. In 1780-1790 in Switzerland (Val de Travers), a traditional healer and, probably, a itinerant physician by the name of Docteur Ordinaire, transformed this purgative elixir into an aperitif liqueur, a move followed by two centuries of unexpected success. Absinthe was manufactured in France, at Pontarlier, for tax reasons...
February 2013: Bulletin de L'Académie Nationale de Médecine
Martin Kächele, Yulia B Monakhova, Thomas Kuballa, Dirk W Lachenmeier
Acrolein (propenal) is found in many foods and beverages and may pose a health hazard due to its cytotoxicity. Considerable knowledge gaps regarding human exposure to acrolein exist, and there is a lack of reliable analytical methods. Hydroalcoholic dilutions prepared for calibration purposes from pure acrolein show considerable degradation of the compound and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy showed that 1,3,3-propanetriol and 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde are formed. The degradation can be prevented by addition of hydroquinone as stabilizer to the calibration solutions, which then show linear concentration-response behaviour required for quantitative analysis...
April 11, 2014: Analytica Chimica Acta
Lucia D'Ulivo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2014: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Yves Chapuis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2013: La Revue du Praticien
Michael Montagne
Absinthe, a famous liquor of the 19th century, has become immensely popular with its return to legality and mass marketing and drug culture enhancement of its purported unique effects. The electronic world of the Internet has greatly expedited the extent and depth of societal knowledge about the allure of the green fairy, absinthe. An extensive number of websites exists, representing 22 categories of topics about or using the word absinthe. Recent research has dispelled many myths about absinthe and its effects, yet beliefs about its magical powers persist, thus maintaining its reputation as an extraordinary experience within a bohemian lifestyle...
May 2013: Substance Use & Misuse
Jean-Yves Nau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2013: Revue Médicale Suisse
Marta M Czyzewska, Jerzy W Mozrzymas
A monoterpene ketone, α-thujone originally attracted attention as a major natural ingredient of absinthe and was suspected to cause adverse effects such as hallucinations and seizures in persons excessively consuming this beverage. Although subsequent studies ruled out any major role of α-thujone in the "absynthism", it was found that at high doses it may induce epileptic activity pointing to an interaction with GABAergic inhibition. Indeed, subsequent studies, including those from this laboratory, showed that α-thujone inhibits GABAergic currents...
February 28, 2013: European Journal of Pharmacology
Olavi Pelkonen, Khaled Abass, Jacqueline Wiesner
Thujone, a major component of the notoriously famous absinthe drink, is neurotoxic, although the current view rather downgrades its risk to humans. In animal studies, thujone inhibits the gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A)) receptor causing excitation and convulsions in a dose-dependent manner, although there are uncertainties about the doses required in humans. Toxicity of thujone has been extensively studied. Neurotoxicity is the principal toxic outcome in acute and chronic studies. There is some equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity in rats...
February 2013: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
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