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Biancamaria Ciasca, Michelangelo Pascale, Valerio Guido Altieri, Francesco Longobardi, Michele Suman, Dante Catellani, Veronica M T Lattanzio
A strong trend toward using highly selective mass spectrometry technologies for screening of multiple mycotoxins has been observed in recent years. In the present study, the process of validation of a multi-mycotoxin screening method based on liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry method is presented. The method was intended for the simultaneous screening of the major Fusarium toxins (deoxynivalenol, 3- and 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, zearalenone, enniatins A, A1, B, B1, beauvericin) in wheat...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Tadashi Yamamuro, Yuko T Iwata, Hiroki Segawa, Kenji Kuwayama, Kenji Tsujikawa, Tatsuyuki Kanamori, Hiroyuki Inoue
In recent years, analysis of cannabis DNA has been increasingly used in forensic drug tests. However, in the case of cannabis resin, a processed marijuana product, complicated procedures are required for the extraction of clean DNA, as the presence of various impurities inhibits PCR amplification. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to identify the factors that would allow quick and simple DNA extraction from cannabis resin with a commercially available kit. We also constructed a simple assay system for comparing relative amplification efficiencies by end-point PCR and used it to evaluate the purity of the obtained DNA solutions...
April 4, 2018: Forensic Science International
Bhaswati Choudhury, Raghuram Kandimalla, R Elancheran, Rupjyoti Bharali, Jibon Kotoky
A rapid rise in cancer cases worldwide, especially breast cancer in females, instigates the need for more effective and less side effect causing drugs from natural origin. Thereby, in the present study, Garcinia morella fruit was investigated for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-breast cancer activity. Preliminary antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of different fractions and crude methanol extract of G. morella fruit suggested chloroform fraction as the bioactive fraction. Time course analysis (by 24 h, 48 h and 72 h) of the bioactive fraction (1...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Beheshteh Ajdari, Mahmoud Nassiri, Mir Mahdi Zahedi, Morteza Ziyaadini
Phthalate esters (PEs), a group of environmental pollutants which are possibly carcinogenic to humans, have been detected in seawater. Seven PEs in seawater were quantitatively determined by using gas-chromatography flame ionizing detection after executing dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. The suggested method is optimized for microextraction and determination of PEs in artificial sea water. Factors affecting the microextraction procedure such as the type and volume of extracting and dispersive solvents (carbon tetrachloride, 20 μL; methanol, 0...
April 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
K Rissanen, T Hölttä, J Bäck
Most plant-based emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are considered mainly temperature dependent. However, certain oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) have high water solubility; thus, also stomatal conductance could regulate their emissions from shoots. Due to their water solubility and sources in stem and roots, it has also been suggested that their emissions could be affected by transport in xylem sap. Yet, further understanding on the role of transport has been lacking until present. We used shoot-scale long-term dynamic flux data from Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris) to analyse the effects of transpiration and transport in xylem sap flow on emissions of three water soluble OVOC: methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde...
April 20, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Ki Sun Kwon, Ju Hee Lee, Kyung Su So, Byung Kyu Park, Hyun Lim, Jae Sue Choi, Hyun Pyo Kim
The purpose of the present study is to find the natural compound(s) having a therapeutic potential to treat lung inflammatory disorders. In our screening procedure, the methanol extract of the seeds of Cassia obtusifolia (cassiae semen) inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase-catalyzed nitric oxide production in alveolar macrophages (MH-S). From the extract, 8 major anthraquinone derivatives were successfully isolated. They are chrysophanol, physcion, 2-hydroxy-emodin 1-methyl ether, obtusifolin, obtusin, aurantio-obtusin, chryso-obtusin, and gluco-obtusifolin, among which aurantio-obtusin (IC50  = 71...
April 20, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Shiva Kumar, Pijakala Dinesha, Marc A Rosen
Two-stroke petrol engines find wide applications in the areas like chain saws, weed cutters, and power sprayers because of their compactness and higher power to weight ratio. In the present study, the feasibility of using vegetable-based lubricant instead of ordinary mineral 2 T oil is investigated. M15 (85% petrol + 15% methanol) and E15 (85% petrol + 15% ethanol) blend with gasoline are used as the fuel. Experiments were carried out in a two-stroke air-cooled engine equipped with a rope brake dynamometer...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Michael Wleklinski, Bradley P Loren, Christina R Ferreira, Zinia Jaman, Larisa Avramova, Tiago J P Sobreira, David H Thompson, R Graham Cooks
We report the high throughput analysis of reaction mixture arrays using methods and data handling routines that were originally developed for biological tissue imaging. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) is applied in a continuous on-line process at rates that approach 104 reactions per h at area densities of up to 1 spot per mm2 (6144 spots per standard microtiter plate) with the sprayer moving at ca. 104 microns per s. Data are analyzed automatically by MS using in-house software to create ion images of selected reagents and products as intensity plots in standard array format...
February 14, 2018: Chemical Science
Asnakech Alemu, Wondmagegn Tamiru, Teshome Nedi, Workineh Shibeshi
Background: Pain and inflammation are the major health problems commonly treated with traditional remedies mainly using medicinal plants. Leonotis ocymifolia is one of such medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine of Ethiopia. However, the plant has not been scientifically evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the 80% methanol leaves extract of Leonotis ocymifolia using rodent models. Method: The central and peripheral analgesic effect of the extract at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg dose levels was evaluated using hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing rodent models, whereas carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma methods were used to screen anti-inflammatory effect of the extract at the same dose levels...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Dan-Dan Wang, Die Gao, Wan-Jun Xu, Fan Li, Man-Ni Yin, Qi-Feng Fu, Zhi-Ning Xia
In present study, novel magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for hesperetin were successfully prepared by surface molecular imprinting method using functionalized Fe3 O4 particles as the magnetic cores. Hesperetin as the template, N-Isopropylacrylamide as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethyl acrylate as the crosslinker, 2,2-azobisisobutyonnitrile as initiator and acetonitrile-methanol (3:1, v/v) as the porogen were applied in the preparation process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, x-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry were applied to characterize the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
M Maulidiani, Ahmed Mediani, Faridah Abas, Yong Seo Park, Yang-Kyun Park, Young Mo Kim, Shela Gorinstein
Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) is one of the most important fruits that has been consumed for its medicinal properties due to the presence of some active metabolites, particularly polyphenols and carotenoids. Previously described methods, including HPLC, were limited in the determination of metabolites in different persimmon varieties. The present study shows the evaluation and the differences among persimmon polar and non-polar extracts by 1 H NMR-based metabolomics approach. The hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) based on score values of principal component analysis (PCA) model was used to analyze the important compounds in investigated fruits...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
Carlos Calderilla, Fernando Maya, Víctor Cerdà, Luz O Leal
A 3D printed device for the fully automated disk-based solid-phase extraction (SPE) of Cr (VI) from water samples has been fabricated. The compatibility of the use of organic solvents for analyte elution with 3D printed flow devices based on polymers fabricated using stereolithograph​y has been evaluated. The developed methodology comprises the complexation of Cr (VI) with 1, 5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC) in acidic medium and the subsequent retention of the complex in a SBD-RPS disk contained within the 3D printed device...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
Ksenia Cherkashina, Christina Vakh, Sofya Lebedinets, Aleksei Pochivalov, Leonid Moskvin, Aleksey Lezov, Andrey Bulatov
An automated salting-out assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (SALLME) procedure based on a flow system was developed as new approach for pretreatment of complex sample matrix. In this procedure 1-octylamine was investigated as novel extractant for the SALLME. The procedure involved aspiration of the 1-octylamine and sample solution into a mixing chamber of a flow system followed by their air-bubble mixing resulting to isotropic solution formation. To provide phase separation a salting-out agent solution was added into the mixing chamber...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
Xing Zheng, Zhifeng Gu, Zhiwei Huang, Haifeng Ding, Hebert Ely Vasquez, Yibing Liu, Yaohua Shi, Aimin Wang
Cryopreservation has been widely employed to preserve genetic material of aquatic animals. Although of common use in bivalves, resulting effects due to the toxicity of the cryoprotectants dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), propanediol (PG), methanol (MET) and ethylene glycol (EG), upon sperm motility in the Chinese pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata martensii, has remained undocumented. This study endeavors to identify the least toxic among the effective cryoprotectant agents by observing and comparing their toxic effects on sperm motility under varying concentrations and duration of exposure...
April 16, 2018: Cryobiology
D Mahaboob Basha, G Venkata Reddy, Y Gopi Krishna, B E Kumara Swamy, Rajani Vijay
The first approach of this research paper explores the simultaneous characterization and determination of theAsulam active ingredient and its associated nine impurities in bulk batch production by the gradient reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method. The best separation from its potential impurities and reproducible method was achieved by selecting the Cosmosil C-18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size) analytical column with a run time of 40 min. The pumping chromatographic mobile phase was composed of 0...
April 19, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Ramesh Kumar Santhanam, Sharida Fakurazi, Syahida Ahmad, Faridah Abas, Intan Safinar Ismail, Yaya Rukayadi, Muhammad Tayyab Akhtar, Khozirah Shaari
The antiphoto aging property of Zanthoxylum rhetsa obtained from Pangkor Island, Malaysia, was evaluated. Solvent fractions of different polarity obtained from the methanolic extract of the bark material were initially tested for anticollagenase and antielastase activities. The ethyl acetate fraction showed bioactivity against the protease enzymes. Hence, it was subjected to further purification via column chromatography, to yield a major constituent, hesperidin. Subsequently, the ethyl acetate fraction and hesperidin were tested for their effects against UVB-induced cytotoxicity and expressions of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α), NF-κB, and MMPs (MMP1, 3, and 9) in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF)...
April 19, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Yasmin Elsayed, John Refaat, Usama Ramadan Abdelmohsen, Eman Maher Othman, Helga Stopper, Mostafa Ahmed Fouad
INTRODUCTION: Marine sponge-associated actinomycetes are potent sources of bioactive natural products of pharmaceutical significance. They also contributed to the discovery of several clinically relevant antimicrobials. OBJECTIVE: To apply the non-targeted metabolomics approach in chemical profiling of the sponge-derived bacterium Rhodococcus sp. UA13, formerly recovered from the Red Sea sponge Callyspongia aff. Implexa, along with testing for the anti-infective potential of its different fractions...
April 19, 2018: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Stephanie Abiola Tijani, Samuel B Olaleye, Ebenezer O Farombi
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and free radical-mediated processes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer. This study investigated the ability of the methanol extract of Chasmanthera dependens to protect the gastric mucosal from oxidative damage induced by oral administration of indomethacin in rats. METHODS: The C. dependens stems were chopped into pieces, air-dried, and pulverized into powder. One kilogram of the powder was macerated in 1 L of methanol for 72 h...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Longteng Tang, Yanli Wang, Liangdong Zhu, Che Lee, Chong Fang
Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light could cause photodamage to biomolecular systems and degrade optoelectronic devices. To mitigate such detrimental effects from the bottom up, we strategically select a photosensitive molecule pyranine and implement femtosecond electronic and Raman spectroscopies to elucidate its ultrafast photoprotection mechanisms in solution. Our results show that pyranine undergoes excited state proton transfer (ESPT) in water while this process is blocked in methanol regardless of excitation wavelengths (267, 400 nm)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Sakthivel Rajamohan, Ramesh Kasimani
The highly unbalanced nature of bio-oil composition poses a serious threat in terms of storage and utilization of bio-oil as a viable fuel in engines. So it becomes inevitable to study the variations in physicochemical properties of the bio-oil during storage to value its chemical instability, for designing stabilization methodologies. The present study aims to investigate the effects of storage stability of bio-oil extracted from pyrolyzing Calophyllum inophyllum (CI) deoiled seed cake on the engine operating characteristics...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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