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Labor exploitation

Dhanashri Bagal, Eddie Kast, Ping Cao
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are large heterogeneous molecules that represent a growing class of therapeutics. De novo sequencing of mAbs becomes necessary when the original cell line or the cDNA is unavailable. An important feature in sequencing of mAbs is the discrimination of isobaric residues (Xle): leucine (Leu) and isoleucine (Ile). An incorrect identification of the Xle site, especially in the complementarity determining regions (CDRs), can result in the production of an antibody with severely compromised efficacy...
December 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Marco Angrisani, Jinkook Lee
We investigate the health effects of short-term macroeconomic fluctuations as described by changes in unemployment rate, house, and stock market price indexes. The 'Great Recession' provides the opportunity to conduct this analysis as it involved contemporaneous shocks to the labor, housing, and stock markets. Using panel data from the Health and Retirement Study over the period 2004-2010, we relate changes in hypertension status to changes in state-level unemployment rate and house prices and to changes in stock market prices...
November 2016: Health Economics
Sherif M Shawky, Ahmed M Awad, Walaa Allam, Mohamed H Alkordi, Sherif F El-Khamisy
The affordable and reliable detection of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA is a cornerstone in the management and control of infection, affecting approximately 3% of the global population. However, the existing technologies are expensive, labor intensive and time consuming, posing significant limitations to their wide-scale exploitation, particularly in economically deprived populations. Here, we utilized the unique optical and physicochemical properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to develop a novel assay platform shown to be rapid and robust in sensing and quantifying unamplified HCV RNA in clinical samples...
November 4, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Sarah Baird, Joan Hamory Hicks, Michael Kremer, Edward Miguel
This study estimates long-run impacts of a child health investment, exploiting community-wide experimental variation in school-based deworming. The program increased labor supply among men and education among women, with accompanying shifts in labor market specialization. Ten years after deworming treatment, men who were eligible as boys stay enrolled for more years of primary school, work 17% more hours each week, spend more time in nonagricultural self-employment, are more likely to hold manufacturing jobs, and miss one fewer meal per week...
November 2016: Quarterly Journal of Economics
April Sutton, Amanda Bosky, Chandra Muller
Tensions between the demands of the knowledge-based economy and remaining, blue-collar jobs underlie renewed debates about whether schools should emphasize career and technical training or college-preparatory curricula. We add a gendered lens to this issue, given the male-dominated nature of blue-collar jobs and women's greater returns to college. Using the ELS:2002, this study exploits spatial variation in school curricula and jobs to investigate local dynamics that shape gender stratification. Results suggest a link between high school training and jobs in blue-collar communities that structures patterns of gender inequality into early adulthood...
August 2016: American Sociological Review
Hangyeore Lee, Dong-Gi Mun, Jeong Eun So, Jingi Bae, Hokeun Kim, Christophe Masselon, Sang-Won Lee
Proteomics aims to achieve complete profiling of the protein content and protein modifications in cells, tissues, and biofluids and to quantitatively determine changes in their abundances. This information serves to elucidate cellular processes and signaling pathways and to identify candidate protein biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets. Analyses must therefore be both comprehensive and efficient. Here, we present a novel online two-dimensional reverse-phase/reverse-phase liquid chromatography separation platform, which is based on a newly developed online noncontiguous fractionating and concatenating device (NCFC fractionator)...
December 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Leyla Ismayilova, Eleni Gaveras, Austin Blum, Alexice Tô-Camier, Rachel Nanema
OBJECTIVES: Research about the mental health of children in Francophone West Africa is scarce. This paper examines the relationships between adverse childhood experiences, including exposure to violence and exploitation, and mental health outcomes among children living in ultra-poverty in rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: This paper utilizes baseline data collected from 360 children ages 10-15 and 360 of their mothers recruited from twelve impoverished villages in the Nord Region of Burkina, located near the Sahel Desert and affected by extreme food insecurity...
2016: PloS One
Bram Bi Fleuren, Andries de Grip, Nicole Wh Jansen, Imjert Kant, Fred Rh Zijlstra
Sustainable employability (SE) is an important topic as it deals with employees' abilities to function adequately at work and in the labor market throughout their working lives. However, until now there has been only one attempt to define SE in the international literature (1). This first definition is a valuable contribution to the field as it rightfully describes SE as a multidimensional concept, recognizes the importance of both employee and work characteristics, and acknowledges the inherently longitudinal nature of SE...
August 22, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Wendy Macias-Konstantopoulos
Human trafficking, a form of modern slavery, is an egregious violation of human rights with profound personal and public health implications. It includes forced labor and sexual exploitation of both U.S. and non-U.S. citizens and has been reported in all 50 states. Victims of human trafficking are currently among the most abused and disenfranchised persons in society, and they face a wide range of negative health outcomes resulting from their subjugation and exploitation. Medicine has an important role to play in mitigating the devastating effects of human trafficking on individuals and society...
October 18, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Antonio Sze-To, Sanderz Fung, En-Shiun Annie Lee, Andrew K C Wong
Predicting Protein-protein interaction (PPI) is important for making new discoveries in the molecular mechanisms inside a cell. Traditionally, new PPIs are identified through biochemical experiments but such methods are labor-intensive, expensive, time-consuming and technically ineffective due to high false positive rates. Sequence-based prediction is currently the most readily applicable and cost-effective method. It exploits known PPI Databases to construct classifiers for predicting unknown PPIs based only on sequence data without requiring any other prior knowledge...
July 27, 2016: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Klaus Jaffe
W.D. Hamilton's Inclusive Fitness Theory explains the conditions that favor the emergence and maintenance of social cooperation. Today we know that these include direct and indirect benefits an agent obtains by its actions, and through interactions with kin and with genetically unrelated individuals. That is, in addition to kin-selection, assortation or homophily, and social synergies drive the evolution of cooperation. An Extended Inclusive Fitness Theory (EIFT) synthesizes the natural selection forces acting on biological evolution and on human economic interactions by assuming that natural selection driven by inclusive fitness produces agents with utility functions that exploit assortation and synergistic opportunities...
2016: SpringerPlus
Petter Lundborg, Carl Hampus Lyttkens, Paul Nystedt
By using historical data on about 50,000 twins born in Sweden during 1886-1958, we demonstrate a positive and statistically significant relationship between years of schooling and longevity. This relation remains almost unchanged when exploiting a twin fixed-effects design to control for the influence of genetics and shared family background. This result is robust to controlling for within-twin-pair differences in early-life health and cognitive ability, as proxied by birth weight and height, as well as to restricting the sample to MZ twins...
August 2016: Demography
Derek G Shendell, Saisattha Noomnual, Shumaila Chishti, MaryAnn Sorensen Allacci, Jaime Madrigano
Objectives. Worldwide, over 200 million children are involved in child labor, with another 20 million children subjected to forced labor, leading to acute and chronic exposures resulting in safety and health (S&H) risks, plus removal from formal education and play. This review summarized S&H issues in child labor, including forced or indentured domestic labor as other sectors of child labor. Specifically, we focused on exposures leading to S&H risks. Methods. We used PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar...
2016: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Molly E Ogle, Claire E Segar, Sraeyes Sridhar, Edward A Botchwey
Monocytes and macrophages play a critical role in tissue development, homeostasis, and injury repair. These innate immune cells participate in guiding vascular remodeling, stimulation of local stem and progenitor cells, and structural repair of tissues such as muscle and bone. Therefore, there is a great interest in harnessing this powerful endogenous cell source for therapeutic regeneration through immunoregenerative biomaterial engineering. These materials seek to harness specific subpopulations of monocytes/macrophages to promote repair by influencing their recruitment, positioning, differentiation, and function within a damaged tissue...
May 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Rossukon Kaewkhaw, Manju Swaroop, Kohei Homma, Jutaro Nakamura, Matthew Brooks, Koray Dogan Kaya, Vijender Chaitankar, Sam Michael, Gregory Tawa, Jizhong Zou, Mahendra Rao, Wei Zheng, Tiziana Cogliati, Anand Swaroop
We discuss the use of pluripotent stem cell lines carrying fluorescent reporters driven by retinal promoters to derive three-dimensional (3-D) retina in culture and how this system can be exploited for elucidating human retinal biology, creating disease models in a dish, and designing targeted drug screens for retinal and macular degeneration. Furthermore, we realize that stem cell investigations are labor-intensive and require extensive resources. To expedite scientific discovery by sharing of resources and to avoid duplication of efforts, we propose the formation of a Retinal Stem Cell Consortium...
April 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Siân Oram, Melanie Abas, Debra Bick, Adrian Boyle, Rebecca French, Sharon Jakobowitz, Mizanur Khondoker, Nicky Stanley, Kylee Trevillion, Louise Howard, Cathy Zimmerman
OBJECTIVES: To investigate physical and mental health and experiences of violence among male and female trafficking survivors in a high-income country. METHODS: Our data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 150 men and women in England who were in contact with posttrafficking support services. Interviews took place over 18 months, from June 2013 to December 2014. RESULTS: Participants had been trafficked for sexual exploitation (29%), domestic servitude (29...
June 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Dana C Beck, Kristen R Choi, Michelle L Munro-Kramer, Jody R Lori
The purpose of this review is to integrate evidence on human trafficking in Ethiopia and identify gaps and recommendations for service delivery, research and training, and policy. A scoping literature review approach was used to systematically search nursing, medical, psychological, law, and international databases and synthesize information on a complex, understudied topic. The search yielded 826 articles, and 39 met the predetermined criteria for inclusion in the review. Trafficking in Ethiopia has occurred internally and externally in the form of adult and child labor and sex trafficking...
March 31, 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Santosh Kumar Paidi, Soumik Siddhanta, Robert Strouse, James B McGivney, Christopher Larkin, Ishan Barman
Product identification is a critical and required analysis for biotheraputics. In addition to regulatory requirements for identity testing on final drug products, in-process identity testing is implemented to reduce business risks associated with fill operations and can also be used as a tool against counterfeiting. Biotherapeutics, in particular monoclonal antibodies, represent a challenging cohort for identity determination because of their similarity in chemical structure. Traditional methods used for product identification can be time and labor intensive, creating a need for quick, inexpensive and reliable methods of drug identification...
April 19, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Anvar Shukurov, Graeme Sarson, Mykhailo Videiko, Kate Henderson, Robert Shiel, Pavel Dolukhanov, Galina Pashkevich
We present paleoeconomy reconstructions for premodern agriculture, selecting, wherever required, features and parameter values specific for the Cucuteni-Trypillia cultural unity (CTU; 5,400-2,700 BC, mostly the territory of modern Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania). We verify the self-consistency and viability of the archaeological evidence related to all major elements of the agricultural production cycle within the constraints provided by environmental and technological considerations. The starting point of our analysis is the paleodiet structure suggested by archaeological data, stable isotope analyses of human remains, and palynology studies in the CTU area...
July 2015: Human Biology
Mitsuharu Nakajima, Koichi Abe, Stefano Ferri, Koji Sode
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in the understanding of photosensing in biological systems have enabled the use of photoreceptors as novel genetic tools. Exploiting various photoreceptors that cyanobacteria possess, a green light-inducible gene expression system was previously developed for the regulation of gene expression in cyanobacteria. However, the applications of cyanobacterial photoreceptors are not limited to these bacteria but are also available for non-photosynthetic microorganisms by the coexpression of a cyanobacterial chromophore with a cyanobacteria-derived photosensing system...
2016: Microbial Cell Factories
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