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Methanol poisoning

Anaïs Pitto-Barry, Alexandru Lupan, Christopher Ellingford, Amr A A Attia, Nicolas P E Barry
Carbon monoxide (CO) is both a substance hazardous to health and a side product of a number of industrial processes, such as methanol steam reforming and large-scale oxidation reactions. The separation of CO from nitrogen (N2 ) in industrial processes is considered to be difficult because of the similarities of their electronic structures, sizes, and physicochemical properties (e.g., boiling points). Carbon monoxide is also a major poison in fuel cells because of its adsorption onto the active sites of the catalysts...
April 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jiri Hlusicka, Tomas Loster, Lucie Lischkova, Manuela Vaneckova, Zdenek Seidl, Pavel Diblik, Pavel Kuthan, Pavel Urban, Tomas Navratil, Petr Kacer, Sergey Zakharov
CONTEXT: The role of activation of lipid peroxidation in the mechanisms of acute methanol poisoning has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: We measured the concentrations of lipid peroxidation markers in acutely intoxicated patients with known serum concentrations of methanol and leukotrienes. METHODS: Blood serum samples were collected from 28 patients hospitalized with acute intoxication and from 36 survivors 2 years after discharge. In these samples, concentrations of 4-hydroxy-trans-2-hexenal (HHE), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured using the method of liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry...
April 2, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Patrick Chow Ng, Brit J Long, William Tyler Davis, Daniel J Sessions, Alex Koyfman
Toxic alcohols are a group of substances containing a hydroxyl group not meant to be ingested. They are the cause of a significant number of accidental and non-accidental exposures. Toxic alcohol poisoning can be associated with a significant degree of morbidity and mortality if not promptly recognized and treated. This review describes the clinical presentation and an approach to the recognition and management for toxic alcohol poisoning. Toxic alcohols classically refer to a group of alcohols not meant for ingestion...
March 22, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Nicolette R Holt, Christopher P Nickson
A 22-year-old woman presented with methanol toxicity manifesting as headache, reduced conscious state and visual change after consuming home-made grappa. She progressed to a coma with fixed mydriasis and severe acidaemia (pH 6.55). She was treated with empirical antidote administration (intravenous ethanol) and enhanced elimination through haemodialysis. She survived despite her delayed presentation but developed significant neurological sequelae, including visual impairment. We provide an overview of key elements of diagnosis and recent updates in treatment recommendations...
March 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Changzheng Wang, Yang Zhang, Yajun Zhang, Ping Xu, Cuimin Feng, Tao Chen, Tao Guo, Fengnan Yang, Qiang Wang, Jingxiao Wang, Mengtong Shi, Louzhen Fan, Shaowei Chen
Highly ordered hierarchical Pt and PtNi nanowire arrays were prepared by using CdS hierarchical nanowire arrays (HNWAs) as sacrificial templates and demonstrated high electrochemical active surface areas. For the resulting Pt HNWAs sample, the peak current for methanol oxidation at +0.74 V was almost one order of magnitude higher than that of Pt solid nanowire arrays (SNWAs) prepared in a similar manner but without the use of CdS template, and the addition of a Ni cocatalyst effectively enhanced the tolerance against CO poisoning...
February 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Patrick Chow Yuen Ng, Brit J Long, William Tyler Davis, Daniel J Sessions, Alex Koyfman
Toxic alcohols are a group of substances containing a hydroxyl group not meant to be ingested. They are the cause of a significant number of accidental and non-accidental exposures. Toxic alcohol poisoning can be associated with a significant degree of morbidity and mortality if not promptly recognized and treated. This review describes the clinical presentation and an approach to the recognition and management for toxic alcohol poisoning. Toxic alcohols classically refer to a group of alcohols not meant for ingestion...
February 9, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
B A F Previdello, P S Fernández, G Tremiliosi-Filho, H Varela
In the course of (electro)catalytic reactions, reversible and irreversible changes, namely the formation of adsorbed poisons, catalyst degradation, surface roughening, etc., take place at distinct time-scales. Reading the transformations on the catalyst surface from the measurement of the reaction rates is greatly desirable but generally not feasible. Herein, we study the effect of random surface defects on Pt(100) electrodes toward the electro-oxidation of methanol in acidic media. The surface defects are gently generated in situ and their relative magnitudes are reproducibly controlled...
February 9, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Kristin Opdal Seljetun, Elin Eliassen, Ritva Karinen, Lars Moe, Vigdis Vindenes
BACKGROUND: Accidental poisoning with anticoagulant rodenticides is not uncommon in dogs, but few reports of the elimination kinetics and half-lives in this species have been published. Our objectives were to develop and validate a new method for the quantification of anticoagulant rodenticides in canine blood and faeces using reversed phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and apply the method on a case of anticoagulant rodenticide intoxication...
January 17, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Xiaoxiao Yan, Sijia Yu, Yawen Tang, Dongmei Sun, Lin Xu, Can Xue
Triangular AgAu@Pt nanoframes with a dendritic Pt shell were synthesized by employing Ag nanoprisms as sacrificial templates. Due to the unique frame-like nanostructure and ternary components, the AgAu@Pt nanoframes exhibit impressive electrocatalytic performance toward the methanol oxidation reaction with much higher activity, and better anti-poisoning capability than commercial Pt/C catalysts.
February 1, 2018: Nanoscale
Yangbin Shen, Yulu Zhan, Shuping Li, Fandi Ning, Ying Du, Yunjie Huang, Ting He, Xiaochun Zhou
As an excellent hydrogen-storage medium, methanol has many advantages, such as high hydrogen content (12.6 wt %), low cost, and availability from biomass or photocatalysis. However, conventional methanol-water reforming usually proceeds at high temperatures. In this research, we successfully designed a new effective strategy to generate hydrogen from methanol at near-room temperature. The strategy involved two main processes: CH3 OH→HCOOH→H2 and NADH→HCOOH→H2 . The first process (CH3 OH→HCOOH→H2 ) was performed by an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), an aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and an Ir catalyst...
March 9, 2018: ChemSusChem
Hamideh Ghorbani, Alireza Nezami, Behjat Sheikholeslami, Arya Hedjazi, Mahnaz Ahmadimanesh
Background: Formic acid (formate) is the main reason for toxicity and death through methanol poisoning. The simultaneous determination of methanol, ethanol, and formate in the body can help to discover the cause of death and is useful in the diagnosis of acute methanol poisoning. The measurement of formate is not yet available in Iran. With regard to the increasing rate of methanol poisoning and its related mortality in Iran, as well as the main role of formate in methanol poisoning, this study was designed to set up an analytical method for the concurrent determination of ethanol, methanol, and formate...
2018: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
Farzad Pakdel, Mostafa S Sanjari, Asieh Naderi, Niloofar Pirmarzdashti, Anousheh Haghighi, Mohsen B Kashkouli
BACKGROUND: Methanol poisoning can cause an optic neuropathy that is usually severe and irreversible and often occurs after ingestion of illicit or homemade alcoholic beverages. In this study, we evaluated the potential neuroprotective effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on visual acuity (VA) in patients with methanol optic neuropathy. METHODS: In a prospective, noncomparative interventional case series, consecutive patients with methanol optic neuropathy after alcoholic beverage ingestion were included...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Seok-Jin Kim, Javeed Mahmood, Changmin Kim, Gao-Feng Han, Seong-Wook Kim, Sun-Min Jung, Guomin Zhu, James J De Yoreo, Guntae Kim, Jong-Beom Baek
Because they provide lower cost but comparable activity to precious platinum (Pt)-based catalysts, nonprecious iron (Fe)-based materials, such as Fe/Fe3 C and Fe-N-C, have gained considerable attention as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, their practical application is hindered by their poor stability, which is attributed to the defective protection of extremely unstable Fe nanoparticles. Here, we introduce a synthesis strategy for a stable Fe-based electrocatalyst, which was realized by defect-free encapsulation of Fe nanoparticles using a two-dimensional (2D) phenazine-based fused aromatic porous organic network (Aza-PON)...
February 7, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Liang Huang, Xueping Zhang, Qingqing Wang, Yujie Han, Youxing Fang, Shaojun Dong
Despite the fact that both electrochemical experiments and density functional theory calculations have testified to the superior electrocatalytic activity and CO-poisoning tolerance of platinum-ruthenium (PtRu) alloy nanoparticles toward the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR), the facet-dependent electrocatalytic properties of PtRu nanoparticles are scarcely revealed because it is extremely difficult to synthesize well-defined facets-enclosed PtRu nanocrystals. Herein, we for the first time report a general synthesis of ultrathin PtRu nanocrystals with tunable morphologies (nanowires, nanorods, and nanocubes) through a one-step solvothermal approach and a systematic investigation of the structure-directing effects of different surfactants and the formation mechanism by control experiments and time-dependent studies...
January 24, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
S J Ji, W Liu
OBJECTIVES: To establish a LC-MS/MS method which is accurate and sensitive for determination of koumine, gelsemine, and gelsenicine in biological samples and to verify the method. METHODS: Strychnine was used as internal standard. Analytes in blood, urine and liver with 1% sodium hydroxide solution were extracted by ethyl acetate. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a ZORBAX SB-C₁₈ column (150 mm×2.1 mm, 5 μm), and gradient elution was performed with the buffer solution of methanol-20 mmol/L ammonium acetate (including 0...
April 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
N Abdullah, S K Kamarudin, L K Shyuan, N A Karim
Platinum (Pt) is the common catalyst used in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). However, Pt can lead towards catalyst poisoning by carbonaceous species, thus reduces the performance of DMFC. Thus, this study focuses on the fabrication of a new composite TiO2 carbon nanofiber anodic catalyst support for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) via electrospinning technique. The distance between the tip and the collector (DTC) and the flow rate were examined as influencing parameters in the electrospinning technique...
December 6, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Asit K Sikary, C Behera
Most methanol poisonings are accidental. We present a rare case of filicide-suicide, where a youth was killed by methanol poisoning and his parents then committed suicide by jumping in front of a running train. The father's suicide note explains the crime.
December 2017: Medico-legal Journal
Fareed Ahmed, Nadeem Ullah Khan, Noman Ali, Asher Feroze
Methanol toxicity can result in serious morbidity and mortality without timely diagnosis and treatment. Many cases of methanol poisoning outbreaks have been noted in our population but no study has been performed to estimate methanol exposure and its outcomes and complications. A retrospective study was conducted to review all the cases of methanol poisoning admitted from January 1988 to December 2015 at the Aga Khan University Hospital. A total of 35 methanol poisoning cases were reported. All the patients were male, and the mean age was 36...
November 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Veronika Doubková, Petr Maršálek, Vladimír Večerek
The unintentional poisoning of off-target animals by bromadiolone, a second generation anticoagulant rodenticide, is an undesirable outcome requiring sensitive analytical methods. In this study, a rapid and sensitive method for the determination of bromadiolone in liver and blood plasma by means of gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry without need for derivatization was developed. The method is based on the in-injector pyrolysis of bromadiolone and subsequent gas chromatography coupled with ion trap tandem mass spectrometry with electron ionization...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Andreas Schaper, Martin Ebbecke
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Aim of this review is to describe the role of clinical toxicology in the context of acute medicine. A special focus is put on antidotes and important aspects of diagnosis and therapy of acute intoxications. The data of the annual report of GIZ-Nord Poisons Centre is analyzed concerning the following aspects: what intoxications are relevant in acute medicine, are there special aspects in therapy, e.g. antidotes, and what antidotes are relevant? More over intoxication-related fatalities are analyzed...
November 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
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