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DNA replication

Ryu Miura, Atsuko Araki, Chihiro Miyashita, Sumitaka Kobayashi, Sachiko Kobayashi, Shu-Li Wang, Chung-Hsing Chen, Kunio Miyake, Mayumi Ishizuka, Yusuke Iwasaki, Yoichi M Ito, Takeo Kubota, Reiko Kishi
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) influences fetal development and later in life. OBJECTIVE: To investigate cord blood DNA methylation changes associated with prenatal exposure to PFASs. METHODS: We assessed DNA methylation in cord blood samples from 190 mother-child pairs from the Sapporo cohort of the Hokkaido Study (discovery cohort) and from 37 mother-child pairs from the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study (replication cohort) using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip...
March 12, 2018: Environment International
Urmi Bajpai, Abhishek Kumar Mehta, Kandasamy Eniyan, Avni Sinha, Ankita Ray, Simran Virdi, Shazeb Ahmad, Aridni Shah, Deepanksha Arora, Devyani Marwaha, Gunjan Chauhan, Prarthna Saraswat, Punita Bathla, Ruchi Singh
Bacteriophages are being considered as a promising natural resource for the development of alternative strategies against mycobacterial diseases, especially in the context of the wide spread occurrence of drug-resistance amongst the clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. However, there isn't much information documented on mycobacteriophages from India. Here, we report the isolation of 17 mycobacteriophages using M. smegmatis as the bacterial host where 9 phages also lyse M. tuberculosis H37Rv. We present detailed analysis of one of these mycobacteriophage (PDRPv)...
March 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Carmen J Zamora-Sánchez, Aylin Del Moral-Morales, Ana M Hernández-Vega, Valeria Hansberg-Pastor, Ivan Salido-Guadarrama, Mauricio Rodríguez-Dorantes, Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo
Glioblastomas (GBM) are the most frequent and aggressive brain tumors. In these malignancies, progesterone (P4) promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion. The P4 metabolite allopregnanolone (3α-THP) similarly promotes cell proliferation in the U87 human GBM cell line. Here, we evaluated global changes in gene expression of U87 cells treated with 3α-THP, P4, and the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride (F). 3α-THP modified the expression of 137 genes, while F changed 90. Besides, both steroids regulated the expression of 69 genes...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Amit Gaba, Lisanework E Ayalew, Amrutlal Patel, Pankaj Kumar, Suresh K Tikoo
Adenovirus protein VIII appears to connect core with the inner surface of the adenovirus capsid. Since protein- protein interactions are central to virus replication, identification of proteins interacting with protein VIII may help in understanding their role in adenovirus infection. Our yeast two hybrid assay indicated that protein VIII interacts with eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (eIF6). These findings were confirmed by GST-pull down assay, bimolecular fluorescent complementation assay and co-immunoprecipitation assay in plasmid DNA transfected and BAdV-3 infected cells...
March 15, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Flemming G Hansen, Tove Atlung
More than 50 years have passed since the presentation of the Replicon Model which states that a positively acting initiator interacts with a specific site on a circular chromosome molecule to initiate DNA replication. Since then, the origin of chromosome replication, oriC , has been determined as a specific region that carries sequences required for binding of positively acting initiator proteins, DnaA-boxes and DnaA proteins, respectively. In this review we will give a historical overview of significant findings which have led to the very detailed knowledge we now possess about the initiation process in bacteria using Escherichia coli as the model organism, but emphasizing that virtually all bacteria have DnaA proteins that interacts with DnaA boxes to initiate chromosome replication...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Genki Yoshikawa, Ahmed Askora, Romain Blanc-Mathieu, Takeru Kawasaki, Yanze Li, Miyako Nakano, Hiroyuki Ogata, Takashi Yamada
Xanthomonas virus (phage) XacN1 is a novel jumbo myovirus infecting Xanthomonas citri, the causative agent of Asian citrus canker. Its linear 384,670 bp double-stranded DNA genome encodes 592 proteins and presents the longest (66 kbp) direct terminal repeats (DTRs) among sequenced viral genomes. The DTRs harbor 56 tRNA genes, which correspond to all 20 amino acids and represent the largest number of tRNA genes reported in a viral genome. Codon usage analysis revealed a propensity for the phage encoded tRNAs to target codons that are highly used by the phage but less frequently by its host...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Susan E Hepp, Gina M Borgo, Simina Ticau, Taro Ohkawa, Matthew D Welch
The baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), the type species of alphabaculoviruses, is an enveloped DNA virus that infects lepidopteran insects and is commonly known as a vector for protein expression and cell transduction. AcMNPV belongs to a diverse group of viral and bacterial pathogens that target the host cell actin cytoskeleton during infection. AcMNPV is unusual, however, in that it absolutely requires actin translocation into the nucleus early in infection, and actin polymerization within the nucleus late in infection coincident with viral replication...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Michelle Brault, Tayla M Olsen, Jennifer Martinez, Daniel B Stetson, Andrew Oberst
The sensing of viral nucleic acids within the cytosol is essential for the induction of innate immune responses following infection. However, this sensing occurs within cells that have already been infected. The death of infected cells can be beneficial to the host by eliminating the virus's replicative niche and facilitating the release of inflammatory mediators. In this study, we show that sensing of intracellular DNA or RNA by cGAS-STING or RIG-I-MAVS, respectively, leads to activation of RIPK3 and necroptosis in bone marrow-derived macrophages...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Tiandong Che, Diyan Li, Long Jin, Yuhua Fu, Yingkai Liu, Pengliang Liu, Yixin Wang, Qianzi Tang, Jideng Ma, Xun Wang, Anan Jiang, Xuewei Li, Mingzhou Li
Genome-wide transcriptomic studies in humans and mice have become extensive and mature. However, a comprehensive and systematic understanding of protein-coding genes and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) expressed during pig spleen development has not been achieved. LncRNAs are known to participate in regulatory networks for an array of biological processes. Here, we constructed 18 RNA libraries from developing fetal pig spleen (55 days before birth), postnatal pig spleens (0, 30, 180 days and 2 years after birth), and the samples from the 2-year-old Wild Boar...
2018: PloS One
Jon M Kaguni
DNA replication is an essential process. Although the fundamental strategies to duplicate chromosomes are similar in all free-living organisms, the enzymes of the three domains of life that perform similar functions in DNA replication differ in amino acid sequence and their three-dimensional structures. Moreover, the respective proteins generally utilize different enzymatic mechanisms. Hence, the replication proteins that are highly conserved among bacterial species are attractive targets to develop novel antibiotics as the compounds are unlikely to demonstrate off-target effects...
March 14, 2018: Antibiotics
Luz I Valenzuela-García, Víctor M Ayala-García, Ana G Regalado-García, Peter Setlow, Mario Pedraza-Reyes
The absence of base excision repair (BER) proteins involved in processing ROS-promoted genetic insults activates a DNA damage scanning (DisA)-dependent checkpoint event in outgrowing Bacillus subtilis spores. Here, we report that genetic disabling of transcription-coupled repair (TCR) or nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathways severely affected outgrowth of ΔdisA spores, and much more so than the effects of these mutations on log phase growth. This defect delayed the first division of spore's nucleoid suggesting that unrepaired lesions affected transcription and/or replication during outgrowth...
March 13, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Cecilia M Lotufo, Maximiliano Wilda, Adrian N Giraldez, Pablo R Grigera, Nora M Mattion
A foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) DNA-launched reporter replicon containing a luciferase gene was used to assess the impact of non-structural (NS) protein 3A on viral replication. Independent deletions within the N-terminal region (amino acid [aa] residues 6 to 24) and the central hydrophobic region (HR, aa 59 to 76) of FMDV NS protein 3A were engineered, and luciferase activity in lysates of control and mutated replicon-transfected cells was measured. Triple alanine replacements of the N-terminal triplet Arg 18- His 19 -Glu 20 and a single alanine substitution of the highly charged Glu 20 residue both resulted in a 70-80% reduction in luciferase activity when compared with wild-type controls...
March 13, 2018: Archives of Virology
Cynthia Kanagaratham, Victoria Chiwara, Bianca Ho, Sanny Moussette, Mina Youssef, David Venuto, Lucie Jeannotte, Guillaume Bourque, Juan Bautista de Sanctis, Danuta Radzioch, Anna K Naumova
The human chromosomal region 17q12-q21 is one of the best replicated genome-wide association study loci for childhood asthma. The associated SNPs span a large genomic interval that includes several protein-coding genes. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the zona pellucida-binding protein 2 (ZPBP2) gene residing in this region contributes to asthma pathogenesis using a mouse model. We tested the lung phenotypes of knock-out (KO) mice that carry a deletion of the Zpbp2 gene. The deletion attenuated airway hypersensitivity (AHR) in female, but not male, mice in the absence of allergic sensitization...
March 13, 2018: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
Zay Yar Oo, Alexander J Stevenson, Martina A Proctor, Sheena M Daignault, Sebastian Walpole, Catherine Lanagan, Mu-Su Chen, Dubravka Skalamera, Loredana Spoerri, Stephen Ainger, Richard A Sturm, Nikolas K Haass, Brian Gabrielli
PURPOSE: CHEK1 inhibitors (CHEK1i) have single agent activity in vitro and in vivo. Here we have investigated the molecular basis of this activity. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We have assessed a panel of melanoma cell lines for their sensitivity to the CHEK1i GNE-323 and GDC-0575 in vitro and in vivo. The effects of these compounds on responses to DNA replication stress were analyzed in the hypersensitive cell lines. RESULTS: A subset of melanoma cell lines are hypersensitive to CHEK1i-induced cell death in vitro, and the drug effectively inhibits tumour growth in vivo...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Seema Singh, Manoj K Singh, Prolay Das
Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimmers (CPDs) and 6-4-[pyrimidine-2'-one] pyrimidine (6-4 PP) are major UV induced DNA damage lesions formed from solar radiation and other sources. CPD lesions are presumably mutagenic and carcinogenic that inhibit polymerases and interfere in DNA replication. An easy and cost effective way for visual detection of these lesions by using fluorescence based method is shown here. Artificial UVA and UVB lights were used for the generation of CPD and 6-4 PPs in selected DNA samples. Binding of Hg2+ ions with DNA before and after induction of CPD and 6-4 PP lesions was evaluated in the presence of highly fluorescent blue emitting carbon dots (CDs)...
August 3, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
John Repass, Elizabeth Iorns, Alexandria Denis, Stephen R Williams, Nicole Perfito, Timothy M Errington
As part of the <ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xlink:href="">Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology</ext-link>, we published a Registered Report (Repass et al., 2016), that described how we intended to replicate an experiment from the paper ' Fusobacterium nucleatum infection is prevalent in human colorectal carcinoma' (Castellarin et al., 2012). Here we report the results. When measuring Fusobacterium nucleatum DNA by qPCR in colorectal carcinoma (CRC), adjacent normal tissue, and separate matched control tissue, we did not detect a signal for F...
March 13, 2018: ELife
Lata Singh, Neeru Saini, Neelam Pushker, Sameer Bakhshi, Seema Sen, Tapas C Nag, Seema Kashyap
Alteration in mitochondrial DNA plays an important role in the development and progression of cancer. The Displacement Loop (D-loop) region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the regulatory region for its replication and transcription. Therefore, we aimed to characterize mutations in the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA along with the morphological changes and analyzed their impact on survival in retinoblastoma patients. mtDNA D-loop region was amplified by Nested-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nested-PCR) and mutations were analyzed in 60 tumor samples from retinoblastoma patients by DNA sequencing...
March 12, 2018: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Rahman Rahimi
AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of CYP1A2 -163C>A polymorphism on the ergogenic effects of caffeine supplementation during a resistance exercise (RE) session. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo (PL)-controlled, crossover study, 30 resistance-trained men took part in two RE sessions (three sets to failure at 85% of one repetition maximum, 2-min rest between sets), including bench press (BP), leg press (LP), seated cable row, and shoulder press (SP) following caffeine (CAF) (6 mg kg-1 ) or PL (6 mg kg-1 of maltodextrin) ingestion 1 h prior to the trial...
March 12, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Xiubao Chang, Yuexian Hou
Genome editing is a powerful tool to modify a specific gene and to correct a disease-causing mutation. Recently developed new techniques, such as zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9), significantly facilitate the progression in this field. However, mutations associated with the double strand DNA breaks (DSBs) introduced by these systems hampered their direct usage in clinic. In order to prevent the mutations caused by DSBs, we have designed a novel mean to induce homology-directed recombination (HDR) without DSBs, i...
2018: International Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Yuan-Liang Zhang, Jie-Wen Sun, Yin-Yin Xie, Yan Zhou, Ping Liu, Jia-Chun Song, Chun-Hui Xu, Lan Wang, Dan Liu, Ai-Ning Xu, Zhu Chen, Sai-Juan Chen, Xiao-Jian Sun, Qiu-Hua Huang
The histone H3 lysine 36 methyltransferase SETD2 is frequently mutated in various cancers, including leukemia. However, there has not been any functional model to show the contribution of SETD2 in hematopoiesis or the causal role of SETD2 mutation in tumorigenesis. In this study, using a conditional Setd2 knockout mouse model, we show that Setd2 deficiency skews hematopoietic differentiation and reduces the number of multipotent progenitors; although the number of phenotypic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in Setd2-deleted mice is unchanged, functional assays, including serial BM transplantation, reveal that the self-renewal and competitiveness of HSCs are impaired...
March 12, 2018: Cell Research
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