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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637216/qualitative-analysis-and-detection-of-the-pyrolytic-products-of-jwh-018-and-11-additional-synthetic-cannabinoids-in-the-presence-of-common-herbal-smoking-substrates
#1
Stephen Raso, Suzanne Bell
Synthetic cannabinoids have become a ubiquitous challenge in forensic toxicology and seized drug analysis. Thermal degradation products have yet to be identified and evaluated for toxicity in comparison to parent and metabolic compounds. An investigation into these pyrolytic products, as the major route of ingestion is inhalation, may produce additional insight to understand the toxicity of synthetic cannabinoids. The pyrolysis of JWH-018 and 11 additional synthetic cannabinoids and six herbal plant substrates were conducted using an in-house constructed smoking simulator...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637123/inhibition-of-swarming-motility-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-by-methanol-extracts-of-alpinia-officinarum-hance-and-cinnamomum-tamala-t-nees-and-eberm
#2
Divya Lakshmanan, Jishudas Nanda, K Jeevaratnam
Bacterial drug resistance is a challenge in clinical settings, especially in countries like India. Hence, discovery of novel alternative therapeutics has become a necessity in the fight against drug resistance. Compounds that inhibit bacterial virulence properties form new therapeutic alternatives. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic, nosocomial pathogen that infects immune-compromised patients. Swarming motility is an important virulence property of Pseudomonas which aids it in reaching host cells under nutrient limiting conditions...
June 15, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636672/metabolomic-profile-and-nucleoside-composition-of-cordyceps-nidus-sp-nov-cordycipitaceae-a-new-source-of-active-compounds
#3
Juan Chiriví, Giovanna Danies, Rocio Sierra, Nicolas Schauer, Sandra Trenkamp, Silvia Restrepo, Tatiana Sanjuan
Cordyceps sensu lato is a genus of arthropod-pathogenic fungi, which have been used traditionally as medicinal in Asia. Within the genus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis is the most coveted and expensive species in China. Nevertheless, harvesting wild specimens has become a challenge given that natural populations of the fungus are decreasing and because large-scale culture of it has not yet been achieved. The worldwide demand for products derived from cultivable fungal species with medicinal properties has increased recently...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636013/new-insights-into-the-solubility-of-graphene-oxide-in-water-and-alcohols
#4
Vadim V Neklyudov, Nail R Khafizov, Igor A Sedov, Ayrat M Dimiev
One of the main advantages of graphene oxide (GO) over its non-oxidized counterpart is its ability to form stable solutions in water and some organic solvents. At the same time, the nature of GO solutions is not completely understood; the existing data are scarce and controversial. Here, we demonstrate that the solubility of GO, and the stability of the as-formed solutions depend not just on the solute and solvent cohesion parameters, as commonly believed, but mostly on the chemical interactions at the GO/solvent interface...
June 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635649/the-sea-urchin-arbacia-lixula-a-novel-natural-source-of-astaxanthin
#5
Paola Cirino, Christophe Brunet, Martina Ciaravolo, Christian Galasso, Luigi Musco, Tomás Vega Fernández, Clementina Sansone, Alfonso Toscano
Several echinoderms, including sea urchins, are valuable sources of bioactive compounds but their nutraceutical potential is largely unexplored. In fact, the gonads of some sea urchin species contain antioxidants including carotenoids and polyhydroxylated naphthoquinones (PHNQ's), such as echinochrome A. Astaxanthin is known to have particular bioactivity for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. This carotenoid is produced by microalgae, while several marine invertebrates can bioaccumulate or synthetize it from metabolic precursors...
June 21, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635619/on-the-importance-of-accurate-quantification-of-individual-volatile-metabolites-in-exhaled-breath
#6
David Smith, Patrik Spanel
It is argued that shortcomings of certain approaches to breath analysis research based on superficial interpretation of non-quantitative data are inadvertently inhibiting the progression of non-invasive breath analysis into clinical practice. The objective of this perspective is to suggest more clinically profitable approaches to breath research. Thus, following a discourse on the challenges and expectations in breath research, a brief indication is given of the analytical techniques currently used for the analysis of very humid exhaled breath...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634757/a-uhplc-ms-ms-method-for-profiling-multifunctional-steroids-in-human-hair
#7
Zhen Dong, Caihong Wang, Jinlan Zhang, Zhe Wang
It is important to profile steroids in many physiological and pathological processes. Recently, hair has been used for the long-term measurement of endogenous steroid hormones. Analyzing hair has advantages of being noninvasive and time sequential compared with other bio-specimens. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques have been widely used over the past decades; however, it is challenging to profile estrogens in hair by LC-MS, and more comprehensive steroid profiling is required. In this paper, an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to simultaneously profile 28 multifunctional steroids, including corticosteroids (n = 6), estrogens (n = 13), androgens (n = 5) and progestogens (n = 4), in human scalp hair in a single run...
June 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633643/enhancement-of-thermoalkaliphilic-xylanase-production-by-pichia-pastoris-through-novel-fed-batch-strategy-in-high-cell-density-fermentation
#8
Tingting Shang, Dayong Si, Dongyan Zhang, Xuhui Liu, Longmei Zhao, Cong Hu, Yu Fu, Rijun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Xylanase degrades xylan into monomers of various sizes by catalyzing the endohydrolysis of the 1,4-β-D-xylosidic linkage randomly, possessing potential in wide industrial applications. Most of xylanases are susceptible to be inactive when suffering high temperature and high alkaline process. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a high amount of effective thermoalkaliphilic xylanases. This study aims to enhance thermoalkaliphilic xylanase production in Pichia pastoris through fermentation parameters optimization and novel efficient fed-batch strategy in high cell-density fermentation...
June 21, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633284/determination-of-some-%C3%AE-blockers-and-%C3%AE-2-agonists-in-plasma-and-urine-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-solid-phase-extraction
#9
Alaa A Salem, Ibrahim Wasfi, Salama S Al-Nassib, Mahmoud Allawy Mohsin, Nawal Al-Katheeri
A highly sensitive method for the determinations of acebutolol, clenbuterol, nadolol, oxprenolol, propranolol, terbutaline and timolol β-blockers and β2-agonists in plasma and urine was developed. The method was optimized using electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) and clean screen solid phase extraction cartridges. Matrix effect was reduced by removing co-extractives from the SPE cartridges using methanol prior to drugs' elution. Using blood and serum matrices for calibration and applying the internal standard method has also contributed to the reduction of matrix effect...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633115/occurrence-of-commonly-used-pesticides-in-personal-air-samples-and-their-associated-health-risk-among-paddy-farmers
#10
Hazwanee Hamsan, Yu Bin Ho, Siti Zulfa Zaidon, Zailina Hashim, Nazamid Saari, Ali Karami
Tanjung Karang, Selangor, is widely known for its paddy cultivation activity and hosts the third largest paddy field in Malaysia. Pesticides contamination in agriculture fields has become an unavoidable problem, as pesticides are used to increase paddy productivity and reduce plant disease. Human exposure to agrichemicals is common and could results in both acute and chronic health effects, such as acute and chronic neurotoxicity. This study aims to determine the concentrations of commonly used pesticides (azoxystrobin, buprofezin, chlorantraniliprole, difenoconazole, fipronil, imidacloprid, isoprothiolane, pretilachlor, propiconazole, pymetrozine, tebuconazole, tricyclazole, and trifloxystrobin) in personal air samples and their associated health risks among paddy farmers...
June 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633061/1-4-anthraquinone-a-new-useful-pre-column-reagent-for-the-determination-of-n-acetylcysteine-and-captopril-in-pharmaceuticals-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography
#11
Rita Gatti, Rita Morigi
1,4-Anthraquinone (ANQ) is proposed as a novel pre-column reagent for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and captopril (CAP) in pharmaceutical formulations. The derivatization reactions were carried out at room temperature: NAC at pH 8 for 1min, while CAP at pH 7.5 for 20min. Both reactions reached completeness at a reagent to thiol molar ratio of about 2.5. The synthesised derivatives were characterized by (1)H NMR and IR. The chromatographic separations were performed on a C18 Phenomenex Synergi Fusion 4μm (250mm×4...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632154/synthesis-and-biodegradation-of-poly-l-lactide-co-%C3%AE-propiolactone
#12
Yuushou Nakayama, Kazuki Aihara, Zhengguo Cai, Takeshi Shiono, Chikara Tsutsumi
Although the copolymerizations of l-lactide (LA) with seven- or six-membered ring lactones have been extensively studied, the copolymerizations of LA with four-membered ring lactones have scarcely been reported. In this work, we studied the copolymerization of LA with β-propiolactone (PL) and the properties of the obtained copolymers. The copolymerization of LA with PL was carried out using trifluoromethanesulfonic acid as a catalyst and methanol as an initiator to produce poly(LA-co-PL) with Mn of ~50,000 and PL-content of 6-67 mol %...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631477/influence-of-the-electrostatic-interaction-between-molecular-catalyst-and-semiconductor-on-photocatalytic-hydrogen-evolution-activities-in-cobaloxime-cds-hybrid-systems
#13
Yuxing Xu, Ruotian Chen, Zhen Li, Ai-Long Li, Hongxian Han, Can Li
The influence of the electrostatic interaction on photocatalytic H2 evolution activities in cobaloxime/CdS hybrid systems was studied by measuring the charges of cobaloximes and zeta potentials of CdS at different pH conditions (pH 4~7). The cobaloxime/CdS hybrid systems may serve as a valid model for the investigation of the electrostatic interaction between molecular and semiconductor, because the kinetics of methanol oxidation and the driving force of electron transfer from photo-irradiated CdS to cobaloximes have little effect on the pH dependent photocatalytic H2 evolution activities...
June 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631409/exploration-of-a-ternary-deep-eutectic-solvent-of-methyltriphenylphosphonium-bromide-chalcone-formic-acid-for-the-selective-recognition-of-rutin-and-quercetin-in-herba-artemisiae-scopariae
#14
Wanwan Ma, Tangand Baokun, Kyung Ho Row
A methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide/chalcone/formic acid as a green ternary deep eutectic solvent was applied as a functional monomer and dummy template simultaneously in the synthesis of a new molecularly imprinted polymer. Ternary deep eutectic solvent based molecularly imprinted polymers were used as a solid-phase extraction sorbent in the separation and purification of rutin and quercetin from Herba Artemisiae Scopariae combined with high-performance liquid chromatography. FTIR spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy were applied to characterize the deep eutectic solvent based molecularly imprinted polymers synthesized using different molar ratios of chalcone...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630627/changes-in-polyphenols-contents-and-antioxidant-capacities-of-organically-and-conventionally-cultivated-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-l-fruits-during-ripening
#15
Dea Anton, Ingrid Bender, Tanel Kaart, Mati Roasto, Marina Heinonen, Anne Luik, Tõnu Püssa
Polyphenols of fruits and vegetables form an important part of human dietary compounds. Relatively little is known about accumulation of phenolics during fruits ripening process. The goal of this work was to study the changes in antioxidant activity and in content of 30 polyphenols during ripening of tomato fruits. Five organically and conventionally grown tomato cultivars were investigated at three different ripening stages. Phenolic compounds were extracted with methanol and extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS...
2017: International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629616/cytotoxic-steroidal-saponins-from-panicum-turgidum-forssk
#16
Ahmed A Zaki, Zulfiqar Ali, Yan-Hong Wang, Yasser A El-Amier, Shabana I Khan, Ikhlas A Khan
Three new bidesmosidic cholestane-type steroidal glycosides,16-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-cholest-5-en-3β,16β-diol-22-one-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→4)]-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), 16-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcholest-5-en-3β,16β-diol-22-one-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), and 16-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcholestan-3β,16β-diol-6,22-dione-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(3) were isolated from a methanolic extract of Panicum turgidum...
June 16, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629287/anti-acetylcholinesterase-activity-and-antioxidant-properties-of-extracts-and-fractions-of-carpolobia-lutea
#17
Lucky Legbosi Nwidu, Ekramy Elmorsy, Jack Thornton, Buddhika Wijamunige, Anusha Wijesekara, Rebecca Tarbox, Averil Warren, Wayne Grant Carter
CONTEXT: There is an unmet need to discover new treatments for Alzheimer's disease. This study determined the anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, DPPH free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of Carpolobia lutea G. Don (Polygalaceae). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to quantify C. lutea anti-AChE, DPPH free radical scavenging, and antioxidant activities and cell cytotoxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plant stem, leaves and roots were subjected to sequential solvent extractions, and screened for anti-AChE activity across a concentration range of 0...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629109/biological-methanol-production-by-immobilized-methylocella-tundrae-using-simulated-biohythane-as-a-feed
#18
Sanjay K S Patel, Raushan K Singh, Ashok Kumar, Jae-Hoon Jeong, Seong Hun Jeong, Vipin C Kalia, In-Won Kim, Jung-Kul Lee
Biohythane may be used as an alternative feed for methanol production instead of costly pure methane. In this study, methanol production potential of Methylocella tundrae immobilized through covalent immobilization, adsorption, and encapsulation was evaluated. Cells covalently immobilized on groundnut shells and chitosan showed a relative methanol production potential of 83.9 and 91.6%, respectively, compared to that of free cells. The maximum methanol production by free cells and cells covalently immobilized on groundnut shells and chitosan was 6...
May 29, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628981/biodiesel-synthesis-from-calophyllum-inophyllum-oil-with-different-supercritical-fluids
#19
Neha Lamba, Kaveri Gupta, Jayant M Modak, Giridhar Madras
Biodiesel or fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) is primarily synthesized using edible vegetable oils and methanol with a catalyst. However, in the present study, FAMEs were synthesized from a non-edible oil (Calophyllum inophyllum also called as sura honne, Punnagam, Alexandrian Laurel) in different supercritical fluids: methanol (MeOH), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), methyl acetate (MeOAc) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) non-catalytically. Reactions were performed from 523K to 673K at 30MPa with a molar ratio of 40:1 with times varying from 3min to 3h...
June 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628925/apoptosis-and-caspase-3-pathway-role-on-anti-proliferative-effects-of-scrophulariaoxy-sepala-methanolic-extract-on-caco-2-cells
#20
Ali Namvaran, Mehdi Fazeli, Safar Farajnia, Gholamreza Hamidian, Hassan Rezazadeh
Colorectal cancer is one the most important malignancies worldwide and finding new treatment option for this cancer is of high priority. Natural compounds are common source of drugs for treatment of various diseases including cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Scrophularia oxysepala extract on Caco-2 cells and explore the possible role of caspase 3 pathway in inducing cell death in this cancer cells in compare with chemotherapy agents of cisplatin and capecitabine. The methanolic extract of Scrophularia oxysepala (SO) was prepared by drench method...
June 19, 2017: Drug Research
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