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Mercury toxicity

Armen Nersesyan, Michael Kundi, Monika Waldherr, Tahereh Setayesh, Miroslav Mišík, Georg Wultsch, Metka Filipic, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron Barcelos, Siegfried Knasmueller
Millions of humans are exposed occupationally and environmentally to lead, mercury and cadmium compounds. Mercury compounds are less abundant but some of them belong to the most toxic chemicals which are known. We evaluated the literature to find out if these metals act in humans as genotoxic carcinogens and if their health effects can be predicted by use of micronucleus (MN) assays with lymphocytes and/or with other genotoxicity tests. Numerous studies showed that lead and mercury induce cancer in humans and also in animals, in vitro experiments with cultured cells indicate that they cause DNA damage via different molecular mechanisms including release of reactive oxygen species and interactions with DNA repair processes...
October 2016: Mutation Research
Lokesh Shanmugam, Siva Ranganathan Green, Hemachandar Radhakrishnan, Tony Mathew Kadavanu, Arunkumar Ramachandrappa, Shashank Rakesh Tiwari, Amirtha Lakshmi Rajkumar, Ezhumalai Govindasamy
INTRODUCTION: End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients despite receiving adequate Haemodialysis (HD) develop significant risk of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). Abnormality in levels of trace elements may potentiate vascular injury by producing sustained inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the levels of trace elements in patients receiving HD. AIM: To study the blood levels of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead, chromium, barium, cobalt, caesium and selenium among ESRD patients undergoing HD and compare it with healthy individuals...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Ingrid L Pollet, Marty L Leonard, Nelson J O'Driscoll, Neil M Burgess, Dave Shutler
Mercury (Hg) is a ubiquitous heavy metal that occurs naturally in the environment, but its levels have been supplemented for decades by a variety of human activities. Mercury can have serious deleterious effects on a variety of organisms, with top predators being particularly susceptible because methylmercury bioaccumulates and biomagnifies in food webs. Among birds, seabirds can have especially high levels of Hg contamination and Leach's storm-petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa), in particular, have amongst the highest known levels...
November 25, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Martina Hauschke, Erika Roušarová, Pavel Flídr, Jan Čapek, Antonín Libra, Tomáš Roušar
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is an extracellular protein produced mostly in kidney. Recently, it has become a promising biomarker of renal damage in vivo. On the other hand, the validation of NGAL as a biomarker for nephrotoxicity estimation in vitro has not been characterized in detail yet. Since the HK-2 cells are frequently used human kidney cell line, we aimed to characterize the production of NGAL in these cells and to evaluate NGAL as a possible marker of cell impairment. We used heavy metals (mercury, cadmium), peroxide, drugs (acetaminophen, gentamicin) and cisplatin to mimic nephrotoxicity...
November 22, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
M Stauffer, A Pignolet, J A Corcho Alvarado
Mercury (Hg) compounds were used in the past in primers for rifle and handgun ammunition. Despite its toxicity, little is known about the contamination of shooting-range soils with this metal. We present new data about the Hg contamination of surface soils from numerous shooting ranges of Switzerland. Our study demonstrates that Hg is measurable at high levels in surface soils from the shooting ranges. In three of the investigated ranges, concentrations above the maximum Swiss guidance value of Hg in soil of 500 µg kg(-1) were measured...
November 21, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
E Roda, A Giampreti, S Vecchio, P Apostoli, T Coccini
Introduction. Chronic poisoning may result in home setting after mercury (Hg) vapours inhalation from damaged devices. We report a chronic, nonoccupational Hg poisoning due to 10-year indoor exposure to mercury spillage. Case Report. A 72-year-old man with polyneuropathy of suspected toxic origin. At hospitalization, toxicological clinical evaluations confirmed the altered neurological picture documented across the last decade. Periodic blood and urine Hg levels (BHg, UHg) monitoring were performed from admission (t0), until 1 year later (t2), paralleled by blood neurochemical markers assessment, that is, lymphocytes muscarinic receptors (l-MRs)...
2016: Case Reports in Medicine
Aaron K Bakker, Jessica Dutton, Matthew Sclafani, Nicholas Santangelo
The maternal transfer of trace elements is a process by which offspring may accumulate trace elements from their maternal parent. Although maternal transfer has been assessed in many vertebrates, there is little understanding of this process in invertebrate species. This study investigated the maternal transfer of 13 trace elements (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) in Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs and compared concentrations to those in adult leg and gill tissue. For the majority of individuals, all trace elements were transferred, with the exception of Cr, from the female to the eggs...
November 19, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Amanda Stratton, Matthew Ericksen, Travis V Harris, Nick Symmonds, Todd P Silverstein
The toxicity of mercury is often attributed to its tight binding to cysteine thiolate anions in vital enzymes. To test our hypothesis that Hg(II) binding to histidine could be a significant factor in mercury's toxic effects, we studied the enzyme chymotrypsin, which lacks free cysteine thiols; we found that chymotrypsin is not only inhibited, but also denatured by Hg(II). We followed the aggregation of denatured enzyme by the increase in visible absorbance due to light scattering. Hg(II)-induced chymotrypsin precipitation increased dramatically above pH 6...
November 17, 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Jürgen Wittsiepe, Torsten Feldt, Holger Till, Gerd Burchard, Michael Wilhelm, Julius N Fobil
Informal-level electronic waste (e-waste)-processing activities are performed at hotspots in developing countries such as India, China, and Ghana. These activities increase the ambient burden of heavy metals and contribute to the toxic exposure of the general population. However, few data exist on the internal exposure of populations involved in these informal activities and in close contact with fumes from the direct combustion of electronic waste products in these countries. Therefore, in a cross-sectional study design, we analyzed blood, urine, and hair samples from 75 e-waste workers residing in and/or working on a large e-waste recycling site in Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana, and compared the results against those of 40 individuals living in a suburb of Accra without direct exposure to e-waste recycling activities...
November 17, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Daqian Yang, Xiao Tan, Zhanjun Lv, Biying Liu, Ruiqi Baiyun, Jingjing Lu, Zhigang Zhang
Inorganic mercury, though a key component of pediatric vaccines, is an environmental toxicant threatening human health via accumulating oxidative stress in part. Luteolin has been of great interest because of its antiinflammatory, anticarcinogenic and antioxidative effects. Here we hypothesized that luteolin would attenuate hepatotoxicity induced by acute inorganic mercury exposure. Kunming mice were treated with luteolin (100 mg/kg) 24 h after administration of 4 mg/kg mercuric chloride (HgCl2). The results showed that luteolin ameliorated HgCl2 induced anemia and hepatotoxicity, regulating radical oxygen species (ROS) production and hepatocyte viability in vitro and oxidative stress and apoptosis in vivo...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Franco Baldi, Michele Gallo, Dario Battistel, Elena Barbaro, Andrea Gambaro, Salvatore Daniele
The Pseudomonas putida FB1, known as a broad-spectrum mercury resistant strain, becomes yellow-green due to the secretion of pyoverdine (PVDs) under limited iron conditions and high mercury concentrations. Different modified Nelson's media were obtained by adding mercury, iron, and the complexing agent nitrilotriacetic acid to demonstrate that the strain produces only the highest concentrations of PVDs due to the induction with 25 µM Hg(2+). An amount of 250 mg PVDs was purified from the supernatant of 1 litre culture...
December 2016: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
W Liu, Z Xu, H Li, M Guo, T Yang, S Feng, B Xu, Yu Deng
Mercury (Hg) represents a ubiquitous environmental heavy metal that could lead to severe toxic effects in a variety of organs usually at a low level. The present study focused on the liver oxidative stress, one of the most important roles playing in Hg hepatotoxicity, by evaluation of different concentrations of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) administration. Moreover, the protective potential of curcumin against Hg hepatotoxic effects was also investigated. Eighty-four rats were randomly divided into six groups for a three-days experiment: control, dimethyl sulfoxide control, HgCl2 treatment (0...
November 11, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Lygia Therese Budnik, Xaver Baur, Volker Harth, Axel Hahn
BACKGROUND: With increases in globalization, cultural remedies from Chinese, Ayurvedic, Arab and other traditions have become more available to international consumers, offering unfamiliar "Natural Health Products" (NHP), used as alternative medicine or supplementary medicine. Contamination with toxic ingredients including lead, mercury, arsenic, and other toxic elements has been documented in several of these products from various parts of the globe, particularly from some parts of Asia and the Orient...
2016: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
Qun-Fang Zhang, Ying-Wen Li, Zhi-Hao Liu, Qi-Liang Chen
Mercury (Hg) is a widespread environmental pollutant that can produce severe negative effects on fish even at very low concentrations. However, the mechanisms underlying inorganic Hg-induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in the early development stage of fish still need to be clarified. In the present study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to different concentrations of Hg(2+) (0, 1, 4 and 16μg/L; added as mercuric chloride, HgCl2) from 2h post-fertilization (hpf) to 168hpf. Developmental parameters and total Hg accumulation were monitored during the exposure period, and antioxidant status and the mRNA expression of genes related to the innate immune system were examined at 168hpf...
December 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Sherin Jacob, Sumathi Thangarajan
Methyl mercury (MeHg) is a developmental neurotoxin that causes irreversible cognitive damage in offspring of gestationally exposed mothers. Currently, no preventive drugs are established against MeHg developmental neurotoxicity. The neuroprotective effect of gestational administration of a flavanoid against in utero toxicity of MeHg is not explored much. Hence, the present study validated the effect of a bioactive flavanoid, fisetin, on MeHg developmental neurotoxicity outcomes in rat offspring at postnatal weaning age...
November 4, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Ursula Strandberg, Marjo Palviainen, Aslak Eronen, Sirpa Piirainen, Ari Laurén, Jarkko Akkanen, Paula Kankaala
This study evaluated the spatial variability of risks and benefits of consuming fish from humic and clear lakes. Mercury in fish is a potential risk for human health, but risk assessment may be confounded by selenium, which has been suggested to counterbalance mercury toxicity. In addition to the risks, fish are also rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which are known to be beneficial for cardiovascular health and brain cognitive function in humans. We found that the concentrations of EPA + DHA and mercury in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) vary spatially and are connected with lake water chemistry and catchment characteristics...
October 28, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Tiziana Cappello, Patrícia Pereira, Maria Maisano, Angela Mauceri, Mário Pacheco, Salvatore Fasulo
Mercury (Hg) is recognized as a dangerous contaminant due to its bioaccumulation and biomagnification within trophic levels, leading to serious health risks to aquatic biota. Therefore, there is an urgent need to unravel the mechanisms underlying the toxicity of Hg. To this aim, a metabolomics approach based on protonic nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), coupled with chemometrics, was performed on the gills of wild golden grey mullets L. aurata living in an Hg-polluted area in Ria de Aveiro (Portugal)...
October 27, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Elzbieta Kalisinska, Natalia Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Danuta Kosik-Bogacka, Halina Budis, Bogumila Pilarczyk, Agnieszka Tomza-Marciniak, Joanna Podlasinska, Lukasz Cieslik, Marcin Popiolek, Agnieszka Pirog, Ewa Jedrzejewska
The aim of this study was to investigate and compare total mercury (Hg), selenium (Se), and Se:Hg molar ratios in fish muscles (phytophages n=3; benthophages n=32; predators n=5) and semiaquatic carnivores, including piscivores (the European otter n=8, the feral American mink n=7) and the omnivorous raccoon (n=37) from a riverine European ecosystem in a Se-deficient area. The Hg concentration in fish reached 0.337μg/g dry weight, dw (0.084μg/g wet weight, ww). We found significant differences among Hg levels in tested vertebrate groups (predators vs benthophages: 0...
October 29, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Rajashree Patnaik, Rabindra Nath Padhy
The aim was to investigate whether a human neural stem cell (NSC) line derived from human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) can be used for toxicity study. Toxicity of both neurotoxic environmental xenobiotics, methyl mercury chloride (CH3HgCl), lead acetate (CH3COOPb), and chlorpyrifos (CP), and non-neurotoxic insecticide, dichlorvos, as well as non-neurotoxic drugs, theophylline and acetaminophen were assessed. Additionally, differentiation of neuronal and glial cell lines derived from hUCB was elucidated. It was observed that CH3HgCl was more toxic to human NSCs in comparison to CH3COOPb and CP...
November 2, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Gurpur Rakesh D Prabhu, Pawel L Urban
Gasometric assays involve measurements of the amounts of gases that are released during physical or chemical processes. The available instrumentation for gasometric analysis is generally difficult to use, and requires large sample volumes. In some cases, toxic materials (mercury) are involved in the analysis process. Here we propose a microscale gasometric assay using mineral oil as matrix. Microliter-volume (~ 2.5 μL) aqueous droplets, containing sample and reagent and/or catalyst, are introduced to the oil matrix, and merged...
October 31, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
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