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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301489/intrapartum-fetal-deaths-and-unexpected-neonatal-deaths-in-the-republic-of-ireland-2011-2014-a-descriptive-study
#1
K McNamara, K O'Donoghue, R A Greene
BACKGROUND: Intrapartum fetal death, the death of a fetus during labour, is a tragic outcome of pregnancy. The intrapartum death rate of a country is reflective of the care received by mothers and babies in labour and it is through analysing these cases that good aspects of care, as well as areas for improvement can be identified. Investigating unexpected neonatal deaths that may be associated with an intrapartum event is also helpful to fully appraise intrapartum care. This is a descriptive study of intrapartum fetal deaths and unexpected neonatal deaths in Ireland from 2011 to 2014...
January 4, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286930/hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-planned-delivery-before-intrapartum-events
#2
David Odd, Axel Heep, Karen Luyt, Tim Draycott
BACKGROUND: Mothers are increasingly given greater control over many of the choices around birth, although there is little robust evidence to inform these choices. After an infant is born with HIE the question of whether it was predictable, or preventable, is often raised. Intrapartum 'sentinel' events and antenatal predictors of HIE have been well described, however there is little evidence how antenatal and intrapartum factors interact. This is particularly important when elective delivery by lower segment caesarean section (LSCS) has been shown to be beneficial in high risk groups...
2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260492/excessive-activation-of-nmda-receptors-induced-neurodevelopmental-brain-damage-and-cognitive-deficits-in-rats-exposed-to-intrauterine-hypoxia
#3
Ting Li, Ziqiang Luo, Yang Liu, Mingjie Wang, Xiaohe Yu, Chuanding Cao, Zhengchang Liao, Ying Ding, Shaojie Yue
Intrauterine hypoxia is one of the most common stressors in fetuses, which can lead to abnormal brain development and permanent neurological deficits in adulthood. Neurological disorder excitotoxicity induced by hypoxia or ischemia may involve N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), which are known to participate in the maturation and plasticity of developmental neurons. Inhibition of NMDARs has been reported to improve neurological outcomes in traumatic brain injuries and Alzheimer's disease. Here, we investigated if antenatal blockade of NMDARs induced by memantine could alleviate neurodevelopmental brain damage and long-term cognitive deficits in intrauterine hypoxia rats...
December 19, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249219/the-role-of-the-tumor-necrosis-factor-tnf-related-weak-inducer-of-apoptosis-tweak-in-offspring-exposed-to-prenatal-hypoxia
#4
L M Reyes, A Shah, A Quon, J S Morton, S T Davidge
Exposure to prenatal hypoxia in rats leads to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), decreases fetal cardiomyocyte proliferation and increases the risk to develop cardiovascular diseases (CVD) later in life. The tumor necrosis factor-related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) induces cardiomyocyte proliferation through activation of the fibroblast growth factor-inducible molecule 14 (Fn-14) receptor. The TWEAK/Fn-14 pathway becomes quiescent shortly after birth, however, it becomes upregulated with CVD; suggesting that it could be a link between the increased susceptibility to CVD in pregnancies complicated by hypoxia/IUGR...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248460/%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-contribute-to-injury-in-the-developing-brain
#5
Anna-Maj Albertsson, Xiaoli Zhang, Regina Vontell, Dan Bi, Roderick T Bronson, Veena Supramaniam, Ana A Baburamani, Sha Hua, Arshed Nazmi, Susanna Cardell, Changlian Zhu, Harvey Cantor, Carina Mallard, Henrik Hagberg, Jianmei W Leavenworth, Xiaoyang Wang
Brain injury in premature infants, especially periventricular leukomalacia, is an important cause of neurological disabilities. Inflammation contributes to the development of perinatal brain injury, but the essential mediators leading to brain injury in early life remain largely unknown. Neonates have reduced capacity for mounting conventional αβT-cell responses. However γδT-cells are already functionally competent during early development and are important in early life immunity. We investigated the potential contribution of γδT-cells to preterm brain injury by using postmortem brains from human preterm infants with periventricular leukomalacia and two animal models of preterm brain injury-the hypoxic-ischemic mouse model and a fetal sheep asphyxia model...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228911/intrapartum-factors-associated-with-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-a-case-controlled-study
#6
Vanessa E Torbenson, Mary Catherine Tolcher, Kate M Nesbitt, Christopher E Colby, Sherif A El-Nashar, Bobbie S Gostout, Amy L Weaver, Michaela E Mc Gree, Abimbola O Famuyide
BACKGROUND: Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) affects 2-4/1000 live births with outcomes ranging from negligible neurological deficits to severe neuromuscular dysfunction, cerebral palsy and death. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is the sub cohort of NE that appears to be driven by intrapartum events. Our objective was to identify antepartum and intrapartum factors associated with the development of neonatal HIE. METHODS: Hospital databases were searched using relevant diagnosis codes to identify infants with neonatal encephalopathy...
December 11, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167165/long-term-high-altitude-hypoxia-influences-pulmonary-arterial-l-type-calcium-channel-mediated-ca-2-signals-and-contraction-in-fetal-and-adult-sheep
#7
Christine Shen, Monica Romero, Alexander Brunelle, Craig Wolfe, Abigail Dobyns, Michael Francis, Mark S Taylor, Jose Puglisi, Lawrence D Longo, Lubo Zhang, Christopher G Wilson, Sean M Wilson
Long-term hypoxia (LTH) has a profound effect on pulmonary arterial vasoconstriction in the fetus and adult. Dysregulation in Ca(2+) signaling is important during the development of LTH induced pulmonary hypertension. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that L-type Ca(2+) channels, which are voltage-dependent and found in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle, are important in the adaptation of pulmonary arterial contractions in post-natal maturation and in response to LTH. Pulmonary arteries were isolated from fetal or adult sheep maintained at low- or high-altitude (3,801 m) for >100 days...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164084/pretreatment-with-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-protects-the-neonatal-brain-against-the-effects-of-hypoxic-ischemic-injury
#8
Tammy Z Movsas, Rebecca L Weiner, M Banks Greenberg, David M Holtzman, Rafael Galindo
Introduction: Though the human fetus is exposed to placentally derived human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) throughout gestation, the role of hCG on the fetal brain is unknown. Review of the available literature appears to indicate that groups of women with higher mean levels of hCG during pregnancy tend to have offspring with lower cerebral palsy (CP) risk. Given that newborn cerebral injury often precedes the development of CP, we aimed to determine whether hCG may protect against the neurodegenerative effects of neonatal brain injury...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146864/acute-hypoxia-reoxygenation-and-vascular-oxygen-sensing-in-the-chicken-embryo
#9
Riazuddin Mohammed, Carlos E Salinas, Dino A Giussani, Carlos E Blanco, Angel L Cogolludo, Eduardo Villamor
Fetal/perinatal hypoxia is one of the most common causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality and is frequently accompannied by vascular dysfunction. However, the mechanisms involved have not been fully delineated. We hypothesized that exposure to acute hypoxia-reoxygenation induces alterations in vascular O2 sensing/signaling as well as in endothelial function in the chicken embryo pulmonary artery (PA), mesenteric artery (MA), femoral artery (FA), and ductus arteriosus (DA). Noninternally pipped 19-day embryos were exposed to 10% O2 for 30 min followed by reoxygenation with 21% O2 or 80% O2 Another group was constantly maintained at 21% O2 or at 21% O2 for 30 min and then exposed to 80% O2 Following treatment, responses of isolated blood vessels to hypoxia as well as endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine) and -independent (sodium nitroprusside and forskolin) relaxation were investigated in a wire myograph...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113524/how-does-preeclampsia-affect-neonates-highlights-in-the-disease-s-immunity
#10
Lina R Marins, Leonardo B Anizelli, Mariana D Romanowski, Ana L Sarquis
INTRODUCTION: Preeclampsia (PE) is the primary obstetrical cause in one of the four perinatal deaths. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of preeclampsia is not fully known, a proinflammatory immune state prevails and can disrupt fetal hematopoiesis. Some of the effects on the newborn include neonatal thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, a reduction in T regulatory cells, and an increased cytotoxic natural killer cell profile. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched, and defined criteria were applied to select articles for review...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113299/microrna-210-suppresses-glucocorticoid-receptor-expression-in-response-to-hypoxia-in-fetal-rat-cardiomyocytes
#11
Shannalee R Martinez, Qingyi Ma, Chiranjib Dasgupta, Xianmei Meng, Lubo Zhang
Hypoxia is a common intrauterine stressor, often resulting in intrauterine growth restriction and increased risk for cardiovascular disease later in life. The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that microRNA-210 (miR-210) mediates the detrimental suppression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in response to hypoxia in fetal rat cardiomyocytes. Cardiomyocytes isolated from gestational day 21 Sprague Dawley fetal rats showed increased miR-210 levels and reduced GR abundance after exposure to ex vivo hypoxia (1% O2)...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105384/hypoxic-stress-forces-adaptive-and-maladaptive-placental-stress-responses-in-early-pregnancy
#12
Yu Yang, Mohammed Abdulhasan, Awoniyi Awonuga, Alan Bolnick, Elizabeth E Puscheck, Daniel A Rappolee
This review focuses on hypoxic stress and its effects on the placental lineage and the earliest differentiation events in mouse and human placental trophoblast stem cells (TSCs). Although the placenta is a decidual organ at the end of pregnancy, its earliest rapid growth and function at the start of pregnancy precedes and supports growth and function of the embryo. Earliest function requires that TSCs differentiate, however, "hypoxia" supports rapid growth, but not differentiation of TSCs. Most of the literature on earliest placental "hypoxia" studies used 2% oxygen which is normoxic for TSCs...
October 16, 2017: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102934/regional-immunoreactivity-of-pax6-in-the-neurogenic-zone-after-chronic-prenatal-hypoxia
#13
Keumyoung So, Yoonyoung Chung, Sun-Kyoung Yu, Yonghyun Jun
BACKGROUND/AIM: Neurogenesis is a complex process to generate new neurons from neural progenitor cells. Neural progenitor cells are observed in two principal neurogenic regions of the forebrain, the subventricular zone and the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. The cerebral cortex also plays a role as the neurogenic zone under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia has many effects on neurogenesis, but the effect of chronic prenatal hypoxia on paired box 6 (Pax6), a protein that plays an important role in neurogenesis, has not been studied in vivo...
November 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079125/hereditary-persistence-of-hemoglobin-f-is-protective-against-red-cell-sickling-a-case-report-and-brief-review
#14
Alexandra Sokolova, Anton Mararenko, Alexander Rozin, Alida Podrumar, Vladimir Gotlieb
Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) is a physiologic protein tetramer that is crucial for a developing fetus to survive in utero. Maternal hemoglobin has a relatively lower affinity for oxygen, and thus allows for an efficient transfer of oxygen from maternal to fetal blood. In addition to fulfilling a critical physiologic role, HbF is also known to alleviate symptoms of sickle-cell disease (SCD). The concentration of HbF depends on several factors. HbF is elevated in inherited conditions, such as hereditary persistence of HbF, hereditary spherocytosis, and thalassemia...
October 16, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076085/stress-erythropoiesis-model-systems
#15
Laura F Bennett, Chang Liao, Robert F Paulson
Bone marrow steady-state erythropoiesis maintains erythroid homeostasis throughout life. This process constantly generates new erythrocytes to replace the senescent erythrocytes that are removed by macrophages in the spleen. In contrast, anemic or hypoxic stress induces a physiological response designed to increase oxygen delivery to the tissues. Stress erythropoiesis is a key component of this response. It is best understood in mice where it is extramedullary occurring in the adult spleen and liver and in the fetal liver during development...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074702/respiratory-consequences-of-targeted-losses-of-hoxa5-gene-function-in-mice
#16
Kim Landry-Truchon, Stéphanie Fournier, Nicolas Houde, Jean-Philippe Rousseau, Lucie Jeannotte, Richard Kinkead
Fetal development of the respiratory tract and diaphragm requires strict coordination between genetically controlled signals and mechanical forces produced by the neural network that generates breathing. Being expressed in the mesenchyme of trachea, lung and diaphragm, and in phrenic motoneurons HOXA5 is a key transcription factor regulating lung development and function. Consequently, most Hoxa5(-/-) mutants die at birth from respiratory failure. However, the extensive effect of the null mutation makes it difficult to identify the origins of respiratory dysfunction in newborns...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060294/influence-of-ecg-sampling-rate-in-fetal-heart-rate-variability-analysis
#17
J De Jonckheere, C Garabedian, P Charlier, C Champion, E Servan-Schreiber, L Storme, V Debarge, M Jeanne, R Logier
Fetal hypoxia results in a fetal blood acidosis (pH<;7.10). In such a situation, the fetus develops several adaptation mechanisms regulated by the autonomic nervous system. Many studies demonstrated significant changes in heart rate variability in hypoxic fetuses. So, fetal heart rate variability analysis could be of precious help for fetal hypoxia prediction. Commonly used fetal heart rate variability analysis methods have been shown to be sensitive to the ECG signal sampling rate. Indeed, a low sampling rate could induce variability in the heart beat detection which will alter the heart rate variability estimation...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047093/cross-talk-between-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-and-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-calcium-in-pulmonary-arterial-smooth-muscle-cells
#18
Tengyao Song, Yun-Min Zheng, Yong-Xiao Wang
Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) occurs during both fetal and postnatal development and plays a critical role in matching regional alveolar perfusion with ventilation in humans and animals. HPV also contributes significantly to the development of pulmonary hypertension. Although the molecular mechanisms of HPV and pulmonary hypertension remain incompletely understood, increasing evidence demonstrates that hypoxia induces an elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species concentration ([ROS]i) in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023736/an-investigation-of-fetal-behavioural-states-during-maternal-sleep-in-healthy-late-gestation-pregnancy-an-observational-study
#19
Peter R Stone, Wendy Burgess, Jordan McIntyre, Alistair J Gunn, Christopher A Lear, Laura Bennet, Edwin A Mitchell, John M D Thompson
KEY POINTS: Fetal behavioural state in healthy late gestation pregnancy is significantly affected by maternal position overnight. Maternal left lateral position is the one most frequently adopted at sleep onset. The maternal position at sleep onset is maintained the longest overnight. Fetal state 1F is more common in maternal supine positions overnight. Fetal state 4F is less common in maternal supine sleep positions. Fetal state and maternal sleep position are independently associated with fetal heart rate variability...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018332/the-beneficial-effects-of-melatonin-administration-following-hypoxia-ischemia-in-preterm-fetal-sheep
#20
Tamara Yawno, Mawin Mahen, Jingang Li, Michael C Fahey, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
Melatonin (MLT) is an endogenous hormone that controls circadian cycle. MLT has additional important properties that make it appealing as a neuroprotective agent-it is a potent anti-oxidant, with anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. MLT is safe for administration during pregnancy or to the newborn after birth, and can reduce white matter brain injury under conditions of chronic fetal hypoxia. Accordingly, in the current study, we examined whether an intermediate dose of MLT could restore white matter brain development when administered after an acute hypoxic ischemic (HI) insult in preterm fetal sheep...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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