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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944822/investigation-of-crucial-genes-and-micrornas-in-conventional-osteosarcoma-using-gene-expression-profiling-analysis
#1
Chuangang Peng, Qi Yang, Bo Wei, Baoming Yuan, Yong Liu, Yuxiang Li, Dawer Gu, Guochao Yin, Bo Wang, Dehui Xu, Xuebing Zhang, Daliang Kong
The present study aimed to screen potential genes associated with conventional osteosarcoma (OS) and obtain further information on the pathogenesis of this disease. The microarray dataset GSE14359 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus. A total of 10 conventional OS samples and two non‑neoplastic primary osteoblast samples in the dataset were selected to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using the Linear Models for Microarray Data package. The potential functions of the DEGs were predicted using Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944611/gene-therapy-with-the-trf1-telomere-gene-rescues-decreased-trf1-levels-with-aging-and-prolongs-mouse-health-span
#2
Aksinya Derevyanko, Kurt Whittemore, Ralph P Schneider, Verónica Jiménez, Fàtima Bosch, Maria A Blasco
The shelterin complex protects telomeres by preventing them from being degraded and recognized as double-strand DNA breaks. TRF1 is an essential component of shelterin, with important roles in telomere protection and telomere replication. We previously showed that TRF1 deficiency in the context of different mouse tissues leads to loss of tissue homeostasis owing to impaired stem cell function. Here, we show that TRF1 levels decrease during organismal aging both in mice and in humans. We further show that increasing TRF1 expression in both adult (1-year-old) and old (2-year-old) mice using gene therapy can delay age-associated pathologies...
September 24, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943968/high-excision-repair-cross-complementation-group-1-expression-is-associated-with-favorable-prognostic-factors-in-breast-cancer
#3
Dong Hyun Kim, Hyunjoo Lee, Dong-Hoon Kim, Seoung Wan Chae, Jin Hee Sohn, Kyungeun Kim, Sung-Im Do
Distortion of DNA can inhibit transcription and replication, resulting in cell death. The nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway recognizes and repairs DNA adducts. Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) is a nuclease that serves a vital role in the NER pathway. Few studies have investigated ERCC1 expression in breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between clinicopathological features and ERCC1 expression in breast cancer. ERCC1 expression was studied in 224 invasive ductal carcinomas by immunohistochemical staining...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943900/influence-of-chronic-inflammation-on-bcl-2-and-pcna-expression-in-prostate-needle-biopsy-specimens
#4
Michael Glover, Shardul Soni, Qinghu Ren, Gregory T Maclennan, Pingfu Fu, Sanjay Gupta
The association between inflammation and cancer has been established in certain forms of human malignancies; however, its role in prostate cancer remains unclear. The present study investigates a possible association between chronic inflammation and the development of epithelial neoplasia in the prostate. Needle biopsy specimens were obtained from patients with serum prostate-specific antigen levels >4 ng/ml, evaluated for morphological findings, and immunostained for Bcl-2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943391/cytogenetic-effects-of-jacareubin-from-calophyllum-brasiliense-on-human-peripheral-blood-mononucleated-cells-in-vitro-and-on-mouse-polychromatic-erythrocytes-in-vivo
#5
W R García-Niño, E Estrada-Muñiz, M Valverde, R Reyes-Chilpa, L Vega
Jacareubin is a xanthone isolated from the heartwood of Calophyllum brasiliense with antibacterial and gastroprotective properties and the intention for clinical use as an anti-cancer treatment (due to the similar chemical structure to other anti-neoplastic drugs) requires an investigation of whether this compound can generate adverse effects on non-transformed cells. Jacareubin (0.5-1000μM in DMSO) was more cytotoxic on phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs; IC50 at 72h by MTT: 85...
September 21, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942490/susceptibility-of-mice-to-bovine-herpesvirus-type-5-infection-in-the-central-nervous-system
#6
L P Mesquita, R C Costa, M M Fusuma, F R P Bruhn, E Mori, E M Pituco, C M C Mori, R Weiblen, P C Maiorka
Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) is an important pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis in cattle. Few studies have used the mouse as a model for BoHV-5 infection. Despite the fact that BoHV-5 can infect mice with immune deficiencies, little is known about viral replication, immune response, and the course of infection in the central nervous system (CNS) of wild-type mice. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the response in the CNS of BALB/c mice acutely infected with BoHV-5 at different days post-inoculation (dpi)...
September 23, 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942426/rapid-dna-synthesis-during-early-drosophila%C3%A2-embryogenesis-is-sensitive-to-maternal-humpty-dumpty-protein-function
#7
Shera Lesly, Jennifer L Bandura, Brian R Calvi
Problems with DNA replication cause cancer and developmental malformations. It is not fully understood how DNA replication is coordinated with development and perturbed in disease. We had previously identified the Drosophila gene humpty dumpty (hd) and showed that null alleles cause incomplete DNA replication, tissue undergrowth, and lethality. Animals homozygous for the missense allele, hd(272-9) , were viable, but adult females had impaired amplification of eggshell protein genes in the ovary, resulting in the maternal effects of thin eggshells and embryonic lethality...
September 23, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942358/claspin-functions-in-cell-homeostasis-a-link-to-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Diana Azenha, Maria Celeste Lopes, Teresa C Martins
Cancer remains one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Most cancers present high degrees of genomic instability. DNA damage and replication checkpoints function as barriers to halt cell cycle progression until damage is resolved, preventing the perpetuation of errors. Activation of these checkpoints is critically dependent on Claspin, an adaptor protein that mediates the phosphorylation of the effector kinase Chk1 by ATR. However, Claspin also performs other roles related to the protection and maintenance of cell and genome integrity...
September 8, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941869/transcription-associated-mutational-pressure-in-the-parvovirus-b19-genome-reactivated-genomes-contribute-to-the-variability-of-viral-populations
#9
Vladislav Victorovich Khrustalev, Marina Anatolyevna Ermalovich, Judith M Hübschen, Tatyana Aleksandrovna Khrustaleva
In this study we used non-overlapping parts of the two long open reading frames coding for nonstructural (NS) and capsid (VP) proteins of all available sequences of the Parvovirus B19 subgenotype 1a genome and found out that the rates of A to G, C to T and A to T mutations are higher in the first long reading frame (NS) of the virus than in the second one (VP). This difference in mutational pressure directions for two parts of the same viral genome can be explained by the fact of transcription of just the first long reading frame during the lifelong latency in nonerythroid cells...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941411/a-fully-continuous-system-of-dna-profile-evidence-evaluation-that-can-utilise-str-profile-data-produced-under-different-conditions-within-a-single-analysis
#10
Duncan Taylor, Jo-Anne Bright, Hannah Kelly, Meng-Han Lin, John Buckleton
The introduction of probabilistic DNA interpretation systems has made it possible to evaluate many profiles that previously (under a manual interpretation system) were not. These probabilistic systems have been around for a number of years and it is becoming more common that their use within a laboratory has spanned at least one technology change. This may be a change in laboratory hardware, the DNA profiling kit used, or the manner in which the profile is generated. Up until this point, when replicates DNA profiles are generated, that span a technological change, the ability to utilise all the information in all replicates has been limited or non-existent...
September 8, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941243/the-cysb-motif-of-rev3p-involved-in-the-formation-of-the-four-subunit-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE-is-required-for-defective-replisome-induced-mutagenesis
#11
Ewa Szwajczak, Iwona J Fijalkowska, Catherine Suski
Eukaryotic DNA replication is performed by high-fidelity multi-subunit replicative B-family DNA polymerases (Pols) α, δ and ε. Those complexes are composed of catalytic and accessory subunits and organized in multi-complex machinery: the replisome. The fourth B-family member, DNA polymerase zeta (Pol ζ), is responsible for a large portion of mutagenesis in eukaryotic cells. Two forms of Pol ζ have been identified, a hetero-dimeric (Pol ζ2 ) and a hetero-tetrameric (Pol ζ4 ) ones, and recent data have demonstrated that Pol ζ4 is responsible for damage-induced mutagenesis...
September 23, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941008/non-canonical-bases-in-the-genome-the-regulatory-information-layer-in-dna
#12
Thomas Carell, Matthias Q Kurz, Markus Müller, Martin Rossa, Fabio Spada
The sequence of the four canonical bases dA, dC, dG and dT forming two defined Watson-Crick base pairs (dT:dA, dG:dC), held together by H-bonding, establish the sequence information in the DNA double strand. The faithful replication of the sequence information during cell division, the transcription of the DNA information into RNA and the final translation of the sequence information into proteins is the basis for life on earth. Multicellular organisms developed the concept of specialized cells that perform specific functions...
September 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940661/dna-methylation-in-embryo-development-epigenetic-impact-of-art-assisted-reproductive-technologies
#13
REVIEW
Sebastian Canovas, Pablo J Ross, Gavin Kelsey, Pilar Coy
DNA methylation can be considered a component of epigenetic memory with a critical role during embryo development, and which undergoes dramatic reprogramming after fertilization. Though it has been a focus of research for many years, the reprogramming mechanism is still not fully understood. Recent results suggest that absence of maintenance at DNA replication is a major factor, and that there is an unexpected role for TET3-mediated oxidation of 5mC to 5hmC in guarding against de novo methylation. Base-resolution and genome-wide profiling methods are enabling more comprehensive assessments of the extent to which ART might impair DNA methylation reprogramming, and which sequence elements are most vulnerable...
September 21, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940147/backbone-resonance-assignment-of-the-human-uracil-dna-glycosylase-2
#14
Hesna Kara, Luc Ponchon, Serge Bouaziz
The HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) is incorporated into virus particle during budding suggesting that its presence in the mature virion is required in the early steps of the virus life cycle in newly infected cells. Vpr is released into the host cell cytoplasm to participate to the translocation of the preintegration complex (PIC) into the nucleus for integration of the viral DNA into the host genome. Actually, Vpr plays a key role in the activation of the transcription of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR), mediates cell cycle arrest in G2 to M transition, facilitates apoptosis and controls the fidelity of reverse transcription...
September 22, 2017: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940118/erratum-to-discovery-of-two-small-circular-ssdna-viruses-associated-with-the-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci
#15
Erich Y T Nakasu, Fernando L Melo, Miguel Michereff-Filho, Tatsuya Nagata, Bergmann M Ribeiro, Simone G Ribeiro, Cristiano Lacorte, Alice K Inoue-Nagata
The complete genome sequences of two novel small circular DNA viruses isolated from sweet-potato whiteflies collected in Central-West (AdDF) and Southeast (AdO) regions of Brazil were determined by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), and confirmed by cloning and Sanger sequencing. The genomes are 2,199 and 2,211 nt-long, respectively, encoding a putative coat protein (CP) and a replication-associated protein (Rep) and showing a genomic organization typical of viruses from the family Genomoviridae. Phylogenetic analysis with deduced amino acid sequences of Rep indicates that the virus from AdO is closely related to other members of the genus Gemycircularvirus, while the virus from AdDF is related to those of the genus Gemyduguivirus...
September 22, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940074/imaging-of-dna-and-protein-by-sfm-and-combined-sfm-tirf-microscopy
#16
Małgorzata Grosbart, Dejan Ristić, Humberto Sánchez, Claire Wyman
Direct imaging is invaluable for understanding the mechanism of complex genome transactions where proteins work together to organize, transcribe, replicate and repair DNA. Scanning (or atomic) force microscopy is an ideal tool for this, providing 3D information on molecular structure at nm resolution from defined components. This is a convenient and practical addition to in vitro studies as readily obtainable amounts of purified proteins and DNA are required. The images reveal structural details on the size and location of DNA bound proteins as well as protein-induced arrangement of the DNA, which are directly correlated in the same complexes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939775/translesion-synthesis-dna-polymerases-promote-error-free-replication-through-the-minor-groove-dna-adduct-3-deaza-3-methyl-adenine
#17
Jung-Hoon Yoon, Jayati Roy Choudhury, Jeseong Park, Satya Prakash, Louise Prakash
N3-methyladenine (3-MeA) is formed in DNA by reaction with S-adenosyl methionine, the reactive methyl donor, and by reaction with alkylating agents. 3-MeA protrudes into the DNA minor groove and strongly blocks synthesis by replicative DNA polymerases (Pols). However, the mechanisms for replicating through this lesion in human cells remain unidentified. Here we analyzed the roles of translesion synthesis (TLS) Pols in the replication of 3-MeA-damaged DNA in human cells. Because 3-MeA has a short half-life in vitro, we used the stable 3-deaza analog, 3-deaza-3-methyl adenine (3-dMeA), which blocks the DNA minor groove similarly to 3-MeA...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939774/bacterial-dnab-helicase-interacts-with-the-excluded-strand-to-regulate-unwinding
#18
Sean M Carney, Shivasankari Gomathinayagam, Sanford H Leuba, Michael A Trakselis
Replicative hexameric helicases are thought to unwind duplex DNA by steric exclusion (SE), where one DNA strand is encircled by the hexamer and the other is excluded from the central channel. However, interactions with the excluded strand on the exterior surface of hexameric helicases have also been shown to be important for DNA unwinding, giving rise to the steric exclusion and wrapping (SEW) model. For example, the archaeal SsoMCM helicase has been shown to unwind DNA via a SEW mode to enhance unwinding efficiency...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939694/g-quadruplex-unwinding-helicases-and-their-function-in-vivo
#19
REVIEW
Markus Sauer, Katrin Paeschke
The concept that G-quadruplex (G4) structures can form within DNA or RNA in vitro has been long known and extensively discussed. In recent years, accumulating evidences imply that G-quadruplex structures form in vivo Initially, inefficient regulation of G-quadruplex structures was mainly associated with genome instability. However, due to the location of G-quadruplex motifs and their evolutionary conservation, different cellular functions of these structures have been postulated (e.g. in telomere maintenance, DNA replication, transcription, and translation)...
September 22, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939594/rnase-h1-cooperates-with-dna-gyrases-to-restrict-r-loops-and-maintain-genome-integrity-in-arabidopsis-chloroplasts
#20
Zhuo Yang, Quancan Hou, Lingling Cheng, Wei Xu, Yantao Hong, Shuai Li, Qianwen Sun
Maintaining organellar genome integrity is essential for eukaryotic cells, and many factors can threaten genome integrity. R-loops are DNA:RNA duplexes produced during transcription, with the non-templated DNA forming a single-stranded region. R-loops function in the regulation of transcription, DNA replication, and DNA repair, but can also be susceptible to lesions that form double-stranded breaks and thus induce genome instability. From investigating the function of a plant chloroplast localized R-loop removing enzyme AtRNH1C, we have found that it is responsible for plastid R-loop homeostasis, chloroplast genome instability and development...
September 22, 2017: Plant Cell
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