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Mercury toxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091884/pre-mining-trace-element-and-radiation-exposure-to-biota-from-a-breccia-pipe-uranium-mine-in-the-grand-canyon-arizona-usa-watershed
#1
Jo Ellen Hinck, Danielle Cleveland, William G Brumbaugh, Greg Linder, Julia Lankton
The risks to wildlife and humans from uranium (U) mining in the Grand Canyon watershed are largely unknown. In addition to U, other co-occurring ore constituents contribute to risks to biological receptors depending on their toxicological profiles. This study characterizes the pre-mining concentrations of total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), thallium (Tl), U, and zinc (Zn); radiation levels; and histopathology in biota (vegetation, invertebrates, amphibians, birds, and mammals) at the Canyon Mine...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074219/bioremediation-of-mercury-not-properly-exploited-in-contaminated-soils
#2
REVIEW
Khandaker Rayhan Mahbub, Md Mezbaul Bahar, Maurizio Labbate, Kannan Krishnan, Stuart Andrews, Ravi Naidu, Mallavarapu Megharaj
Contamination of land and water caused by heavy metal mercury (Hg) poses a serious threat to biota worldwide. The seriousness of toxicity of this neurotoxin is characterized by its ability to augment in food chains and bind to thiol groups in living tissue. Therefore, different remediation approaches have been implemented to rehabilitate Hg-contaminated sites. Bioremediation is considered as cheaper and greener technology than the conventional physico-chemical means. Large-scale use of Hg-volatilizing bacteria are used to clean up Hg-contaminated waters, but there is no such approach to remediate Hg-contaminated soils...
February 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071526/methylmercury-in-fish-from-the-southern-baltic-sea-and-coastal-lagoons-as-a-function-of-species-size-and-region
#3
Lucyna Polak-Juszczak
BACKGROUND: Methylmercury (MeHg) is a highly toxic compound that traverses the blood-brain barrier with deleterious effects to the central nervous system. Exposure is generally through the ingestion of contaminated fish. Fish are a main source of MeHg. Goals and methods: The aim of this study was to determine the dependence of MeHg concentrations on fish species and age, the percentage of MeHg in total mercury (THg) and risk assessment depending on the size of fish. Assays of THg and MeHg were performed on the muscle tissues of 18 species of fish...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068542/cost-effective-surface-modification-for-galinstan%C3%A2-lyophobicity
#4
Shantanu Shrikant Kadlaskar, Jun Hyeon Yoo, Abhijeet, Jeong Bong Lee, Wonjae Choi
In this paper we investigate the feasibility of using a cost-effective fabrication method based on sandblasting, chemical etching and spray coating processes, to render common surfaces to be non-wettable by Galinstan®. Although Galinstan® is a non-toxic liquid metal alternative to mercury, the viscoelastic and extremely wetting characteristics of Galinstan® have been the major bottleneck limiting the wide applicability of the gallium-based liquid metal. This paper tries to accomplish non-wettability to Galinstan® by combining surface texture and chemistry with the unique property of Galinstan®, that is, its high surface tension and yield strength that prevent the penetration of the liquid metal into surface asperities...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063819/toxicological-interactions-of-silver-nanoparticles-and-non-essential-metals-in-human-hepatocarcinoma-cell-line
#5
Renata Rank Miranda, Arandi Ginane Bezerra, Ciro Alberto Oliveira Ribeiro, Marco Antônio Ferreira Randi, Carmen Lúcia Voigt, Lilian Skytte, Kaare Lund Rasmussen, Frank Kjeldsen, Francisco Filipak Neto
Toxicological interaction represents a challenge to toxicology, particularly for novel contaminants. There are no data whether silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), present in a wide variety of products, can interact and modulate the toxicity of ubiquitous contaminants, such as nonessential metals. In the current study, we investigated the toxicological interactions of AgNP (size=1-2nm; zeta potential=-23mV), cadmium and mercury in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. The results indicated that the co-exposures led to toxicological interactions, with AgNP+Cd being more toxic than AgNP+Hg...
January 5, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063697/land-based-sources-of-marine-pollution-pesticides-pahs-and-phthalates-in-coastal-stream-water-and-heavy-metals-in-coastal-stream-sediments-in-american-samoa
#6
Beth A Polidoro, Mia T Comeros-Raynal, Thomas Cahill, Cassandra Clement
The island nations and territories of the South Pacific are facing a number of pressing environmental concerns, including solid waste management and coastal pollution. Here we provide baseline information on the presence and concentration of heavy metals and selected organic contaminants (pesticides, PAHs, phthalates) in 7 coastal streams and in surface waters adjacent to the Futiga landfill in American Samoa. All sampled stream sediments contained high concentrations of lead, and some of mercury. Several coastal stream waters showed relatively high concentrations of diethyl phthalate and of organophosphate pesticides, above chronic toxicity values for fish and other aquatic organisms...
January 4, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055311/immunotoxicity-of-mercury-pathological-and-toxicological-effects
#7
Faheem Maqbool, Kamal Niaz, Fatima Ismail Hassan, Fazlullah Khan, Mohammad Abdollahi
Mercury (Hg) is toxic and hazardous metal that causes natural disasters in the earth's crust. Exposure to Hg occurs via various routes; like oral (fish), inhalation, dental amalgams, and skin from cosmetics. In this review, we have discussed the sources of Hg and its potential for causing toxicity in humans. In addition, it's bio-chemical cycling in the environment; its systemic, immunotoxic, genotoxic/carcinogenic and teratogenic health effects; and the dietary influences; as well as the important considerations in risk assessment and management of Hg poisoning have been discussed in detail...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043836/egg-white-derived-peptides-prevent-male-reproductive-dysfunction-induced-by-mercury-in-rats
#8
Danize Aparecida Rizzetti, Caroline Silveira Martinez, Alyne Goulart Escobar, Taiz Martins da Silva, José Antonio Uranga-Ocio, Franck Maciel Peçanha, Dalton Valentim Vassallo, Marta Miguel Castro, Giulia Alessandra Wiggers
Oxidative stress in known to contribute to the male reproductive dysfunction induced by mercury (Hg). Our study tested the hypothesis that the egg white hydrolysate (EWH), a potent antioxidant in vitro, is able to prevent the effects of prolonged Hg exposure on male reproductive system in rats. For this, rats were treated for 60 days with: a) Untreated - saline solution (i.m.); b) Hydrolysate - EWH (1 g/kg/day, gavage); c) Mercury - HgCl2 (1st dose 4.6 μg/kg, subsequent doses 0.07 μg/kg/day, i.m.); d) Hydrolysate-Mercury...
December 30, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042847/gold-mining-in-ecuador-a-cross-sectional-assessment-of-mercury-in-urine-and-medical-symptoms-in-miners-from-portovelo-zaruma
#9
Paul Schutzmeier, Ursula Berger, Stephan Bose-O'Reilly
Mercury is a toxic metal and is used in small scale gold mining. In Portovelo, Ecuador, mercury has been an environmental and health problem for decades. The target of this study was to assess the mercury concentration in the urine of miners from Portovelo/Zaruma to establish a prevalence of high values. Eight hundred and sixty-five (865) urine samples were collected and analysed for their mercury content, using cold vapor atom absorption spectroscopy. The prevalence of high mercury values (>25 μg/L) was estimated...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035397/combined-toxicity-and-underlying-mechanisms-of-a-mixture-of-eight-heavy-metals
#10
Qi Zhou, Yuanliang Gu, Xia Yue, Guochuan Mao, Yafei Wang, Hong Su, Jin Xu, Hongbo Shi, Baobo Zou, Jinshun Zhao, Renyuan Wang
With the rapid development of modernization and industrialization in China, a large quantity of heavy metals, including zinc, copper, lead, cadmium and mercury, have been entering the atmosphere, soil and water, the latter being the primary route of pollution. In the present study, in vitro experiments were performed to examine the joint toxicity and the underlying mechanisms of the eight most common heavy metals contaminating offshore waters on the eastern coast of Ningbo region. Using a cell cycle assay, cell apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection methods, the present study demonstrated that the heavy metal mixture arrested JB6 cells at the S phase, induced the generation of ROS and cell apoptosis...
February 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033522/effects-of-nitrate-addition-on-water-column-methylmercury-in-occoquan-reservoir-virginia-usa
#11
Marc W Beutel, Ricardi Duvil, Francisco J Cubas, Thomas J Grizzard
Mercury bioaccumulation in aquatic biota poses a widespread threat to human and environmental health. Methylmercury (MeHg), the toxic form of mercury, tends to build up under anaerobic conditions in the profundal zones of lakes. In this study we performed a two-year assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of dissolved oxygen, nitrate, MeHg, manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) in Occoquan Reservoir, a large run-of-the-river drinking water reservoir in Virginia, USA. A tributary to the reservoir receives input of nitrate-rich tertiary-treated wastewater that enhances the oxidant capacity of bottom water...
December 18, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028704/assessment-of-mercury-exposure-and-maternal-foetal-transfer-in-miniopterus-schreibersii-chiroptera-miniopteridae-from-southeastern-iberian-peninsula
#12
Fulgencio Lisón, Silvia Espín, Bárbara Aroca, José F Calvo, Antonio J García-Fernández
Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic and widely distributed metal that is bioaccumulated in insectivorous mammals and may cause adverse effects on the reproductive system. Bats are considered excellent Hg bioindicators due to their wide distribution, life span, trophic position, metabolic rate and food intake. However, few studies have analysed Hg residues in bats, and to the best of our knowledge, no studies have been made in the Iberian Peninsula. The main aim of this study was to undertake the first ever assessment of Hg exposure in Schreiber's bent-winged bats inhabiting a natural cave in the southeast of Spain...
December 27, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027704/local-impacts-global-sources-the-governance-of-boundary-crossing-chemicals
#13
Hugh S Gorman, Valoree S Gagnon, Emma S Norman
Over the last half century, a multijurisdictional, multiscale system of governance has emerged to address concerns associated with toxic chemicals that have the capacity to bioaccumulate in organisms and biomagnify in food chains, leading to fish consumption advisories. Components of this system of governance include international conventions (such as the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants and the Minamata Convention on Mercury), laws enacted by nation states and their subjurisdictions, and efforts to adaptively manage regional ecosystems (such as the U...
December 2016: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013172/mitochondrial-complex-ii-derived-superoxide-is-the-primary-source-of-mercury-toxicity-in-barley-root-tip
#14
Ladislav Tamás, Veronika Zelinová
Enhanced superoxide generation and significant inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity followed by a strong reduction of root growth were detected in barley seedlings exposed to a 5μM Hg concentration for 30min, which increased further in an Hg dose-dependent manner. While at a 25μM Hg concentration no cell death was detectable, a 50μM Hg treatment triggered cell death in the root meristematic zone, which was markedly intensified after the treatment of roots with 100μM Hg and was detectable in the whole root tips...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001369/stem-cell-transcriptome-responses-and-corresponding-biomarkers-that-indicate-the-transition-from-adaptive-responses-to-cytotoxicity
#15
Tanja Waldmann, Marianna Grinberg, André König, Eugen Rempel, Stefan Schildknecht, Margit Henry, Anna-Katharina Holzer, Nadine Dreser, Vaibhav Shinde, Agapios Sachinidis, Jörg Rahnenführer, Jan G Hengstler, Marcel Leist
Analysis of transcriptome changes has become an established method to characterize the reaction of cells to toxicants. Such experiments are mostly performed at compound concentrations close to the cytotoxicity threshold. At present, little information is available on concentration-dependent features of transcriptome changes, in particular, at the transition from noncytotoxic concentrations to conditions that are associated with cell death. Thus, it is unclear in how far cell death confounds the results of transcriptome studies...
December 21, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000953/heavy-metal-concentrations-in-female-wild-mink-neovison-vison-in-sweden-sources-of-variation-and-associations-with-internal-organ-weights
#16
Karl Ljungvall, Ulf Magnusson, Marcus Korvela, Mattias Norrby, Jonas Bergquist, Sara Persson
The American mink is an invasive species in Sweden and it is legally hunted all year around. Therefore, the mink is well suited as a sentinel species for environmental monitoring. In the current study female mink (n = 91) from six different areas in Sweden were analysed for the concentrations of silver, cadmium, mercury and lead in liver tissue using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The wet concentrations in liver tissue were 42.6 ± 52.7 ng/g for silver, 99.5 ± 100 ng/g for cadmium, 652 ± 537 ng/g for mercury and 196 ± 401 ng/g for lead expressed as mean ± SD...
December 21, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999217/a-survey-on-lifestyle-and-level-of-biomarkers-of-environmental-exposure-in-residents-in-civitavecchia-italy
#17
Carla Ancona, Lisa Bauleo, Giovanni Biscotti, Beatrice Bocca, Stefano Caimi, Fabio Cruciani, Sabrina Di Lorenzo, Morena Petrolati, Anna Pino, Giovanna Piras, Augusto Pizzabiocca, Silvia Rabbiosi, Flavia Ruggieri, Chelo Salatino, Alessandro Alimonti, Francesco Forastiere
BACKGROUND: The assessment of individual exposure to toxicants in industrially contaminated areas is difficult when multiple productions are active close to residential areas. Two thermoelectric power plants and a large harbor have been operating since the '60s in the area of Civitavecchia (North of Rome). METHODS: The ABC (Ambiente e Biomonitoraggio nell'area di Civitavecchia, Environment and Biomonitoring in Civitavecchia) program involved, in the period 2013-2014, residents in Civitavecchia and in the nearby municipalities (Santa Marinella, Allumiere, Tolfa and Tarquinia)...
October 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993064/effects-of-cellular-sorption-on-mercury-bioavailability-and-methylmercury-production-by-desulfovibrio-desulfuricans-nd132
#18
Yu-Rong Liu, Xia Lu, Linduo Zhao, Jing An, Ji-Zheng He, Eric M Pierce, Alexander Johs, Baohua Gu
Microbial conversion of inorganic mercury (IHg) to methylmercury (MeHg) is a significant environmental concern because of the bioaccumulation and biomagnification of toxic MeHg in the food web. Laboratory incubation studies have shown that, despite the presence of large quantities of IHg in cell cultures, MeHg biosynthesis often reaches a plateau or a maximum within hours or a day by an as yet unexplained mechanism. Here we report that mercuric Hg(II) can be taken up rapidly by cells of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132, but a large fraction of the Hg(II) is unavailable for methylation because of strong cellular sorption...
December 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991880/earliest-direct-evidence-of-plant-processing-in-prehistoric-saharan-pottery
#19
Julie Dunne, Anna Maria Mercuri, Richard P Evershed, Silvia Bruni, Savino di Lernia
The invention of thermally resistant ceramic cooking vessels around 15,000 years ago was a major advance in human diet and nutrition(1-3), opening up new food groups and preparation techniques. Previous investigations of lipid biomarkers contained in food residues have routinely demonstrated the importance of prehistoric cooking pots for the processing of animal products across the world(4). Remarkably, however, direct evidence for plant processing in prehistoric pottery has not been forthcoming, despite the potential to cook otherwise unpalatable or even toxic plants(2,5)...
December 19, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990023/the-bio-bay-game-three-dimensional-learning-of-biomagnification
#20
Chandana Jasti, Hillary Lauren, Robert C Wallon, Barbara Hug
Pressing concerns about sustainability and the state of the environment amplify the need to teach students about the connections between ecosystem health, toxicology, and human health. Additionally, the Next Generation Science Standards call for three-dimensional science learning, which integrates disciplinary core ideas, scientific practices, and crosscutting concepts. The Bio Bay Game is a way to teach students about the biomagnification of toxicants across trophic levels while engaging them in three-dimensional learning...
November 2016: American Biology Teacher
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