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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781751/posology-adjustments-of-oral-antineoplastic-agents-for-special-populations-patients-with-renal-impairment-hepatic-impairment-and-hematologic-toxicities
#1
Julieta González, Matías Quiroga, Vicente Escudero-Vilaplana, Roberto Collado-Borrell, Ana Herranz-Alonso, María Sanjurjo Sáez
BACKGROUND: Oral antineoplastic agents (OAA) have reached 30-50% of all antineoplastic treatments. Although they seem safer than parenteral therapy, many severe problems can occur if the dose is not adequately adjusted in special situations. Our objective is to create a comprehensive guide with dosage adjustment recommendations for OAA in cases of renal and hepatic impairment and hematologic toxicities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed all OAA approved by EMA in July 2017...
May 21, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781463/hepatic-arterial-infusion-pump-complications-and-nursing-management-regarding-use-in-patients-with-colorectal-cancer
#2
Deborah Italiano
BACKGROUND: The hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) pump is a treatment-delivery method based on the principle of targeting the tumor site directly and can be used alone or in combination with systemic chemotherapy. OBJECTIVES: The intent of this article is to serve as a resource for oncology nurses to safely identify and manage HAI pump complications. These complications include seroma, flipped HAI pump, infection, changes in pressure and temperature, challenging access, dry pump, high residual volume, chemical hepatitis, risk of ulcer, and radiologic imaging considerations...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781336/advances-in-the-treatment-of-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis
#3
Wenjun Wang, Ying Xu, Chang Jiang, Yanhang Gao
Severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) is a costly and worldwide public health issue with high morbidity and mortality. Specific effective treatments for SAH have yet to be established. The aim of the present article is to review the current knowledge of the pathogenesis, assessment, and treatment options in patients with SAH. To date, alcohol abstinence and enteral nutrition are the recommended first-line treatments. Although corticosteroids remain the preferred therapy for certain patients with a modified Maddrey discriminant function level greater than 54, they only improve short-term survival rates...
May 21, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780356/physiological-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-methionine-restriction
#4
REVIEW
Mary Neslund Latimer, Khalid Walid Freij, Beth M Cleveland, Peggy R Biga
Methionine restriction (MR) has been studied extensively over the last 25 years for its role in altering metabolic hallmarks of disease. Animals subjected to MR, display changes in metabolic flexibility demonstrated by increases in energy expenditure, glucose tolerance, and lifespan. These changes have been well characterized in a number of model systems and significant progress has been made in understanding how hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 links MR to several components of its metabolic phenotype...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779299/health-issues-of-refugees-attending-an-infectious-disease-refugee-health-clinic-in-a-regional-australian-hospital
#5
Peta J Masters, Penelope J Lanfranco, Emmy Sneath, Amanda J Wade, Sarah Huffam, James Pollard, James Standish, Kate McCloskey, Eugene Athan, Daniel P O'Brien, N Deborah Friedman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Refugees in Australia present with conditions different to those of the general population. The aim of this study was to review the reasons for referral, prevalence of conditions and treatment outcomes for refugee patients attending a specialist referral clinic in regional Victoria. METHOD: A retrospective review was undertaken of patients attending the refugee health clinic at University Hospital Geelong from January 2007 to December 2012...
May 2018: Australian journal of general practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778396/how-effective-are-approaches-to-migrant-screening-for-infectious-diseases-in-europe-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Farah Seedat, Sally Hargreaves, Laura B Nellums, Jing Ouyang, Michael Brown, Jon S Friedland
Rates of migration to Europe, and within Europe, have increased in recent years, with considerable implications for health systems. Migrants in Europe face a disproportionate burden of tuberculosis, HIV, and hepatitis B and C, yet experience a large number of barriers to accessing statutory health care on arrival. A better understanding of how to deliver effective and cost-effective screening, vaccination, and health services to this group is now crucial. We did a systematic review to document and assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of approaches used for infectious diseases screening, and to explore facilitators and barriers experienced by migrants to accessing screening programmes...
May 16, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778265/a-guide-to-the-economics-of-hepatitis-c-virus-cure-in-2017
#7
REVIEW
Benjamin P Linas, Shayla Nolen
This commentary reviews the core principals of cost-effectiveness and applies them to the rapidly evolving context of hepatitis C virus treatment in the United States. The article provides a foundation of evidence that hepatitis C virus treatment provides good economic value, even though it is expensive, and even when treating people who inject drugs who are at high risk for hepatitis C virus reinfection. The price of medications has decreased, but the high price continues to limit access to care. This wedge between cost effectiveness and affordability stands front and center as one of the leading obstacles to elimination...
June 2018: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778263/hepatitis-c-virus-elimination-in-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-coinfected-population-leveraging-the-existing-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infrastructure
#8
REVIEW
Meredith E Clement, Lauren F Collins, Julius M Wilder, Michael Mugavero, Taryn Barker, Susanna Naggie
The objective of this review is to consider how existing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infrastructure may be leveraged to inform and improve hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment efforts in the HIV-HCV coinfected population. Current gaps in HCV care relevant to the care continuum are reviewed. Successes in HIV treatment are then applied to the HCV treatment model for coinfected patients. Finally, the authors give examples of HCV treatment strategies for coinfected patients in both domestic and international settings...
June 2018: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778260/treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-in-patients-receiving-opioid-agonist-therapy-a-review-of-best-practice
#9
REVIEW
Brianna L Norton, Matthew J Akiyama, Philippe J Zamor, Alain H Litwin
Injection drug use is the most common transmission route for hepatitis C. High rates of infection are observed among individuals on opioid agonist therapy. Although people who inject drugs carry the highest burden, few have initiated treatment. We present a comprehensive review of the evidence on the efficacy of HCV medications, drug-drug interactions, and barriers to and models of care. Studies have demonstrated comparable efficacy for individuals who are on opioid agonist therapy compared with those who are not...
June 2018: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778254/long-term-liver-disease-treatment-and-mortality-outcomes-among-17-000-persons-diagnosed-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-current-chronic-hepatitis-cohort-study-status-and-review-of-findings
#10
REVIEW
Anne C Moorman, Loralee B Rupp, Stuart C Gordon, Yuna Zhong, Jian Xing, Mei Lu, Joseph A Boscarino, Mark A Schmidt, Yihe G Daida, Eyasu H Teshale, Philip R Spradling, Scott D Holmberg
Chronic Hepatitis Cohort Study (CHeCS) publications using data from "real-world" patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) have described demographic disparities in access to care; rates of advanced liver disease, morbidity, and mortality (2.5%-3.5% per year during 2006-10, although only 19% of all CHeCS decedents, and just 30% of those with deaths attributed to liver disease, had HCV listed on death certificate); substantial comorbidities, such as diabetes, advanced liver fibrosis (29% prevalence), renal disease, and depression, and partial reversal of all these with successful antiviral therapy; patient risk behaviors; and use of noninvasive markers to assess liver disease...
June 2018: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777955/perspectives-and-limitations-for-nucleo-t-side-analogs-in-future-hbv-therapies
#11
REVIEW
Massimo Levrero, Miroslava Subic, Francois Villeret, Fabien Zoulim
The latest generation of nucleo(t)side analogs (NAs) provide robust virus suppression with high barrier to resistance. Long term NAs treatment is associated with a partial restoration in HBV-specific T-cell functions, regression of fibrosis, no disease progression and a reduction of HCC risk but rarely lead to cure and life-long treatments is often required. New insights into the hepatitis B viral life cycle and the host immune response have expanded the potential targets for drug therapies with interesting antiviral candidates and novel immunotherapeutic approaches in early stage development...
May 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777749/burden-of-liver-disease-in-europe-epidemiology-and-analysis-of-risk-factors-to-identify-prevention-policies
#12
REVIEW
Laura Pimpin, Helena Cortez-Pinto, Francesco Negro, Emily Corbould, Jeffrey V Lazarus, Laura Webber, Nick Sheron
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The burden of liver disease in Europe continues to grow. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of liver diseases and their risk factors in European countries, and identify public health interventions that could impact on these risk factors to reduce the burden of liver disease. METHODS: As part of the HEPAHEALTH project, commissioned by EASL, we extracted information on historical and current prevalence and mortality from national and international literature and databases on liver disease in 35 countries in the WHO European region, as well as historical and recent prevalence data on their main determinants; alcohol consumption, obesity and hepatitis B and C virus infections...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773863/low-prevalence-of-argininosuccinate-lyase-deficiency-among-inherited-urea-cycle-disorders-in-korea
#13
Dahye Kim, Jung Min Ko, Yoon-Myung Kim, Go Hun Seo, Gu-Hwan Kim, Beom Hee Lee, Han-Wook Yoo
Argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA), which is considered to be the second most common urea cycle disorder (UCD), is caused by an argininosuccinate lyase deficiency and is biochemically characterized by elevation of argininosuccinic acid and arginine deficiency. In addition to hyperammonemia, other characteristic features of ASA include hepatic fibrosis, hypertension, neurocognitive deficiencies, and trichorrhexis nodosa. Herein, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical findings, biochemical profiles, and genotypic characteristics of five Korean patients with ASA, who showed typical phenotypes and biochemical findings of the disease...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772941/recent-advances-in-the-discovery-and-development-of-tlr-ligands-as-novel-therapeutics-for-chronic-hbv-and-hiv-infections
#14
Keye Du, Jia Liu, Ruth Broering, Xiaoyong Zhang, Dongliang Yang, Ulf Dittmer, Mengji Lu
Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands remain as promising antiviral drug candidates for the treatment of chronic viral infections. Basic research on the mechanisms of antiviral activity of TLR ligands in preclinical animal models and clinical testing of drug candidates have been carried out in recent years. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the preclinical and clinical testing of TLR ligands in two major viral infections: hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Recent results have further demonstrated the potent antiviral activity of various TLR ligands ...
May 17, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772748/drug-delivery-strategies-for-antivirals-against-hepatitis-b-virus
#15
REVIEW
Latavia Singh, Sunaina Indermun, Mershen Govender, Pradeep Kumar, Lisa C du Toit, Yahya E Choonara, Viness Pillay
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection poses a significant health challenge due to associated morbidity and mortality from cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer that eventually results in the breakdown of liver functionality. Nanotechnology has the potential to play a pivotal role in reducing viral load levels and drug-resistant HBV through drug targeting, thus reducing the rate of evolution of the disease. Apart from tissue targeting, intracellular delivery of a wide range of drugs is necessary to exert a therapeutic action in the affected organelles...
May 17, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772409/lymphatics-in-the-liver
#16
REVIEW
Masatake Tanaka, Yasuko Iwakiri
The liver is the largest lymph producing organ. A significant increase in the number of hepatic lymphatic vessels, or lymphangiogenesis, has been reported in various liver diseases, including, but not limited to, cirrhosis, viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite its apparent relevance in healthy and diseased livers as these and other observations indicate, the hepatic lymphatic system has been poorly studied. With knowledge of the lymphatic system in other organs and tissues incorporated, this review article addresses the current knowledge of the hepatic lymphatic system and the potential role of lymphatic endothelial cells in the health and the disease of the liver and concludes with a brief description on future directions of the study of the hepatic lymphatic system...
May 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772112/liver-macrophages-friend-or-foe-during-hepatitis-b-infection
#17
Suzanne Faure-Dupuy, David Durantel, Julie Lucifora
The Hepatitis B virus chronically infects the liver of 250 million people worldwide. Over the past decades, major advances have been made in the understanding of Hepatitis B virus life cycle in hepatocytes. Beside these parenchymal cells, the liver also contains resident and infiltrating myeloid cells involved in immune responses to pathogens and much less is known about their interplay with Hepatitis B virus. In this review, we summarized and discussed the current knowledge of the role of liver macrophages (including Kupffer cells and liver monocyte-derived macrophages), in HBV infection...
May 17, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770931/pancreaticoduodenectomy-with-replaced-common-hepatic-artery-and-portal-vein-reconstruction-in-primary-carcinoma-duodenum-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#18
Gunjan S Desai, Prasad Pande, Rajiv C Shah, Palepu Jagannath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770778/apolipoprotein-e-in-diet-induced-obesity-a-paradigm-shift-from-conventional-perception
#19
Kyriakos E Kypreos, Eleni A Karavia, Caterina Constantinou, Aikaterini Hatziri, Christina Kalogeropoulou, Eva Xepapadaki, Evangelia Zvintzou
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a major protein component of peripheral and brain lipoprotein transport systems. APOE in peripheral circulation does not cross blood brain barrier or blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier. As a result, peripheral APOE expression does not affect brain APOE levels and vice versa. Numerous epidemiological studies suggest a key role of peripherally expressed APOE in the development and progression of coronary heart disease while brain APOE has been associated with dementia and Alzheimer's disease...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770478/the-endocannabinoid-alcohol-crosstalk-recent-advances-on-a-bi-faceted-target
#20
REVIEW
Gianluca Lavanco, Valentina Castelli, Anna Brancato, Giuseppe Tringali, Fulvio Plescia, Carla Cannizzaro
Increasing evidence focuses on the endocannabinoid system as a relevant player in the induction of aberrant synaptic plasticity and related addictive phenotype following chronic excessive alcohol drinking. Besides, the endocannabinoid system is implicated in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. Interestingly, whereas the involvement of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in alcohol rewarding properties is established, the central and peripheral action of CB2 cannabinoid signalling is still to be elucidated. This review aims at giving the input to deepen knowledge on the role of the endocannabinoid system, highlighting the advancing evidence that suggests that CB1 and CB2 receptors may play opposite roles in the regulation of both the reinforcing properties of alcohol in the brain and the mechanisms responsible for cell injury and inflammation in the hepatic tissue...
May 16, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
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