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Mercury toxicity

Ayana R Anderson, Taniece R Eure, Maureen F Orr, Lloyd J Kolbe, Alan Woolf
Children are considered to be a vulnerabletion when it comes to exposures to hazardous substances. Schools, where children spend about one third of their day, are expected to be a safe environment. Yet, there are many hazardous substances in schools that can be inadvertently or intentionally released and harm the health of students and teachers alike. The purpose of this analysis is to characterize acute chemical release incidents in school settings and identify prevention practices. The acute chemical incident surveillance programs of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) captured 24,748 acute chemical release incidents from 14 states that participated during 2008-2013...
November 2017: Journal of Environmental Health
K Abass, A Huusko, H K Knutsen, P Nieminen, P Myllynen, H M Meltzer, K Vahakangas, A Rautio
Mercury is a toxic metal that can be disseminated into the environment from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Human exposure to the metal stems mainly from food, and more particularly from the consumption of fish and other seafoods. Examining dietary exposure and measuring mercury levels in body tissues are two ways of estimating exposure to mercury. In this study, we utilized a modelling system consisting of three linear toxicokinetic models for describing the fate of methyl mercury, inorganic mercury, and metallic mercury in the body, in order to estimate daily intake of mercury as measured through total mercury concentrations in the blood...
February 15, 2018: Environment International
Hayoung Rhee, Taemin Kim, Jong-In Hong
Mercury, one of the most prevalent toxic metal elements, poses severe risks to human health and the environment. Several molecular probes have been developed for colorimetric and fluorometric detection of Hg(ii) ions. Nevertheless, development of a rapid, selective, and sensitive probe for Hg(ii) ions remains important. Herein, we report three Ir(iii) complex-based phosphorescence and electrochemiluminescence chemodosimeters for the selective detection of Hg(ii) ions. The acetylacetonate ancillary ligand of probe 1 reacts selectively with the Hg(ii) ion, inducing phosphorescence enhancement with a concomitant blue-shift...
February 15, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Airton da Cunha Martins, Maria Fernanda Hornos Carneiro, Denise Grotto, Joseph A Adeyemi, Fernando Barbosa
Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) are toxic elements widely distributed in the environment. Exposure to these elements was attributed to produce several acute and chronic illnesses including hypertension. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the most frequently proposed mechanisms underlying hypertension associated with As, Cd, and Hg exposure including: oxidative stress, impaired nitric oxide (NO) signaling, modified vascular response to neurotransmitters and disturbed vascular muscle Ca 2+ signaling, renal damage, and interference with the renin-angiotensin system...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
Lin Xu, Wenchao Zhang, Xianchen Liu, Cuili Zhang, Pin Wang, Xiulan Zhao
BACKGROUND: Environmental exposure to toxic metals has been postulated to play a role in the pathophysiological processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the circulatory levels of toxic metals in AD patients are not consistent in previous studies. OBJECTIVE: To systematically assess levels of toxic metals (aluminum, mercury, cadmium, lead) in the circulation (blood, serum/plasma) of AD patients and controls. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were systematically searched to identify studies published up to January 1, 2017...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Edward J Calabrese, Ivo Iavicoli, Vittorio Calabrese, Deborah A Cory-Slechta, James Giordano
This paper assessed approximately 30 studies, mostly involving occupationally exposed subjects, concerning the extent to which those who developed elemental mercury (Hg)-induced central and/or peripheral neurotoxicities from chronic or acute exposures recover functionality and/or performance. While some recovery occurred in the vast majority of cases, the extent of such recoveries varied considerably by individual and endpoint. Factors accounting for the extensive inter-individual variation in toxicity and recovery were not specifically assessed such as age, gender, diet, environmental enrichment, chelation strategies and dose-rate...
February 9, 2018: Environmental Research
Joyce Dos Santos Freitas, Eliza Maria da Costa Brito Lacerda, Isabelle Christine Vieira da Silva Martins, Dario Rodrigues, Daniela Maria Oliveira Bonci, Maria Izabel Tentes Cortes, Tereza Cristina Oliveira Corvelo, Dora Fix Ventura, Luiz Carlos de Lima Silveira, Maria da Conceição Nascimento Pinheiro, Givago da Silva Souza
BACKGROUND: Mercury exposure in the Brazilian Amazon region has been an important concern since the 1980s, when gold mining activities contaminated many Amazonian river basins and the fish therein. Mercury exposure in humans can lead to changes in neural function. The visual system has been used as a functional indicator of methylmercury (organic) and mercury vapour (inorganic) toxicity. Children are particularly vulnerable to this metal exposure. OBJECTIVE: To compare the color vision of children from riverine communities of mercury-exposed (Tapajós basin) and non-exposed Amazonian rivers (Tocantins basin)...
February 8, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Dirce Martins de Oliveira, Rodrigo Pereira Cavalcante, Lucas de Melo da Silva, Carme Sans, Santiago Esplugas, Silvio Cesar de Oliveira, Amilcar Machulek Junior
This paper reports the degradation of 10 mg L-1 Ametryn solution with different advanced oxidation processes and by ultraviolet (UV254) irradiation alone with the main objective of reducing acute toxicity and increase biodegradability. The investigated factors included Fe2+ and H2O2 concentrations. The effectiveness of the UV254 and UV254/H2O2 processes were investigated using a low-pressure mercury UV lamp (254 nm). Photo-Fenton process was explored using a blacklight blue lamp (BLB, λ = 365 nm). The UV254 irradiation process achieved complete degradation of Ametryn solution after 60 min...
February 9, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Preeti Sharma, Uma Melkania
In the present study, the effect of heavy metals (lead, mercury, copper, and chromium) on the hydrogen production from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was investigated using co-culture of facultative anaerobes Enterobacter aerogenes and E. coli. Heavy metals were applied at concentration range of 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 mg/L. The results revealed that lead, mercury, and chromium negatively affected hydrogen production for the range of concentrations applied. Application of copper slightly enhanced hydrogen production at low concentration and resulted in the hydrogen yield of 36...
February 6, 2018: Waste Management
Efrén Garcia-Ordiales, Stefano Covelli, Jose Manuel Rico, Nieves Roqueñí, Giorgio Fontolan, German Flor-Blanco, Pablo Cienfuegos, Jorge Loredo
Sediments contaminated by Hg and As from two historical mining areas have been deposited in the Nalón estuary (Asturias, northern Spain) since 1850. Total mercury (Hgtotal) concentrations in the sediments range from 0.20 μg g-1 to 1.33 μg g-1, most of it in the form of sulphides. Concentrations of methylmercury (303.20-865.40 pg g-1) are up to two orders of magnitude lower than the concentration of Hgtotal. Total As concentration (Astotal) is enriched compared to the background level for the area...
February 2, 2018: Chemosphere
David L Taylor, Nicholas M Calabrese
Total mercury (Hg; ppm dry weight) was measured in blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, collected from Narraganset Bay and adjacent coastal lagoons and tidal rivers (Rhode Island/Massachusetts, USA) from May to August 2006-2016. For juvenile crabs (21-79mm carapace width, CW), total Hg was significantly greater in chelae muscle tissue (mean±1 SD=0.32±0.21ppm; n=65) relative to whole bodies (0.21±0.16ppm; n=19), and irrespective of tissue-type, crab Hg was positively related to CW indicating bioaccumulation of the toxicant...
January 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Shamshad Karatela, Neil I Ward, Irene Suilan Zeng, Janis Paterson
OBJECTIVE: Elemental deficiencies or in excess effects growth and development. Pacific population are at a disadvantage due to food insecurity as compared to New Zealand European households. This study aims to evaluate the status and interrelationship of elements (essential, non-essential and toxic) in nine-year-old Pacific children who were part of the Pacific Island Families Study living in New Zealand. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This observational study included 278 eligible nine-year-old children...
March 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Yanfang Ouyang, Yi Peng, Jing Li, Arne Holmgren, Jun Lu
The thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems possess a variety of biological activities in mammalian cells, including the defense against oxidative stress, regulation of DNA synthesis, the cell cycle and the mediation of apoptosis. The thioredoxin system, comprised of NADPH, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and thioredoxin (Trx), exerts its activities via a disulfide-dithiol exchange reaction. Mammalian TrxRs are selenoproteins; the thiols and selenols in the active site of these enzymes confer the thioredoxin system to work as soft bases, which have a high affinity with soft acids, including numerous metal ions...
February 7, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Carla Garza-Lombo, Yanahi Posadas, Liliana Quintanar, Maria E Gonsebatt, Rodrigo Franco
SIGNIFICANCE: Essential metals such as copper, iron, manganese and zinc play a role as cofactors in the activity of a wide range of processes involved in cellular homeostasis and survival, as well as during organ and tissue development. Throughout our lifespan, humans are also exposed to xenobiotic metals from natural and anthropogenic sources including aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury. It is well recognized that alterations in the homeostasis of essential metals and an increased environmental/occupational exposure to xenobiotic metals is linked to several neurological disorders including neurodegeneration and neurodevelopmental alterations...
February 5, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Michael R Ori, Jaiva B Larsen, Farshad Mazda Shirazi
A 17-month-old child presented with hypertension, fussiness, constipation, and arthralgia due to mercury toxicity from a skin-lightening cosmetic used by her mother and grandmother. Blood mercury level was 26 mcg/L and urine level was 243 mcg/g creatinine. She was chelated with succimer. The home was contaminated and needed remediation.
January 30, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Fernanda Junqueira Salles, Ana Paula Sayuri Sato, Maciel Santos Luz, Déborah Inês Teixeira Fávaro, Francisco Jorge Ferreira, Wanderley da Silva Paganini, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio
The outsourcing informal home practices adopted in jewelry and fashion jewelry chain can cause toxic substance elimination in the effluents and raise a concern for its environmental impact. This study evaluates if this informal work alters the concentration of potentially toxic elements (PTEs: As, Cd, Cr total and Cr-VI, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sn, and Zn) in the sewage network. The sanitary sewage samples (n = 540) were collected in 15 manholes during two campaigns in three different areas of Limeira-SP, Brazil (industrial area, with informal work and without known industrial/informal activity)...
February 1, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Binish Mechirackal Balan, Sruthy Shini, Kottekkattu P Krishnan, Mahesh Mohan
Mercury tolerant bacteria Pseudarthrobacter oxydans strain MM20 and Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis strain SS18 were isolated from the tundra ecosystem of Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, where commercial exploitation of the coal existed till 1960s. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), mercury removal, mercury biosorption, and antibiotic resistance of these strains were analyzed. P. frederiksbergensis strain SS18 showed high tolerance (2.0 ppm) to mercury than P. oxydans strain MM20 (1.5 ppm). Mercury removal and biosorption studies were carried out in liquid media containing 1...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Yaling Sun, Yingwen Li, Jiedan Rao, Zhihao Liu, Qiliang Chen
Mercury (Hg) is well recognized as a highly toxic substance to fish. Nevertheless, little is known about the toxic effects of Hg on immune organs. In this study, we investigated histology, antioxidant status and immune response of the spleen and head kidney in yellow catfish following 6 weeks of exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of inorganic Hg (2 and 10 μg l-1 Hg2+ ). As expected, Hg accumulation and histological injury in both tissues were observed. Meanwhile, Hg2+ exposure induced oxidative stress, which increased antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) activities, glutathione content, anti-hydroxyl radical capacity and the expression of genes associated with antioxidant (sod1, cat, gpx1, nrf2 and mt) and stress (hsp70) responses in dose- and tissue-specific manners...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Xiaomei Lu, Jinyi Zhang, Ya-Ni Xie, Xinfeng Zhang, Xiaoming Jiang, Xiandeng Hou, Peng Wu
Thallium (Tl) is an extremely toxic heavy metal and exists in very low concentrations in the environment, but its sensing is largely underexplored as compared to its neighboring elements in the periodic table (especially mercury and lead). In this work, we developed ratiometric phosphorescent nanoprobe for thallium detection based on Mn-doped ZnSe quantum dots (QDs) and water-soluble carbon dots (C-dots). Upon excitation with 360 nm, Mn-doped ZnSe QDs and C-dots can emit long-lived and spectrally-resolved phosphorescence at 580 nm and 440 nm, respectively...
January 25, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Yishu Peng, Jun Chen, Huairui Wei, Shibin Li, Tao Jin, Ruidong Yang
We collected samples (i.e., the aerial parts and roots of Juncus effusus and their growth media) in the indigenous zinc smelting area in the northwest region of Guizhou Province, China, and we measured and analyzed potentially toxic metal(loid)s (arsenic, As; cadmium, Cd; chromium, Cr; copper, Cu; mercury, Hg; lead, Pb and zinc, Zn) in these samples. The results include the following: First, there is a high concentration of one or more potentially toxic metal(loid)s in the slag and surrounding soil in the research area...
January 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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