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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089577/neutralizing-anti-interleukin-1%C3%AE-antibodies-reduce-ischemia-related-interleukin-1%C3%AE-transport-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-fetal-sheep
#1
Aparna Patra, Xiaodi Chen, Grazyna B Sadowska, Jiyong Zhang, Yow-Pin Lim, James F Padbury, William A Banks, Barbara S Stonestreet
Hypoxic ischemic insults predispose to perinatal brain injury. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are important in the evolution of this injury. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a key mediator of inflammatory responses and elevated IL-1β levels in brain correlate with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes after brain injury. Impaired blood-brain barrier (BBB) function represents an important component of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the fetus. In addition, ischemia-reperfusion increases cytokine transport across the BBB of the ovine fetus...
January 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060265/analysis-of-cap-binding-proteins-in-human-cells-exposed-to-physiological-oxygen-conditions
#2
Sara Timpano, Gaelan Melanson, Sonia L Evagelou, Brianna D Guild, Erin J Specker, James Uniacke
Translational control is a focal point of gene regulation, especially during periods of cellular stress. Cap-dependent translation via the eIF4F complex is by far the most common pathway to initiate protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells, but stress-specific variations of this complex are now emerging. Purifying cap-binding proteins with an affinity resin composed of Agarose-linked m(7)GTP (a 5' mRNA cap analog) is a useful tool to identify factors involved in the regulation of translation initiation. Hypoxia (low oxygen) is a cellular stress encountered during fetal development and tumor progression, and is highly dependent on translation regulation...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018896/factors-influencing-neurodevelopment-after-cardiac-surgery-during-infancy
#3
REVIEW
Hedwig Hubertine Hövels-Gürich
Short- and long-term neurodevelopmental (ND) disabilities with negative impact on psychosocial and academic performance, quality of life, and independence in adulthood are known to be the most common sequelae for surviving children after surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD). This article reviews influences and risk factors for ND impairment. For a long time, the search for independent risk factors was focused on the perioperative period and modalities of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). CPB operations to ensure intraoperative vital organ perfusion and oxygen supply with or without circulatory arrest or regional cerebral perfusion bear specific risks...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978593/fetal-neurosonogaphy-ultrasound-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-competition
#4
S Tercanli, F Prüfer
Both in routine diagnostics and detailed, highly specialized workups, major advances have been observed in many areas of ultrasound due to an increase in expertise and improved technology in recent years. This is particularly true in the case of fetal neurosonography 1 2 3 4. Malformations of the CNS together with fetal heart defects are among the most common congenital anomalies. From the embryonic phase to the late third trimester, the CNS undergoes extensive development and maturation processes. The diagnosis of CNS anomalies is therefore primarily dependent on the time at which the examination is performed and the experience of the examiner...
December 2016: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940158/inactivation-of-maternal-hif-1%C3%AE-at-mid-pregnancy-causes-placental-defects-and-deficits-in-oxygen-delivery-to-the-fetal-organs-under-hypoxic-stress
#5
Doreswamy Kenchegowda, Bryony Natale, Maria A Lemus, David R Natale, Steven A Fisher
A critical transition occurs near mid-gestation of mammalian pregnancy. Prior to this transition, low concentrations of oxygen (hypoxia) signaling through Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) functions as a morphogen for the placenta and fetal organs. Subsequently, functional coupling of the placenta and fetal cardiovascular system for oxygen (O2) transport is required to support the continued growth and development of the fetus. Here we tested the hypothesis that Hif-1α is required in maternal cells for placental morphogenesis and function...
December 9, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929527/durations-of-second-stage-of-labor-and-pushing-and-adverse-neonatal-outcomes-a-population-based-cohort-study
#6
A Sandström, M Altman, S Cnattingius, S Johansson, M Ahlberg, O Stephansson
OBJECTIVE: The associations between duration of second stage of labor, pushing time and risk of adverse neonatal outcomes are not fully established. Therefore, we aimed to examine such relationships. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based cohort study including 42 539 nulliparous women with singleton infants born in cephalic presentation at ⩾37 gestational weeks, using the Stockholm-Gotland Obstetric Cohort, Sweden, and the Swedish Neonatal Quality Register, 2008 to 2013...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926647/central-fetal-monitoring-with-and-without-computer-analysis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Inês Nunes, Diogo Ayres-de-Campos, Austin Ugwumadu, Pina Amin, Philip Banfield, Antony Nicoll, Simon Cunningham, Paulo Sousa, Cristina Costa-Santos, João Bernardes
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether intrapartum fetal monitoring with computer analysis and real-time alerts decreases the rate of newborn metabolic acidosis or obstetric intervention when compared with visual analysis. METHODS: A randomized clinical trial carried out in five hospitals in the United Kingdom evaluated women with singleton, vertex fetuses of 36 weeks of gestation or greater during labor. Continuous central fetal monitoring by computer analysis and online alerts (experimental arm) was compared with visual analysis (control arm)...
January 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871127/effect-of-maternal-position-on-fetal-behavioural-state-and-heart-rate-variability-in-healthy-late-gestation-pregnancy
#8
Peter R Stone, Wendy Burgess, Jordan P R McIntyre, Alistair J Gunn, Christopher A Lear, Laura Bennet, Edwin A Mitchell, John M D Thompson
KEY POINTS: Fetal behavioural state in healthy late gestation pregnancy is affected by maternal position. Fetal state 1F is more likely to occur in maternal supine or right lateral positions. Fetal state 4F is less likely to occur when the woman lies supine or semi-recumbent. Fetal state change is more likely when the woman is supine or semi-recumbent. Fetal heart rate variability is affected by maternal position with variability reduced in supine and semi-recumbent positions. ABSTRACT: Fetal behavioural states (FBS) are measures of fetal wellbeing...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861916/sildenafil-therapy-for-fetal-cardiovascular-dysfunction-during-hypoxic-development-studies-in-the-chick-embryo
#9
Nozomi Itani, Katie L Skeffington, Christian Beck, Dino A Giussani
KEY POINTS: Common complications of pregnancy, such as chronic fetal hypoxia, trigger a fetal origin of cardiovascular dysfunction and programme cardiovascular disease in later life. Sildenafil treatment protects placental perfusion and fetal growth, but whether the effects of sildenafil transcend the placenta to affect the fetus is unknown. Using the chick embryo model, here we show that sildenafil treatment directly protects the fetal cardiovascular system in hypoxic development, and that the mechanisms of sildenafil protection include reduced oxidative stress and increased nitric oxide bioavailability; Sildenafil does not protect against fetal growth restriction in the chick embryo, supporting the idea that the protective effect of sildenafil on fetal growth reported in mammalian studies, including humans, is secondary to improved placental perfusion...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829441/characterization-of-exosomal-release-in-bovine-endometrial-intercaruncular-stromal-cells
#10
Yong Qin Koh, Hassendrini N Peiris, Kanchan Vaswani, Sarah Reed, Gregory E Rice, Carlos Salomon, Murray D Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Cell-to-cell communication between the blastocyst and endometrium is critical for implantation. In recent years, evidence has emerged from studies in humans and several other animal species that exosomes are secreted from the endometrium and trophoblast cells and may play an important role in cell-to-cell communication maternal-fetal interface during early pregnancy. Exosomes are stable extracellular lipid bilayer vesicles that encapsulate proteins, miRNAs, and mRNAs, with the ability to deliver their cargo to near and distant sites, altering cellular function(s)...
November 9, 2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806942/placental-hypoxia-during-early-pregnancy-causes-maternal-hypertension-and-placental-insufficiency-in-the-hypoxic-guinea-pig-model
#11
Loren P Thompson, Laramie Pence, Gerald Pinkas, Hong Song, Bhanu P Telugu
Chronic placental hypoxia is one of the root causes of placental insufficiencies that result in pre-eclampsia and maternal hypertension. Chronic hypoxia causes disruption of trophoblast (TB) development, invasion into maternal decidua, and remodeling of maternal spiral arteries. The pregnant guinea pig shares several characteristics with humans such as hemomonochorial placenta, villous subplacenta, deep TB invasion, and remodeling of maternal arteries, and is an ideal animal model to study placental development...
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796886/presence-of-telocytes-in-a-non-innervated-organ-the-placenta
#12
Cleofina Bosco, Eugenia Díaz
This chapter discusses the relationship between failure in placentation and the subsequent alterations in the normal structure of the placenta. Interstitial Cajal-like cells (ICLC) were observed for the first time in the human placenta in 2007 and later were named telocytes. Strong evidence confirms that in the placental chorionic villi, TC are located strategically between the smooth muscle cells (SMC) of the fetal blood vessel wall and the stromal myofibroblasts. As the placenta is a non-innervated organ and considering the strategic position of telocytes in chorionic villi, it has been postulated that their function would be related to signal transduction mechanisms involved in the regulation of the blood flow in the fetal vessels, as well as in the shortening/lengthening of the chorionic villi providing the necessary rhythmicity to the process of maternal/fetal metabolic exchange...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788827/in%C3%A2-vitro-effects-of-thymoglobulin-in-human-embryonic-kidney-cell-line-hek293-in-culture
#13
F Jurenec, K Mihovilović, K Špiranec, A Sinđić, M Knotek
BACKGROUND: Anti-thymocyte globulins are polyclonal T-cell-depleting immunoglobulins used in induction of immunosuppression in kidney transplant recipients. Thymoglobulin is purified rabbit immunoglobulin (Ig)G, obtained by immunization of rabbits with fetal human thymus, which depletes T lymphocytes by complement-dependent lysis and apoptosis, reduces production of cytokines, and decreases expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells. METHODS: To determine possible direct effects of Thymoglobulin on kidney cells during transplantation, we used the Human Embryonic Kidney cell line (HEK293) in culture...
October 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771213/senescence-and-quiescence-in-adipose-derived-stromal-cells-effects-of-human-platelet-lysate-fetal-bovine-serum-and-hypoxia
#14
Rebekka Harary Søndergaard, Bjarke Follin, Lisbeth Drozd Lund, Morten Juhl, Annette Ekblond, Jens Kastrup, Mandana Haack-Sørensen
BACKGROUND AIMS: Adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are attractive sources for cell-based therapies. The hypoxic niche of ASCs in vivo implies that cells will benefit from hypoxia during in vitro expansion. Human platelet lysate (hPL) enhances ASC proliferation rates, compared with fetal bovine serum (FBS) at normoxia. However, the low proliferation rates of FBS-expanded ASCs could be signs of senescence or quiescence. We aimed to determine the effects of hypoxia and hPL on the expansion of ASCs and whether FBS-expanded ASCs are senescent or quiescent...
January 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753956/os-08-06-metabolomic-analysis-of-a-mouse-model-of-preeclampsia-induced-by-overproducing-sflt-1
#15
Emiko Sato, Yukako Tsunokuni, Tomofumi Fushima, Manami Kaneko, Ritsumi Saito, Akiyo Sekimoto, Daisuke Saigusa, Sadayoshi Ito, Hiroshi Sato, Nobuyuki Takahashi
OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia (PE) is pregnancy-induced hypertension with proteinuria, and is often associated with fetal growth restriction (FGR). PE is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Although alterations in circulating angiogenic factors are pathogenic, the details of pathological mechanisms of PE remain to be elucidated. We investigated changes in metabolites in a mouse model of PE induced by overproducing soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) to elucidate the pathological conditions of PE by metabolomics analysis...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725917/human-somatic-cells-acquire-the-plasticity-to-generate-embryoid-like-metamorphosis-via-the-actin-cytoskeleton-in-injured-tissues
#16
Jairo A Diaz, Mauricio F Murillo, Jhonan A Mendoza, Ana M Barreto, Lina S Poveda, Lina K Sanchez, Laura C Poveda, Katherine T Mora
Emergent biological responses develop via unknown processes dependent on physical collision. In hypoxia, when the tissue architecture collapses but the geometric core is stable, actin cytoskeleton filament components emerge, revealing a hidden internal order that identifies how each molecule is reassembled into the original mold, using one common connection, i.e., a fractal self-similarity that guides the system from the beginning in reverse metamorphosis, with spontaneous self-assembly of past forms that mimics an embryoid phenotype...
2016: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714633/hypoxic-and-reoxygenated-microenvironment-stemness-and-differentiation-state-in-glioblastoma
#17
Mariana Maier Gaelzer, Mariana Silva Dos Santos, Bárbara Paranhos Coelho, Alice Hoffman de Quadros, Fabrício Simão, Vanina Usach, Fátima Costa Rodrigues Guma, Patrícia Setton-Avruj, Guido Lenz, Christianne G Salbego
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary malignant brain tumor in adults. Hypoxia is a distinct feature in GBM and plays a significant role in tumor progression, resistance to treatment, and poor outcome. However, there is lack of studies relating type of cell death, status of Akt phosphorylation on Ser473, mitochondrial membrane potential, and morphological changes of tumor cells after hypoxia and reoxygenation. The rat glioma C6 cell line was exposed to oxygen deprivation (OD) in 5 % fetal bovine serum (FBS) or serum-free media followed by reoxygenation (RO)...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704703/umbilical-lactate-as-a-measure-of-acidosis-and-predictor-of-neonatal-risk-a-systematic-review
#18
E R Allanson, T Waqar, Crh White, Ö Tunçalp, J E Dickinson
BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord lactate is one approach to measuring acidosis and intrapartum hypoxia, knowledge of which may be helpful for clinicians involved in the care of women and newborns. OBJECTIVE: To synthesise the evidence on accuracy of umbilical cord lactate in measuring acidosis and predicting poor neonatal outcome. SEARCH STRATEGY: Studies published and unpublished between 1990 and 2014 from PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and clinicaltrials...
October 5, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697216/effect-of-selective-fetectomy-on-morphology-of-the-mouse-placenta
#19
Sarah M Isaac, Dawei Qu, S Lee Adamson
INTRODUCTION: Placental examination is recommended when genetic mutations cause fetal lethality in mice. But how fetal death alters histomorphology of the surviving mouse placenta is not known. METHODS: Placentas were examined at E17.5 after fetectomy of 1-2 fetal mice per pregnancy at either embryonic day (E) 15.5 (N = 8; Fx-2 group) or E13.5 (N = 5; Fx-4 group), which left 12 ± 2 surviving fetuses per litter. RESULTS: Fetectomy caused no changes in placental weights and no increases in placental hypoxia (pimonidazole staining)...
October 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689921/diagnosis-of-vein-of-galen-aneurysmal-malformation-using-fetal-mri
#20
Li-Xia Zhou, Su-Zhen Dong, Ming-Feng Zhang
PURPOSE: To present three fetal vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAMs), which were diagnosed through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and highlight these cardiovascular findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed three fetuses with VGAM at 31, 32, and 33 weeks of gestation. Feeding arteries and draining veins were observed by MRI. Secondary changes in the brain and high-output heart failure caused by high blood flow in the lesion were evaluated...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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