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Labor exploitation

Bram Bi Fleuren, Andries de Grip, Nicole Wh Jansen, Imjert Kant, Fred Rh Zijlstra
Sustainable employability (SE) is an important topic as it deals with employees' abilities to function adequately at work and in the labor market throughout their working lives. However, until now there has been only one attempt to define SE in the international literature (1). This first definition is a valuable contribution to the field as it rightfully describes SE as a multidimensional concept, recognizes the importance of both employee and work characteristics, and acknowledges the inherently longitudinal nature of SE...
August 22, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Wendy Macias-Konstantopoulos
Human trafficking, a form of modern slavery, is an egregious violation of human rights with profound personal and public health implications. It includes forced labor and sexual exploitation of both U.S. and non-U.S. citizens and has been reported in all 50 states. Victims of human trafficking are currently among the most abused and disenfranchised persons in society, and they face a wide range of negative health outcomes resulting from their subjugation and exploitation. Medicine has an important role to play in mitigating the devastating effects of human trafficking on individuals and society...
October 18, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Antonio Sze-To, Sanderz Fung, En-Shiun Annie Lee, Andrew K C Wong
Predicting Protein-protein interaction (PPI) is important for making new discoveries in the molecular mechanisms inside a cell. Traditionally, new PPIs are identified through biochemical experiments but such methods are labor-intensive, expensive, time-consuming and technically ineffective due to high false positive rates. Sequence-based prediction is currently the most readily applicable and cost-effective method. It exploits known PPI Databases to construct classifiers for predicting unknown PPIs based only on sequence data without requiring any other prior knowledge...
July 27, 2016: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Klaus Jaffe
W.D. Hamilton's Inclusive Fitness Theory explains the conditions that favor the emergence and maintenance of social cooperation. Today we know that these include direct and indirect benefits an agent obtains by its actions, and through interactions with kin and with genetically unrelated individuals. That is, in addition to kin-selection, assortation or homophily, and social synergies drive the evolution of cooperation. An Extended Inclusive Fitness Theory (EIFT) synthesizes the natural selection forces acting on biological evolution and on human economic interactions by assuming that natural selection driven by inclusive fitness produces agents with utility functions that exploit assortation and synergistic opportunities...
2016: SpringerPlus
Petter Lundborg, Carl Hampus Lyttkens, Paul Nystedt
By using historical data on about 50,000 twins born in Sweden during 1886-1958, we demonstrate a positive and statistically significant relationship between years of schooling and longevity. This relation remains almost unchanged when exploiting a twin fixed-effects design to control for the influence of genetics and shared family background. This result is robust to controlling for within-twin-pair differences in early-life health and cognitive ability, as proxied by birth weight and height, as well as to restricting the sample to MZ twins...
August 2016: Demography
Derek G Shendell, Saisattha Noomnual, Shumaila Chishti, MaryAnn Sorensen Allacci, Jaime Madrigano
Objectives. Worldwide, over 200 million children are involved in child labor, with another 20 million children subjected to forced labor, leading to acute and chronic exposures resulting in safety and health (S&H) risks, plus removal from formal education and play. This review summarized S&H issues in child labor, including forced or indentured domestic labor as other sectors of child labor. Specifically, we focused on exposures leading to S&H risks. Methods. We used PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar...
2016: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Molly E Ogle, Claire E Segar, Sraeyes Sridhar, Edward A Botchwey
Monocytes and macrophages play a critical role in tissue development, homeostasis, and injury repair. These innate immune cells participate in guiding vascular remodeling, stimulation of local stem and progenitor cells, and structural repair of tissues such as muscle and bone. Therefore, there is a great interest in harnessing this powerful endogenous cell source for therapeutic regeneration through immunoregenerative biomaterial engineering. These materials seek to harness specific subpopulations of monocytes/macrophages to promote repair by influencing their recruitment, positioning, differentiation, and function within a damaged tissue...
May 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Rossukon Kaewkhaw, Manju Swaroop, Kohei Homma, Jutaro Nakamura, Matthew Brooks, Koray Dogan Kaya, Vijender Chaitankar, Sam Michael, Gregory Tawa, Jizhong Zou, Mahendra Rao, Wei Zheng, Tiziana Cogliati, Anand Swaroop
We discuss the use of pluripotent stem cell lines carrying fluorescent reporters driven by retinal promoters to derive three-dimensional (3-D) retina in culture and how this system can be exploited for elucidating human retinal biology, creating disease models in a dish, and designing targeted drug screens for retinal and macular degeneration. Furthermore, we realize that stem cell investigations are labor-intensive and require extensive resources. To expedite scientific discovery by sharing of resources and to avoid duplication of efforts, we propose the formation of a Retinal Stem Cell Consortium...
April 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Siân Oram, Melanie Abas, Debra Bick, Adrian Boyle, Rebecca French, Sharon Jakobowitz, Mizanur Khondoker, Nicky Stanley, Kylee Trevillion, Louise Howard, Cathy Zimmerman
OBJECTIVES: To investigate physical and mental health and experiences of violence among male and female trafficking survivors in a high-income country. METHODS: Our data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 150 men and women in England who were in contact with posttrafficking support services. Interviews took place over 18 months, from June 2013 to December 2014. RESULTS: Participants had been trafficked for sexual exploitation (29%), domestic servitude (29...
June 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Dana C Beck, Kristen R Choi, Michelle L Munro-Kramer, Jody R Lori
The purpose of this review is to integrate evidence on human trafficking in Ethiopia and identify gaps and recommendations for service delivery, research and training, and policy. A scoping literature review approach was used to systematically search nursing, medical, psychological, law, and international databases and synthesize information on a complex, understudied topic. The search yielded 826 articles, and 39 met the predetermined criteria for inclusion in the review. Trafficking in Ethiopia has occurred internally and externally in the form of adult and child labor and sex trafficking...
March 31, 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Santosh Kumar Paidi, Soumik Siddhanta, Robert Strouse, James B McGivney, Christopher Larkin, Ishan Barman
Product identification is a critical and required analysis for biotheraputics. In addition to regulatory requirements for identity testing on final drug products, in-process identity testing is implemented to reduce business risks associated with fill operations and can also be used as a tool against counterfeiting. Biotherapeutics, in particular monoclonal antibodies, represent a challenging cohort for identity determination because of their similarity in chemical structure. Traditional methods used for product identification can be time and labor intensive, creating a need for quick, inexpensive and reliable methods of drug identification...
April 19, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Anvar Shukurov, Graeme Sarson, Mykhailo Videiko, Kate Henderson, Robert Shiel, Pavel Dolukhanov, Galina Pashkevich
We present paleoeconomy reconstructions for premodern agriculture, selecting, wherever required, features and parameter values specific for the Cucuteni-Trypillia cultural unity (CTU; 5,400-2,700 BC, mostly the territory of modern Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania). We verify the self-consistency and viability of the archaeological evidence related to all major elements of the agricultural production cycle within the constraints provided by environmental and technological considerations. The starting point of our analysis is the paleodiet structure suggested by archaeological data, stable isotope analyses of human remains, and palynology studies in the CTU area...
July 2015: Human Biology
Mitsuharu Nakajima, Koichi Abe, Stefano Ferri, Koji Sode
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in the understanding of photosensing in biological systems have enabled the use of photoreceptors as novel genetic tools. Exploiting various photoreceptors that cyanobacteria possess, a green light-inducible gene expression system was previously developed for the regulation of gene expression in cyanobacteria. However, the applications of cyanobacterial photoreceptors are not limited to these bacteria but are also available for non-photosynthetic microorganisms by the coexpression of a cyanobacterial chromophore with a cyanobacteria-derived photosensing system...
2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Kai Liu
This paper provides empirical evidence on the role of public health insurance in mitigating adverse outcomes associated with health shocks. Exploiting the rollout of a universal health insurance program in rural China, I find that total household income and consumption are fully insured against health shocks even without access to health insurance. Household labor supply is an important insurance mechanism against health shocks. Access to health insurance helps households to maintain investment in children's human capital during negative health shocks, which suggests that one benefit of health insurance could arise from reducing the use of costly smoothing mechanisms...
March 2016: Journal of Health Economics
Yi-Je Juang, Jo-Shu Chang
Microalgae have been one of the important sources for biofuel production owing to their competitive advantages such as no need to tap into the global food supply chain, higher energy density, and absorbing carbon dioxide to mitigate global warming. One of the key factors to ensure successful biofuel production is that it requires not only bioprospecting of the microalgae with high lipid content, high growth rate and tolerance to environmental parameters but also on-site monitoring of the cultivation process and optimization of the culturing conditions...
March 2016: Biotechnology Journal
Arabinda N Chowdhury, Ranajit Mondal, Arabinda Brahma, Mrinal K Biswas
AIMS: Human-tiger conflict (HTC) is a serious public health issue in Sundarban Reserve Forest, India. HTC is a continued concern for the significant mortality and morbidity of both human and tiger population. This is the first comprehensive report on Sundarban tiger-human conflicts and its impact on widows whose husbands were killed by tigers. The study attempts to explore the situation analysis of HTC and the aftermath of the incident including bereavement and coping, the cultural stigma related to being killed by a tiger and the consequent discrimination, deprivation, and social rejection, and the impact on the mental health of the tiger-widows...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
Sharon E Mace
Children have rights, as enumerated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, and need protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse. Global threats to child safety exist. These threats include lack of basic needs (food, clean water, sanitation), maltreatment, abandonment, child labor, child marriage, female genital mutilation, child trafficking, disasters, and armed conflicts/wars. Recent disasters and armed conflicts have led to a record number of displaced people especially children and their families...
February 2016: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Gregory R Hart, Andrew L Ferguson
UNLABELLED: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) afflicts 170 million people worldwide, 2%-3% of the global population, and kills 350 000 each year. Prophylactic vaccination offers the most realistic and cost effective hope of controlling this epidemic in the developing world where expensive drug therapies are not available. Despite 20 years of research, the high mutability of the virus and lack of knowledge of what constitutes effective immune responses have impeded development of an effective vaccine...
2015: Physical Biology
Day Manoli, Kathleen J Mullen, Mathis Wagner
This paper exploits a combination of policy variation from multiple pension reforms in Austria and administrative data from the Austrian Social Security Database. Using the policy changes for identification, we estimate social security wealth and accrual elasticities in individuals' retirement decisions. Next, we use these elasticities to estimate a dynamic programming model of retirement decisions. Finally, we use the estimated model to examine the labor supply and welfare consequences of potential social security reforms...
October 2015: Economic Inquiry
Michael R Richards, Daniel Polsky
Access to medical care and how it differs for various patients remain key policy issues. While existing work has examined clinic structure's influence on productivity, less research has explored the link between provider mix and access for different patient types - which also correspond to different service prices. We exploit experimental data from a large field study spanning 10 US states where trained audit callers were randomly assigned an insurance status and then contacted primary care physician practices seeking new patient appointments...
April 2016: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
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