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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813112/what-do-cochrane-systematic-reviews-say-about-the-clinical-effectiveness-of-screening-and-diagnostic-tests-for-cancer
#1
André Tito Pereira Bueno, Vladimir Lisboa Capelasso, Rafael Leite Pacheco, Carolina de Oliveira Cruz Latorraca, Tiago Biachi de Castria, Daniela Vianna Pachito, Rachel Riera
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The purpose of screening tests for cancer is to detect it at an early stage in order to increase the chances of treatment. However, their unrestrained use may lead to unnecessary examinations, overdiagnosis and higher costs. It is thus necessary to evaluate their clinical effects in terms of benefits and harm. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of Cochrane systematic reviews, carried out in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo...
July 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812994/organ-organ-crosstalk-and-alcoholic-liver-disease
#2
REVIEW
Lauren G Poole, Christine E Dolin, Gavin E Arteel
Alcohol consumption is a common custom worldwide, and the toxic effects of alcohol on several target organs are well-understood. Given the poor prognosis of treating clinically-relevant alcoholic liver disease (ALD) (i.e., alcoholic hepatitis (AH) and cirrhosis), additional research is required to develop more effective therapies. While the stages of ALD have been well-characterized, targeted therapies to prevent or reverse this process in humans are still needed. Better understanding of risk factors and mechanisms underlying disease progression can lead to the development of rational therapies to prevent or reverse ALD in the clinic...
August 16, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811821/prognostic-factors-affecting-long-term-survival-after-resection-for-noncolorectal-nonneuroendocrine-and-nonsarcoma-liver-metastases
#3
Fabio Uggeri, Enrico Pinotti, Marta Sandini, Luca Nespoli, Luca Gianotti, Fabrizio Romano
AIM: To evaluate feasibility and long-term outcome after hepatic resection for noncolorectal, nonneuroendocrine, and nonsarcoma (NCNNNS) liver metastases in a single center. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our experience on patients who underwent surgery for NCNNNS liver metastases from 1995 to 2015. Patient baseline characteristics, tumor features, treatment options, and postoperative outcome were retrieved. RESULTS: We included 47 patients...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811194/immunogenetic-studies-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-an-era-of-pan-genotype-antiviral-therapies-effective-treatment-is-coming
#4
Joel Henrique Ellwanger, Valéria de Lima Kaminski, Jacqueline Maria Valverde-Villegas, Daniel Simon, Vagner Ricardo Lunge, José Artur Bogo Chies
What are the factors that influence human hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, hepatitis status establishment, and disease progression? Firstly, one has to consider the genetic background of the host and HCV genotypes. The immunogenetic host profile will reflect how each infected individual deals with infection. Secondly, there are environmental factors that drive susceptibility or resistance to certain viral strains. These will dictate (I) the susceptibility to infection; (II) whether or not an infected person will promote viral clearance; (III) the immune response and the response profile to therapy; and (IV) whether and how long it would take to the development of HCV-associated diseases, as well as their severity...
August 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810886/factors-affecting-survival-after-concurrent-chemoradiation-therapy-for-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-retrospective-study
#5
Ja Kyung Kim, Jun Won Kim, Ik Jae Lee, Seung-Moon Joo, Kwang-Hun Lee, Eun-Suk Cho, Jeong-Sik Yu, Tae Joo Jeon, Yonsoo Kim, Jung Il Lee, Kwan Sik Lee
BACKGROUND: Concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) followed by hepatic arterial infusional chemotherapy (HAIC) was reported to be effective for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein thrombosis. However, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is not preferred in this setting. The aim of this study was to assess the factors affecting survival after CCRT, including additional TACE during repeated HAIC. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients who underwent CCRT as the initial treatment for Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage C HCC with vascular invasion between 2009 and 2016 were reviewed retrospectively...
August 15, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807628/vertebral-alveolar-echinococcosis-a-case-report-systematic-analysis-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
REVIEW
Thomas Raphael Meinel, Bruno Gottstein, Vanessa Geib, Marius Johann Keel, Ruggero Biral, Markus Mohaupt, Jan Brügger
Alveolar echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus multilocularis is an infrequent zoonosis with a high degree of disability, morbidity, and mortality, especially in disease clusters of the northern hemisphere. The diagnosis is complicated by extended incubation time, diverse clinical manifestations, and mimicking of differential diagnoses. The primary organ affected is the liver, but extrahepatic disease is possible, with vertebral involvement in only a few dozen cases described worldwide. Although vertebral alveolar echinococcosis seems to be rare, it might be under diagnosed, and it might be seen more often as the number of people with immunocompromised conditions increases...
August 11, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807250/a-systematic-review-on-radiofrequency-assisted-laparoscopic-liver-resection-challenges-and-window-to-excel
#7
REVIEW
Isabella Reccia, Jayant Kumar, Tomokazu Kusano, Artur Zanellato, Ahmed Draz, Duncan Spalding, Nagy Habib, Madhava Pai
Laparoscopic liver resection has progressively gained acceptance as a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of benign and malignant liver neoplasms. However, blood loss remains the major challenge in liver surgery. Several techniques and devices have been introduced in liver surgery in order to minimize intraoperative haemorrhage during parenchymal transection. Radiofrequency (RF)-assisted liver resection has been shown to be an effective method to minimize bleeding in open and laparoscopic liver resection...
September 2017: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807246/hepatic-intra-arterial-injection-of-irinotecan-drug-eluting-beads-debiri-for-patients-with-unresectable-colorectal-liver-metastases-a%C3%A2-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Olaguoke Akinwande, Meaghan Dendy, Johannes M Ludwig, Hyun S Kim
PURPOSE: To systematically review the safety and efficacy of transarterial drug-eluting beads, irinotecan (DEBIRI) for the treatment of pretreated patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). METHODS: A systematic search of the current literature was conducted to extract publications reporting on the use of DEBIRI for CRLM. Data on the safety and efficacy was extracted and tabulated. Weighted average values (WAV) were calculated for each variable to provide a single value representing the pooled safety and efficacy data...
September 2017: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807245/portal-vein-ligation-versus-portal-vein-embolization-for-induction-of-hypertrophy-of-the-future-liver-remnant-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
C J Isfordink, M Samim, M N G J A Braat, A M Almalki, J Hagendoorn, I H M Borel Rinkes, I Q Molenaar
An important risk of major hepatic resection is postoperative liver failure, which is directly related to insufficient future liver remnant (FLR). Portal vein embolization (PVE) and portal vein ligation (PVL) can minimize this risk by inducing hypertrophy of the FLR. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy and safety of PVE and PVL for FLR hypertrophy. A systematic search was conducted on the17(th) of January 2017. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Oxford Critical Appraisal Skills Program for cohort studies...
September 2017: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806321/liver-imaging-reporting-and-data-system-discordance-between-computed-tomography-and-gadoxetate-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-detection-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-major-features
#10
Victoria Chernyak, Milana Flusberg, Amy Law, Mariya Kobi, Viktoriya Paroder, Alla M Rozenblit
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to compare agreement between computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of the major Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) features used in assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma: arterial phase hyperenhancement (APHE), portal venous phase washout (WO), capsule appearance (capsule), and largest diameter (diameter). METHODS: Patients with liver protocol CT and gadoxetate-enhanced MRI within 1 month of each other and at least 1 discrete untreated liver lesion were included...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805674/hepatitis-c-virus-induced-autophagy-and-host-innate-immune-response
#11
REVIEW
Stephanie T Chan, Jing-Hsiung James Ou
Autophagy is a catabolic process that is important for maintaining cellular homeostasis. This pathway in hepatocytes is stimulated and controlled by the hepatitis C virus (HCV)-upon infection-to promote its own replication. HCV induces autophagy indirectly and directly through different mechanisms and temporally controls the autophagic flux. This enables the virus to maximize its replication and attenuate the innate immune responses that it activates. In this review, we discuss the relationship between HCV and autophagy, and the crosstalk between HCV-induced autophagy and host innate immune responses...
August 12, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804853/thromboelastography-teg
#12
Maha Othman, Harmanpreet Kaur
Thromboelastography (TEG) has been used for decades to guide transfusion therapy during cardiac and hepatic surgeries. Renewed interest and improved technology have led to wider applications of TEG in other areas of hemostasis. To correctly interpret the data generated and to validate outcomes, it is important to improve the understanding of the differences in the currently available assay procedures, the issues related to sample activation, and the importance of the use of appropriate controls. Current TEG assays use a variety of samples and can vary slightly in the procedures...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804737/studies-on-the-mechanisms-of-bile-acid-initiated-hepatic-inflammation-in-cholestatic-liver-injury
#13
Shi-Ying Cai, James L Boyer
The mechanism of bile acid induced cholestatic liver injury remains controversial, thus hindering the development of new therapies for these diseases. In this research highlight, we briefly review the evolution of our understanding of the pathogenesis of bile acid induced liver injury, and summarize our recent findings on this topic. Our data suggests that under pathophysiological conditions bile acid induced liver injury is mediated by inflammatory responses that are initiated from stressed hepatocytes. We conclude by mentioning potential new therapeutic approaches for treating cholestatic liver injury based on these pathophysiologic concepts...
2017: Inflammation and Cell Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803824/the-clinical-spectrum-of-hepatic-manifestations-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#14
REVIEW
Natalia Kreiniz, Ofrat Beyar Katz, Aaron Polliack, Tamar Tadmor
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in the Western world, characterized by the presence of long-lived circulating leukemic cells in the peripheral blood that may infiltrate all organs, particularly those of the reticulo-endothelial system. Liver enlargement and elevation of liver enzymes related to specific involvement by the underlying disease are well-recognized features in these patients. In CLL, the differential diagnosis of liver disorders is broad and includes liver infiltration by leukemic cells, immunologic manifestations associated with CLL, primary and secondary hepatic malignancies, drug-induced hepatotoxicity, infections, and Richter transformation...
July 23, 2017: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801889/strategies-of-minimally-invasive-treatment-for-intrahepatic-and-extrahepatic-bile-duct-stones
#15
Zongming Zhang, Zhuo Liu, Limin Liu, Mengmeng Song, Chong Zhang, Hongwei Yu, Baijiang Wan, Mingwen Zhu, Zixu Liu, Hai Deng, Haiming Yuan, Haiyan Yang, Wenping Wei, Yue Zhao
Cholelithiasis is a kind of common and multiple diseases. In recent years, traditional laparotomy has been challenged by a minimally invasive surgery. Through literature review, the therapeutic method, effect, and complications of minimally invasive treatment of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct stones by combining our practical experience were summarized as follows. (1) For intrahepatic bile duct stones, the operation may be selected by laparoscopic liver resection, laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE), or percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy...
August 12, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801869/the-role-of-vitamin-d-in-hepatic-metastases-from-colorectal-cancer
#16
E Shaw, N Massaro, N T Brockton
Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents a significant health burden worldwide, comprising approximately 10% of annual cancer cases globally. Hepatic metastases are the most common site of CRC metastasis, and are the leading cause of death in CRC patients. There is strong epidemiologic evidence for an inverse association between vitamin D status and risk of CRC; however, the role of vitamin D in the natural history of liver metastases has not yet been investigated. Several researchers have proposed hallmarks of metastases; crucially, metastases can be blocked by interrupting just one rate-limiting step...
August 11, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800545/liver-toxicity-of-chemotherapy-and-targeted-therapy-for-breast-cancer-patients-with-hepatitis-virus-infection
#17
Yu Liu, Zhan-Yi Li, Xi Li, Jia-Ni Wang, Qun-Ai Huang, Yong Huang
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy has greatly improved the prognosis of breast cancer patients. However, it may also result in undesirable side effects such as hepatitis virus reactivation. Little information is available on the liver toxicity of chemotherapy and targeted therapy for breast cancer patients with hepatitis virus (HBV/HCV) infection. METHODS: We performed a retrospective survey of 835 patients diagnosed with breast cancer between January 2010 and December 2015 at our institution...
August 8, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800522/screening-for-infectious-diseases-among-asylum-seekers-newly-arrived-in-germany-in-2015-a%C3%A2-systematic-single-centre-analysis
#18
A Z Kortas, J Polenz, J von Hayek, S Rüdiger, W Rottbauer, U Storr, T Wibmer
OBJECTIVES: During the migrant crisis in 2015, Germany was the largest single recipient of new asylum seekers in Europe. The German asylum law requires a screening examination for certain infectious diseases in asylum seekers upon arrival. The aim of this work was to analyse the rate of certain infectious diseases among asylum seekers screened at a reception centre in Southern Germany. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective medical record review. METHODS: Medical records of 2602 asylum seekers screened by a local public health authority in Germany in 2015 were systematically analysed...
August 8, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800492/adding-abiraterone-to-androgen-deprivation-therapy-in-men-with-metastatic-hormone-sensitive-prostate-cancer-a%C3%A2-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Larysa H M Rydzewska, Sarah Burdett, Claire L Vale, Noel W Clarke, Karim Fizazi, Thian Kheoh, Malcolm D Mason, Branko Miladinovic, Nicholas D James, Mahesh K B Parmar, Melissa R Spears, Christopher J Sweeney, Matthew R Sydes, NamPhuong Tran, Jayne F Tierney
BACKGROUND: There is a need to synthesise the results of numerous randomised controlled trials evaluating the addition of therapies to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC). This systematic review aims to assess the effects of adding abiraterone acetate plus prednisone/prednisolone (AAP) to ADT. METHODS: Using our framework for adaptive meta-analysis (FAME), we started the review process before trials had been reported and worked collaboratively with trial investigators to anticipate when eligible trial results would emerge...
August 8, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800058/effectiveness-of-mifamurtide-in-addition-to-standard-chemotherapy-for-high-grade-osteosarcoma-a-systematic-review
#20
Rincy Jimmy, Cindy Stern, Karolina Lisy, Sarahlouise White
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma mostly occurs during the period of rapid bone growth in children and adolescents as high-grade osteosarcomas. Current treatment recommended for high-grade non-metastatic and metastatic and/or relapsed osteosarcoma involves neoadjuvant multiagent conventional chemotherapy, followed by surgical resection of macroscopically detected tumor and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. However, residual micrometastatic deposits that develop following surgery have shown resistance to postoperative/adjuvant chemotherapy...
August 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
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