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Ana María García-Bores, Amira Arciniegas-Arciniegas, Alma Reyna Campos, Carlos Céspedes-Acuña, Betsaida Avila-Suárez, Julio Alarcón-Enos, Saul Flores-Maya, Adriana Montserrat Espinosa-González, Alfonso Romo de Vivar-Romo, Carlos Pérez Plasencia, José Guillermo Avila-Acevedo
While plants of the genus Dyssodia are used by man to a certain extent, few phytochemical and pharmacological studies have been performed with species of this genus. D. tagetiflora is an endemic plant of Mexico and has been used as fodder. The aim of this research was to isolate and identify the main bioactive components and evaluate the insecticidal, antioxidant, genotoxic and cytoprotective activities of D. tagetiflora. The isolated substances included an essential oil composed of six monoterpenes, and extracts containing two flavonols, three flavonol-glycosides and four thiophenes...
December 10, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Indresh K Maurya, Samer Singh, Rupinder Tewari, Manish Tripathi, Shashi Upadhyay, Yogesh Joshi
In the present study, antimicrobial activity of a common Himalayan lichen viz. Bulbothrix setschwanensis (Zahlbr.) Hale extract in three common solvents (acetone, chloroform and methanol) was evaluated against six bacterial and seven fungal clinical strains. The acetone extract showed promising antimicrobial activity against S. aureus (1.56 mg/mL) and C. neoformans (6.25 mg/mL). Further, GC-MS analysis revealed 2,3-bis(2-methylpentanoyloxy)propyl 2-methylpentanoate and Ethyl 2-[(2R,3R,4aR,8aS)-3-hydroxy-2,3,4,4a,6,7,8,8a-octahydropyrano [3,2-b]pyran-2-yl]acetate as the predominant compounds...
December 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Roudaina Benzekri, Lamjed Bouslama, Adele Papetti, Majdi Hammami, Abderrazak Smaoui, Ferid Limam
Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Nucleoside analogues such as acyclovir (ACV) are the usual therapy for treating HSV infection. However, the overuse of this drug has led to the emergence of resistant strains. Therefore, the search for new alternative or complementary molecules to overcome this obstacle is needed. In this objective, Peganum harmala was investigated for its HSV-2 activity. The organic extracts of the different plant organs were evaluated for their cytotoxicity on Vero cells by the MTT test and anti HSV-2 activity by plaque reduction assay...
December 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Önder Aybastıer, Sam Dawbaa, Cevdet Demir
Phenolic compounds have been studied elaborately for their efficacy to improve health and to protect against a wide variety of diseases. Herein this study, different analysis methods were implemented to evaluate the antioxidant properties of catechin and cyanidin using their standard substances and as they found in the grape seeds extracts. Total phenol contents were 107.39±8.94mg GAE/g dw of grape seeds for grape seed extract (GSE) and 218.32±10.66mg GAE/g dw of grape seeds for acid-hydrolyzed grape seed extract (AcGSE)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Sinan Eris, Zeynep Daşdelen, Fatih Sen
Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are one of the most important fuel cells operating at low temperature using methanol as fuel and they need very efficient catalysts to activate the methanol. Generally, the most efficient fuel cell catalysts are platinum-based nanoparticles that can be used by different supporting materials such as different as prepared and functionalized carbon derivatives. For this purpose, herein, the carbon black has been mainly functionalized with an acidification process in order to increase the electrical conductivity and heterogeneous electron transfer rate of supporting materials...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Roseane Leandra da Rosa, Camila Leandra de Almeida, Lincon Bordigon Somensi, Thaise Boeing, Luisa Nathália Bolda Mariano, Clarissa de Medeiros Amorim Krueger, Priscila de Souza, Valdir Cechinel Filho, Luisa Mota da Silva, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade
The gastroprotective potential of the methanolic extracts from peels (MEPe), seeds (MESe) and pulp (MEPu) of Chrysophyllum cainito L. (Sapotaceae) fruits was evaluated in mice using ethanol/HCl- and indomethacin-induced ulcer, as well as the antiulcer effect of the juice and flour from this fruit. The lowest oral gastroprotective dose of MEPe, MESe and MEPu against ethanol/HCl was 3, 3 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, all extracts increased mucin secretion at 176, 198 and 193%. Intraperitoneal administration of MEPe (0...
December 8, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
Li-Juan Yu, Emily Golden, Nanhao Chen, Yuan Zhao, Alice Vrielink, Amir Karton
Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx), a member of the glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) family, catalyzes the oxidation of the substrate via a hydride transfer mechanism and concomitant reduction of the FAD cofactor. Unlike other GMC enzymes, the conserved His447 is not the catalytic base that deprotonates the substrate in ChOx. Our QM/MM MD simulations indicate that the Glu361 residue acts as a catalytic base facilitating the hydride transfer from the substrate to the cofactor. We find that two rationally chosen point mutations (His447Gln and His447Asn) cause notable decreases in the catalytic activity...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yusuke Morisawa, Arisa Suga
Visible (Vis), near-infrared (NIR) and IR spectra in the 15,600-2500cm-1 region were measured for methanol, methanol-d3, and t-butanol-d9 in n-hexane to investigate effects of intermolecular interaction on absorption intensities of the fundamental and the first, second, and third overtones of their OH stretching vibrations. The relative area intensities of OH stretching bands of free and hydrogen-bonded species were plotted versus the vibrational quantum number using logarithm plots (V=1-4) for 0.5M methanol, 0...
November 28, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Christopher J Gartshore, Mariam N Salib, August A Renshaw, Tadeusz F Molinski
Bastadin-6-34-O-sulfate ester (8) was isolated from methanol extracts of Ianthella basta. The structure of 8 was characterized by analysis of MS and NMR data, and conversion through acid hydrolysis, to the parent compound, bastadin-6, which was identical by HPLC, MS and NMR with an authentic sample. An improved procedure for procurement of pure samples of bastadins-4, -5 and -6 is described.
December 5, 2017: Fitoterapia
Madeha Shah, Zahida Parveen, Muhammad Rashid Khan
BACKGROUND: Saponins are the main constituents of genus Sapindus and have the therapeutic potential for inflammatory disorders. In this study the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic potential of the stem bark of soap nut (Sapindus mukorossi) methanol extract and its derived fractions has been investigated. METHODS: Powder of stem bark of the S. mukorossi was extracted with methanol (SMM) and fractionated in order of n-hexane (SMH), chloroform (SMC), ethyl acetate (SME), n-butanol (SMB) and the remaining as aqueous fraction (SMA)...
December 8, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Mercè Garí, Yolanda González-Quinteiro, Natalia Bravo, Joan O Grimalt
Isotope dilution solid phase extraction UPLC-MS/MS has been used to develop a robust and rapid methodology for the determination of eight specific metabolites of organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides in human urine. The use of methanol:acetone (25:75v/v) affords an improvement in extraction efficiency in comparison to these individual solvents. The use of synthetic urine improves selectivity and limits of detection for the calibration straight lines. The method provides detection limits of 14-69pg/ml and 18-19pg/ml for the organophosphate and pyrethroid metabolites, respectively...
December 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Niels K J Hermkens, Ruud L E G Aspers, Martin C Feiters, Floris P J T Rutjes, Marco Tessari
NMR studies of complex mixtures are often limited by the low sensitivity of the technique and by spectral overlap. We have recently reported on an NMR chemosensor based on para-Hydrogen Induced Polarization that potentially addresses both these issues, albeit for specific classes of compounds. This approach makes use of SABRE catalysts in methanol and allows selective detection and quantification of dilute analytes in complex mixtures. Herein we demonstrate that, despite a large decrease in attained hyperpolarization, this method can be extended to water-alcohol mixtures...
December 8, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
Stephen W C Walker, Alison E Mark, Brent Verbuyst, Bogdan Bogdanov, J Larry Campbell, W Scott Hopkins
The site of protonation for gas-phase aniline has been deliberated for many years, with many research groups contributing experimental and computational evidence for either the amino-protonated or the para-carbon-protonated tautomer as the gas-phase global minimum structure. Here, we employ differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) and mass spectrometry (MS) to separate and characterize the amino-protonated (N-protonated) and para-carbon-protonated (p-protonated) tautomers of aniline. We demonstrate that upon electrospray ionization (ESI), aniline is protonated predominantly at the amino position...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
A P Tsai, S Kameoka, K Nozawa, M Shimoda, Y Ishii
A clear correlation between electronic structure and CO2 selectivity for steam reforming of methanol (SRM) was obtained with PdZn, PtZn, NiZn, and PdCd intermetallics on the basis of experiments and calculations. In order to rule out the effects of oxide supports, the intermetallic powders were simply prepared by alloying in an arc furnace followed by crushing in a mortar. PdZn and PdCd exhibit valence electronic densities of states similar to that of Cu and significant chemical shifts (larger than 1 eV) of Pd 3d states with respect to pure Pd, as verified by high-resolution hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HXPS) measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations...
December 8, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Joshua K G Karlsson, Owen J Woodford, Heinz Mustroph, Anthony Harriman
Most quantitative fluorescence measurements report emission quantum yields by referring the integrated fluorescence profile to that of a well-known standard compound measured under carefully controlled conditions. This simple protocol works well provided an appropriate standard fluorophore is available and that the experimental conditions used for reference and unknown are closely comparable. Commercial fluorescence spectrophotometers tend to perform very well at wavelengths between 250 and 650 nm but are less responsive at longer wavelengths...
December 8, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Sengul Uysal, Asli Ugurlu, Gokhan Zengin, Mehmet Cengiz Baloglu, Yasemin Celik Altunoglu, Adriano Mollica, Luisa Custodio, Nuno R Neng, José M F Nogueira, M Fawzi Mahomoodally
Bidens tripartita L. is a traditional phyto-remedy used in several countries, yet there is still a paucity of data on its biological potential. We aimed to provide new insights on the pharmacological potential of extracts prepared from B. tripartita via highlighting its antioxidant, key enzymes inhibitory potency, and DNA protecting effects. Phytochemical profile was established using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) and bioactive compound(s) docked against target enzymes using in silico methods...
December 4, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Megala Narasingam, Kamini Vijeepallam, Zahurin Mohamed, Vijayapandi Pandy
This study presents anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects of a methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (noni) fruit (MMC) in well-established mouse models of anxiety and depression. The administration of MMC (1 g/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly attenuated anxiety-like behaviour in mice by increasing the percentage of time spent and number of entries in the open arms in the elevated plus maze (EPM), and significantly enhanced the exploration in the light box in the light/dark test (LDT)...
December 4, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
R Kyle Bennett, Lisa M Steinberg, Wilfred Chen, Eleftherios T Papoutsakis
Methylotrophy describes the ability of organisms to utilize reduced one-carbon compounds, notably methane and methanol, as growth and energy sources. Abundant natural gas supplies, composed primarily of methane, have prompted interest in using these compounds, which are more reduced than sugars, as substrates to improve product titers and yields of bioprocesses. Engineering native methylotophs or developing synthetic methylotrophs are emerging fields to convert methane and methanol into fuels and chemicals under aerobic and anaerobic conditions...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Yali Lei, Zhenxing Shen, Tian Zhang, Qian Zhang, Qiyuan Wang, Jian Sun, Xuesong Gong, Junji Cao, Hongmei Xu, Suixin Liu, Liu Yang
In this study, both PM2.5 and size-resolved source samples were collected from a "heated kang" and an advanced stove to investigate the optical properties of brown carbon (BrC). The light-absorption coefficient (babs), the absorption Ångström exponent (AAE), and the mass absorption cross-section (MAC) of both water and methanol-extracted BrC were investigated. The methanol-extracted BrC (BrCmethanol) had higher light absorption than water-extracted BrC (BrCwater). The value of PM2.5 babs of BrCmethanol at 365nm (babs365,methanol) dramatically decreased from 64,669...
December 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Nurulain T Zaveri, Paul V Marquez, Michael E Meyer, Willma E Polgar, Abdul Hamid, Kabirullah Lutfy
BACKGROUND: Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), the endogenous peptide agonist for the opioid receptor-like (ORL1) receptor (also known as NOP or the nociceptin receptor), has been shown to block the acquisition and expression of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). Here, we report the characterization of a novel small-molecule NOP ligand AT-312 (1-(1-((cis)-4-isopropylcyclohexyl)piperidin-4-yl)-1H-indol-2-yl)methanol) in receptor binding and GTPγS functional assays in vitro...
December 7, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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