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hepatitis review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346236/current-concepts-in-ischemic-hepatitis
#1
Joseph M Lightsey, Don C Rockey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review seeks to define ischemic hepatitis and its associated comorbidities. It means to review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, clinical course, outcomes, and any potential therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Ischemic hepatitis has long been associated with cardiovascular disease; recent reports have found a substantial link between preexisting cardiovascular disease and the risk for developing ischemic hepatitis. A proposed mechanism by which hepatic congestion predisposes the liver to hemodynamic injury further defines this link...
March 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345552/relationship-between-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-iron-overload
#2
REVIEW
Dong-Mei Zou, Wan-Ling Sun
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to summarize the interactions between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and iron overload, and to understand the mechanisms of iron overload in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and the role iron plays in HCV life cycle. DATA SOURCES: This review was based on data in articles published in the PubMed databases up to January 28, 2017, with the keywords "hepatitis C virus", "iron overload", "iron metabolism", "hepcidin", "translation", and "replication"...
April 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345112/experience-with-direct-acting-anti-viral-agents-for-treating-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#3
Amit Goel, Dharmendra Singh Bhadauria, Anupma Kaul, Narayan Prasad, Amit Gupta, Raj Kumar Sharma, Praveer Rai, Rakesh Aggarwal
In recent past, direct-acting anti-viral drugs (DAAs) have become the standard of care for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, the experience with the use of these drugs in Indian renal transplant recipients is limited. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with DAA-based treatment for HCV infection in such patients. Between April 2015 and December 2016, six adults (median age 41 [range 34-52] years, male 5; GT1 2, GT3 3, and GT4 1; including three with prior failed interferon-based treatment) had received genotype-guided, DAA-based anti-HCV treatment 1 to 158 (median 15) months after renal transplantation...
March 27, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343411/3d-liver-surgery-simulation-computer-assisted-surgical-planning-with-3d-simulation-software-and-3d-printing
#4
Yukio Oshiro, Nobuhiro Ohkohchi
To perform accurate hepatectomy without injury, it is necessary to understand the anatomical relationship among the branches of Glisson's sheath, hepatic veins, and tumor. In Japan, three-dimensional (3D) preoperative simulation for liver surgery is becoming increasingly common, and liver 3D modeling and 3D hepatectomy simulation by 3D analysis software for liver surgery have been covered by universal healthcare insurance since 2012. Herein, we review the history of virtual hepatectomy using computer-aided surgery (CAS) and our research to date, and we discuss the future prospects of CAS...
March 27, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341429/survival-following-redo-hepatectomy-vs-radiofrequency-ablation-for-recurrent-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Paschalis Gavriilidis, Alan Askari, Daniel Azoulay
BACKGROUND: Redo hepatic resection (RHR) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) are salvage treatment choices for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (RHCC). As yet, it is unclear as to which treatment modality is superior in terms of long term survival. The aim of this study was to compare the survival benefits and treatment efficacy of RHR and RFA for recurrent HCC. METHODS: A literature review using the EMBASE, Medline, Google scholar, and Cochrane databases was performed...
January 2017: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340836/effect-of-dosage-and-type-of-hepatitis-b-immunoglobulin-on-hepatitis-antibody-levels-in-liver-transplant-recipients
#6
A Ulku, A T Akcam, A Rencuzogullari, K Dalci, O Yalav, I C Eray, G Saritas
BACKGROUND: The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of dosage and type (intramuscular [IM] vs intravenous [IV]) of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) on hepatitis antibody level in liver transplant recipients. METHODS: Between September 2000 and August 2016, patients who underwent orthotropic liver transplantation for chronic liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma secondary to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) were retrospectively reviewed from a prospectively maintained database...
April 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340834/hepatic-artery-reconstruction-with-autologous-inferior-mesenteric-artery-graft-in-living-donor-liver-transplant-recipients
#7
M Özbilgin, T Ünek, T Egeli, C Ağalar, S Ozkardesler, F Obuz, H Ellidokuz, S Karademir, I Astarcıoğlu
INTRODUCTION: In living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), hepatic arterial continuity is crucial to avoid biliary leakage, biliary stricture, cholangitis, and graft and patient loss. Sometimes there exist factors making anastomosis difficult or even impossible. In these cases, a vascular graft may be needed to bridge the two arteries for revascularization. METHOD: Medical records of 297 patients who underwent LDLT between June 2000 and July 2016 at the Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery and Liver Transplantation Unit of Dokuz Eylul University Hospital were reviewed retrospectively...
April 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339345/alanine-aminotransferase-is-a-marker-of-lipotoxicity-consequences-and-hyperandrogenemia-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#8
Matea Belan, Chloé Pelletier, Jean-Patrice Baillargeon
BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported higher levels of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with control subjects. Plasma ALT levels are considered a marker of hepatic lipotoxicity because of their significant associations with different hepatic metabolic dysfunctions, such as hepatic steatosis and hepatic insulin resistance. METHODS: Retrospective chart review aiming to assess, in PCOS women, the relationship between ALT levels and measures of lipotoxicity consequences that are available clinically, both during fasting and using the oral glucose tolerance test...
April 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339065/the-risk-of-hcv-infection-among-health-care-workers-and-its-association-with-extrahepatic-manifestations-review
#9
Adriana Garozzo, Luca Falzone, Venerando Rapisarda, Andrea Marconi, Diana Cinà, Concettina Fenga, Demetrios A Spandidos, Massimo Libra
Health care workers (HCWs) are frequently exposed to different biological agents during their activities and are frequently monitored. Among these infectious agents, human hepatitis C (HCV) can infect HCWs. In this review article, the risk of HCV infection among HCWs is discussed along with extrahepatic HCV-related malignancies, such as non‑Hodgkin lymphoma. Accidental contamination, represented by percutaneous and mucocutaneous infections is the main risk factor for such infection. The compliance of the protection procedures, included in the current regulation for HCWs, is the most important issue to reduce the risk of pathogen infections that in turn may produce reduction of infection‑associated malignancies...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339063/viral-and-host-factors-associated-with-outcomes-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-review
#10
Zehui Yan, Yuming Wang
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health issue globally. Owing to the progress made in host genetics and HCV molecular virology, emerging data have suggested that the natural course and treatment response in patients with HCV infection are largely determined by complex host‑viral interactions. HCV genotype is the most important viral factor predicting the response to pegylated interferon‑α plus ribavirin therapy. The subtype of HCV genotype 1 is the key viral factor that predicts the efficacy of direct‑acting antiviral therapy...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337285/preclinical-and-clinical-evaluation-of-the-liver-tumor-irreversible-electroporation-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#11
Matteo Figini, Xifu Wang, Tianchu Lyu, Zhanliang Su, Daniele Procissi, Vahid Yaghmai, Andrew C Larson, Zhuoli Zhang
Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a relatively new technique for tumor ablation. It has shown promising results in difficult cases where surgery is not recommended and delicate anatomic structures are present near or within the tumor. Currently, liver cancer is one of the most common targets for IRE treatment. Pre-operative and post-operative imaging has a key role in IRE procedures and research studies. Although ultrasound is usually the first choice, especially for intra-operative guidance, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the visualization and characterization of tumor before and after IRE in clinical and preclinical studies...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336373/gender-differences-in-liver-disease-and-the-drug-dose-gender-gap
#12
REVIEW
Elena Buzzetti, Pathik M Parikh, Alessio Gerussi, Emmanuel Tsochatzis
Although gender-based medicine is a relatively recent concept, it is now emerging as an important field of research, supported by the finding that many diseases manifest differently in men and women and therefore, might require a different treatment. Sex-related differences regarding the epidemiology, progression and treatment strategies of certain liver diseases have long been known, but most of the epidemiological and clinical trials still report results only about one sex, with consequent different rate of response and adverse reactions to treatment between men and women in clinical practice...
March 20, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335522/extracellular-vesicles-deliver-host-and-virus-rna-and-regulate-innate-immune-response
#13
REVIEW
Takahisa Kouwaki, Masaaki Okamoto, Hirotake Tsukamoto, Yoshimi Fukushima, Hiroyuki Oshiumi
The innate immune system plays a crucial role in controlling viral infection. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors and RIG-I-like receptors, sense viral components called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and trigger signals to induce innate immune responses. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, deliver functional RNA and mediate intercellular communications. Recent studies have revealed that EVs released from virus-infected cells deliver viral RNA to dendritic cells and macrophages, thereby activating PRRs in recipient cells, which results in the expression of type I interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokines...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335087/ursolic-acid-and-mechanisms-of-actions-on-adipose-and-muscle-tissue-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Carlos K Katashima, Vagner R Silva, Tatyanne L Gomes, Claude Pichard, Gustavo D Pimentel
This systematic review aimed at addressing the ursolic acid actions as an adjunctive treatment of the obesity-mediated metabolic abnormalities. To explore our aims, we used the literature search including clinical and animal studies using the Medline and Google Scholar (up to December 2015). Out of 63 screened studies, 17 presented eligibility criteria, such as the use of ursolic acid on adiposity, energy expenditure and skeletal muscle mass in mice and humans. In the literature, we found that several physiological and molecular mechanisms are implicated in the effects of ursolic acid on obesity, energy expenditure, hepatic steatosis, skeletal muscle mass loss and physical fitness, such as (1) increase of thermogenesis by modulation adipocyte transcription factors, activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and overexpression of the uncoupling protein 1 thermogenic marker; (2) enhancement of skeletal muscle mass by activation in bloodstream growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations secretion, as well as in the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin and inhibition of ring-finger protein-1; and (3) improvement of physical fitness by skeletal muscle proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator alpha and sirtuin 1 expression...
March 23, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334490/mr-cholangiography-in-potential-liver-donors-quantitative-and-qualitative-improvement-with-administration-of-an-oral-effervescent-agent
#15
Heon-Ju Kwon, Kyoung Won Kim, Sang Hyun Choi, Jin-Hee Jung, So Yeon Kim, Se-Young Kim, Jeongjin Lee, Dong-Hwan Jung, Tae-Yong Ha, Gi-Won Song, Sung-Gyu Lee
PURPOSE: To determine whether an oral effervescent agent improves magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) images, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in potential live liver donors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, and informed consent was waived. Seventy potential liver donors underwent 2D MRC before and after administration of an oral effervescent agent. One radiologist measured relative contrast ratio (rC) and relative signal intensity (rS) for right and left intrahepatic ducts (RHD and LHD), and common hepatic duct (CHD)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333693/pediatric-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease
#16
Cathleen M Courtney, Brad W Warner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to provide updates on the definition, pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention of intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) that are relevant to care of pediatric patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Current literature emphasizes the multifactorial nature of IFALD. The pathogenesis is still largely unknown; however, molecular pathways have been identified. Key to these pathways are proinflammatory cytokines involved in hepatic inflammation and bile acids synthesis such as Toll-like receptor 4 and farnesoid X receptor, respectively...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333601/simultaneous-occurrence-of-varicella-zoster-virus-induced-pancreatitis-and-hepatitis-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#17
Puneet Chhabra, Priyadarshi Ranjan, Deepak K Bhasin
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal complications are common after renal transplantation, including oral lesions, esophagitis, gastritis, diarrhea, and colon carcinoma. The differential diagnosis is difficult in this scenario because multiple factors such as drugs, infections, and preexisting gastrointestinal disease come into play. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of varicella zoster virus-induced pancreatitis and hepatitis in a renal transplant recipient. The patient underwent renal transplantation 3 years earlier and now presented with severe pain in the epigastrium radiating to his back and had raised serum lipase levels and skin lesions characteristic of varicella...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333540/current-state-of-the-art-mri-for-comprehensive-evaluation-of-potential-living-liver-donors
#18
Kartik S Jhaveri, Lijun Guo, Luís Guimarães
OBJECTIVE: This review focuses on the role of state-of-the-art MRI-based techniques for comprehensive evaluation of living donors providing single-visit assessment of the liver vasculature via MR angiography, of the biliary tract via conventional T2-weighted MR cholangiography and T1-weighted gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR cholangiography, and of hepatic steatosis via T2*-corrected multiecho chemical shift-based water-fat separation MRI and high-speed T2-corrected multiecho MR spectroscopy...
March 23, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333073/effects-of-melatonin-on-liver-injuries-and-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Jiao-Jiao Zhang, Xiao Meng, Ya Li, Yue Zhou, Dong-Ping Xu, Sha Li, Hua-Bin Li
Liver injuries and diseases are serious health problems worldwide. Various factors, such as chemical pollutants, drugs, and alcohol, could induce liver injuries. Liver diseases involve a wide range of liver pathologies, including hepatic steatosis, fatty liver, hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocarcinoma. Despite all the studies performed up to now, therapy choices for liver injuries and diseases are very few. Therefore, the search for a new treatment that could safely and effectively block or reverse liver injuries and diseases remains a priority...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332360/entecavir-to-telbivudine-switch-therapy-in-entecavir-treated-patients-with-undetectable-hepatitis-b-viral-dna
#20
Dong Hyun Kim, Jong Won Choi, Jeong Hun Seo, Yong Suk Cho, Sun Young Won, Byung Kyu Park, Han Ho Jeon, Sang Yun Shin, Chun Kyon Lee
PURPOSE: This study examined 2-year outcome of consecutive therapy using entecavir (ETV) followed by telbivudine (LdT) in subjects with undetectable hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level and normal alanine aminotransferase level after the initial 6 months of ETV treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty subjects were randomized to continue with ETV or switch to LdT. Significant difference in baseline characteristics was not found between the two groups. Persistent HBV DNA level of 20-60 IU/mL in three consecutive samples collected three months apart or singly measured HBV DNA level of >60 IU/mL was defined as virological rebound...
May 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
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