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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/100001003/emergency-management-of-sepsis-the-simple-stuff-saves-lives
#1
David Sweet, Julian Marsden, Kendall Ho, Christina Krause, James A Russell
Many emergency departments have implemented sepsis protocols since the 2001 publication of results from the early goal-directed therapy trial, which showed early targeted resuscitation lowers mortality. As part of an attempt to improve clinical and operational outcomes for emergency departments across British Columbia, we reviewed sepsis management literature and considered sepsis protocol implementation in the province’s emergency departments. During the literature review we found that many observational studies confirmed an association between implementation of emergency sepsis protocols and decreased mortality...
May 2012: BC medical journal: BCMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724206/vital-signs-health-care-associated-legionnaires-disease-surveillance-data-from-20-states-and-a-large-metropolitan-area-united-states-2015
#2
EDITORIAL
E A Soda, A E Barskey, P P Shah, S Schrag, C G Whitney, M J Arduino, S C Reddy, J M Kunz, C M Hunter, B H Raphael, L A Cooley
BACKGROUND: Legionnaires' disease, a severe pneumonia, is typically acquired through inhalation of aerosolized water containing Legionella bacteria. Legionella can grow in the complex water systems of buildings, including health care facilities. Effective water management programs could prevent the growth of Legionella in building water systems. METHODS: Using national surveillance data, Legionnaires' disease cases were characterized from the 21 jurisdictions (20 U...
August 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724125/comparison-of-wound-complications-after-immediate-delayed-and-secondary-breast-reconstruction-procedures
#3
Margaret A Olsen, Katelin B Nickel, Ida K Fox, Julie A Margenthaler, Anna E Wallace, Victoria J Fraser
Importance: Few data are available concerning surgical site infection (SSI) and noninfectious wound complications (NIWCs) after delayed (DR) and secondary reconstruction (SR) compared with immediate reconstruction (IR) procedures in the breast. Objective: To compare the incidence of SSI and NIWCs after implant and autologous IR, DR, and SR breast procedures after mastectomy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included women aged 18 to 64 years undergoing mastectomy from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2011...
July 19, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724060/genome-wide-association-mapping-of-crown-rust-resistance-in-oat-elite-germplasm
#4
Kathy Esvelt Klos, Belayneh A Yimer, Ebrahiem M Babiker, Aaron D Beattie, J Michael Bonman, Martin L Carson, James Chong, Stephen A Harrison, Amir M H Ibrahim, Frederic L Kolb, Curt A McCartney, Michael McMullen, Jennifer Mitchell Fetch, Mohsen Mohammadi, J Paul Murphy, Nicholas A Tinker
Oat crown rust, caused by f. sp. , is a major constraint to oat ( L.) production in many parts of the world. In this first comprehensive multienvironment genome-wide association map of oat crown rust, we used 2972 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped on 631 oat lines for association mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL). Seedling reaction to crown rust in these lines was assessed as infection type (IT) with each of 10 crown rust isolates. Adult plant reaction was assessed in the field in a total of 10 location-years as percentage severity (SV) and as infection reaction (IR) in a 0-to-1 scale...
July 2017: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724049/hepatitis-b-status-in-hemodialysis-patients
#5
Maia Nogueira Crown Guimarães, Tila Facincani, Sigrid De Sousa Dos Santos
BACKGROUND: Patients on chronic dialysis present a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection. Despite infection-control practices, surveillance of serological markers, and hepatitis B vaccination, there are still outbreaks of the disease in dialysis centers. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the serologic and vaccination status for hepatitis B in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study assessed serologic markers and hepatitis B vaccination status of chronic kidney disease patients on regular dialysis program in São Carlos, SP, Brazil...
July 13, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724048/impact-of-alcohol-consumption-among-patients-in-hepatitis-c-virus-treatment
#6
Andréa Carvalho Maia Vieira-Castro, Luiz Carlos Marques de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have questioned the recommendation of abstinence from alcohol for at least 6 months for alcoholic patients to be treated for hepatitis C. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to assess the impact of alcohol consumption among patients undergoing hepatitis C treatment. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 121 patients [78 (64.5%) men; 28-70 years] were evaluated. They were divided as follows: patients who consumed <12 g of ethanol/day throughout life (Group 1), 12-59 g/day (Group 2) and ≥60 g/day (Group 3)...
July 13, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724047/correlation-between-virulence-markers-of-helicobacter-pylori-in-the-oral-cavity-and-gastric-biopsies
#7
Myriam Lucrecia Medina, Marcelo Gabriel Medina, Luis Antonio Merino
BACKGROUND: The clinical outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection has been associated with virulence factors. The presence of these factors is useful as molecular markers in the identification of the high risk for developing severe gastric pathologies. OBJECTIVE: To correlate the presence of virulence markers cagA and bab2A of H. pylori in oral and gastric biopsy samples. METHODS: An observational, prospective, descriptive, and cross-sectional study was carried out between September 2011 and September 2012...
July 13, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724043/compulsory-notification-at-skilled-nursing-facilities
#8
Milton Luiz Gorzoni, Márcia Regina Valadares Aguado, Sueli Luciano Pires, Lilian de Fátima Costa Faria
Introduction: Notifiable diseases (NDs) encompass conditions of high clinical severity and/or contagious. Being closed communities, long-term care facilities (LTCF) are places that deserve attention on their own, but one might be left wondering: what is the reality of NDs at Brazilian LTCFs? Objective: To determine the prevalence and type of NDs at large LTCF. Method: Active search for NDs conducted by the Hospital Infection Control Committee (HICC) in 459 beds...
May 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724012/health-surveillance-and-response-on-a-regional-scale-a-preliminary-study-of-the-zika-virus-fever-case
#9
Flávia Thedim Costa Bueno
Although awareness of the Zika virus has existed since the 1950s, only recently has it attracted the interest of the international community. In 2015 and 2016, the virus spread throughout Brazil and suspicions on the possible relation between parallel increases in neurological disorders and the infection arose. By November 2015, this concern had developed into a National Public Health Emergency. On February 1, 2016, WHO formally declared its suspicion that this was a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), and sent a response in accordance with International Health Regulations (2005)...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723967/epitope-determination-of-immunogenic-proteins-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#10
Daniel O Connor, Lena Danckert, Sebastian Hoppe, Frank F Bier, Markus von Nickisch-Rosenegk
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the causative organism of gonorrhoea, a sexually transmitted disease that globally accounts for an estimated 80 to 100 million new infections per year. Increasing resistances to all common antibiotics used for N. gonorrhoeae treatment pose the risk of an untreatable disease. Further knowledge of ways of infection and host immune response are needed to understand the pathogen-host interaction and to discover new treatment alternatives against this disease. Therefore, detailed information about immunogenic proteins and their properties like epitope sites could advance further research in this area...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723963/impact-of-thyroid-function-abnormalities-on-reproductive-hormones-during-menstrual-cycle-in-premenopausal-hiv-infected-females-at-nauth-nnewi-nigeria
#11
Nkiruka Rose Ukibe, Solomon Nwabueze Ukibe, Obiageli Fidelia Emelumadu, Chinedum Charles Onyenekwe, Joseph Eberendu Ahaneku, Anthony Osita Igwegbe, Ifeoma Nwamaka Monago, Amobi Linus Ilika
BACKGROUND: This was a prospective study designed to evaluate the impact of thyroid function abnormalities on reproductive hormones during menstrual cycle in HIV infected females at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, South-East Nigeria. METHODS: The study randomly recruited 35 Symptomatic HIV infected females and 35 Symptomatic HIV infected females on antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for not less than six weeks from an HIV clinic and 40 apparently heathy control females among the hospital staff of NAUTH Nnewi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723951/cd8-t-cells-provide-immune-protection-against-murine-disseminated-endotheliotropic-orientia-tsutsugamushi-infection
#12
Guang Xu, Nicole L Mendell, Yuejin Liang, Thomas R Shelite, Yenny Goez-Rivillas, Lynn Soong, Donald H Bouyer, David H Walker
Scrub typhus, caused by a Gram-negative obligately intracellular coccobacillus, Orientia tsutsugamushi, is a long neglected but important tropical disease. Orientia tsutsugamushi causes illness in one million people each year, and 1 billion people are at risk. Without appropriate diagnosis and treatment, the disease can cause severe multiorgan failure with a case fatality rate of 7-15%. The current gaps in knowledge of immunity include the unknown mechanisms of host immunity to O. tsutsugamushi. Using an intravenous (i...
July 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723950/high-affinity-anti-tim-3-and-anti-kir-monoclonal-antibodies-cloned-from-healthy-human-individuals
#13
Stefan Ryser, Angeles Estellés, Edgar Tenorio, Lawrence M Kauvar, Mikhail L Gishizky
We report here the cloning of native high affinity anti-TIM-3 and anti-KIR IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy human donors. The cells that express these mAbs are rare, present at a frequency of less than one per 105 memory B-cells. Using our proprietary multiplexed screening and cloning technology CellSpot™ we assessed the presence of memory B-cells reactive to foreign and endogenous disease-associated antigens within the same individual. When comparing the frequencies of antigen-specific memory B-cells analyzed in over 20 screening campaigns, we found a strong correlation of the presence of anti-TIM-3 memory B-cells with memory B-cells expressing mAbs against three disease-associated antigens: (i) bacterial DNABII proteins that are a marker for Gram negative and Gram positive bacterial infections, (ii) hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus and (iii) the extracellular domain of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723944/application-of-mass-spectrometry-to-elucidate-the-pathophysiology-of-encephalitozoon-cuniculi-infection-in-rabbits
#14
Guillaume Desoubeaux, Maria Del Carmen Piqueras, Ana Pantin, Sanjoy K Bhattacharya, Roman Peschke, Anja Joachim, Carolyn Cray
Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a microsporidian species which can induce subclinical to serious disease in mammals including rabbits, a definitive natural host. The pathophysiology of infection has not been comprehensively elucidated. In this exploratory study, we utilized two mass spectrometry approaches: first, the analysis of the humoral response by profiling the microsporidian antigens as revealed by Western blot screening, and second, implementing the iTRAQ®-labeling protocol to focus on the changes within the host proteome during infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723925/immunologic-response-to-vaccine-challenge-in-pregnant-ptpn22-r620w-carriers-and-non-carriers
#15
Shelly H Tien, Juliet N Crabtree, Heather L Gray, Erik J Peterson
OBJECTIVES: Influenza infection is a significant cause of respiratory morbidity among pregnant women. Seasonal influenza vaccination engages innate immune receptors to promote protective immunity. A coding polymorphism (R620W) in PTPN22 imparts elevated risk for human infection and autoimmune disease, predisposes to diminished innate immune responses, and associates with reduced immunization responses. We sought to quantify the effects of PTPN22-R620W on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to the inactivated influenza vaccine among healthy pregnant women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723920/temperature-modulates-dengue-virus-epidemic-growth-rates-through-its-effects-on-reproduction-numbers-and-generation-intervals
#16
Amir S Siraj, Rachel J Oidtman, John H Huber, Moritz U G Kraemer, Oliver J Brady, Michael A Johansson, T Alex Perkins
Epidemic growth rate, r, provides a more complete description of the potential for epidemics than the more commonly studied basic reproduction number, R0, yet the former has never been described as a function of temperature for dengue virus or other pathogens with temperature-sensitive transmission. The need to understand the drivers of epidemics of these pathogens is acute, with arthropod-borne virus epidemics becoming increasingly problematic. We addressed this need by developing temperature-dependent descriptions of the two components of r-R0 and the generation interval-to obtain a temperature-dependent description of r...
July 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723905/evolution-of-anti-trypanosoma-cruzi-antibody-production-in-patients-with-chronic-chagas-disease-correlation-between-antibody-titers-and-development-of-cardiac-disease-severity
#17
Ingebourg Georg, Alejandro Marcel Hasslocher-Moreno, Sergio Salles Xavier, Marcelo Teixeira de Holanda, Eric Henrique Roma, Maria da Gloria Bonecini-Almeida
Chagas disease is one of the most important endemic infections in Latin America affecting around 6-7 million people. About 30-50% of patients develop the cardiac form of the disease, which can lead to severe cardiac dysfunction and death. In this scenario, the identification of immunological markers of disease progression would be a valuable tool for early treatment and reduction of death rates. In this observational study, the production of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies through a retrospective longitudinal follow-up in chronic Chagas disease patients´ cohort and its correlation with disease progression and heart commitment was evaluated...
July 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723886/prolonged-viral-replication-and-longitudinal-viral-dynamic-differences-among-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-infected-infants
#18
Monica E Brint, Joshua M Hughes, Aditya Shah, Chelsea R Miller, Lisa G Harrison, Elizabeth A Meals, Jacqueline Blanch, Charlotte R Thompson, Stephania A Cormier, John P DeVincenzo
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal RSV dynamics have not been well-studied despite existence of factors favoring prolonged RSV replication including: high mutation rates allowing rapid evolution and potential escape from immune control. We therefore measured viral load in previously RSV-naïve infants over prolonged time-spans. METHODS: During 2014-2015, quantitative nasal aspirates were collected from 51 RSV-PCR+ infants. Multiple parallel assessments of viral loads were quantified at each collected time point using a well-validated real-time qRT-PCR assay...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723871/optimal-anti-retroviral-prophylaxis-in-infants-at-high-risk-of-acquiring-human-immunodeficiency-virus-a-systematic-review
#19
Sara Beste, Shaffiq Essajee, George Siberry, Alisse Hannaford, Jasmeen Dara, Nandita Sugandhi, Martina Penazzato
INTRODUCTION: The risk of perinatal HIV infection can be dramatically reduced through maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) and infant antiretroviral (ARV) postnatal prophylaxis. The 2013 WHO guidelines recommended four to six weeks of nevirapine or zidovudine as post-natal prophylaxis, with possible extension to 12 weeks for high-risk breastfed infants. A systematic review was undertaken to determine if there is evidence for the WHO to recommend enhanced or extended prophylaxis for high-risk infants...
July 18, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723870/osteoarticular-infections-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-children-in-the-post-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-era
#20
Liset Olarte, Jose Romero, William Barson, John Bradley, Philana Ling Lin, Laurence Givner, Tina Tan, Jill Hoffman, Kristina G Hultén, Edward O Mason, Sheldon L Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal osteoarticular infections (OAI) are an uncommon manifestation of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We describe the demographic characteristics, hospitalization rate, serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of children with pneumococcal OAI over a 16-year period. METHODS: We identified patients ≤18 years old with pneumococcal OAI at 8 children's hospitals in the United States (2000-2015). Pneumococcal isolates were collected prospectively...
July 18, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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