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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/100001003/emergency-management-of-sepsis-the-simple-stuff-saves-lives
#1
David Sweet, Julian Marsden, Kendall Ho, Christina Krause, James A Russell
Many emergency departments have implemented sepsis protocols since the 2001 publication of results from the early goal-directed therapy trial, which showed early targeted resuscitation lowers mortality. As part of an attempt to improve clinical and operational outcomes for emergency departments across British Columbia, we reviewed sepsis management literature and considered sepsis protocol implementation in the province’s emergency departments. During the literature review we found that many observational studies confirmed an association between implementation of emergency sepsis protocols and decreased mortality...
May 2012: BC medical journal: BCMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637339/emergence-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-non-susceptibility-in-an-mdr-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolate
#2
Anna Both, Henning Büttner, Jiabin Huang, Markus Perbandt, Cristina Belmar Campos, Martin Christner, Florian P Maurer, Stefan Kluge, Christina König, Martin Aepfelbacher, Dominic Wichmann, Holger Rohde
Background: Avibactam is a novel broad-range β-lactamase inhibitor active against Ambler class A (including ESBL and KPC) and some Ambler class C and D (e.g. OXA-48) enzymes. We here report on the emergence of ceftazidime/avibactam resistance in clinical, multiresistant, OXA-48 and CTX-M-14-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate DT12 during ceftazidime/avibactam treatment. Methods and results: Comparative whole-genome sequence analysis identified two SNPs in the CTX-M-14-encoding gene leading to two amino acid changes (P170S and T264I)...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637338/complex-interactions-between-potentially-pathogenic-opportunistic-and-resident-bacteria-emerge-during-infection-on-a-reef-building-coral
#3
Sarah A Gignoux-Wolfsohn, Felicia M Aronson, Steven V Vollmer
Increased bacterial diversity on diseased corals can obscure disease etiology and complicate our understanding of pathogenesis. To untangle microbes that may cause white band disease signs from microbes responding to disease, we inoculated healthy Acropora cervicornis corals with an infectious dose from visibly diseased corals. We sampled these dosed corals and healthy controls over time for sequencing of the bacterial 16S region. Endozoicomonas were associated with healthy fragments from 4/10 colonies, dominating microbiomes before dosing and decreasing over time only in corals that displayed disease signs, suggesting a role in disease resistance...
June 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637333/infections-in-early-life-and-development-of-celiac-disease
#4
Andreas Beyerlein, Ewan Donnachie, Anette-Gabriele Ziegler
Early infections have been suggested to be associated with increased risk for later celiac disease (CD). We analyzed prospective claims data of n = 295,420 infants from Bavaria, Germany, born between 2005 and 2007 containing information on medically attended infectious diseases according to ICD-10 code on a quarterly basis to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of time to CD diagnosis by infection exposure, adjusting for sex, calendar month of birth and number of previous healthcare visits...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637307/sparing-carbapenem-usage
#5
A Peter R Wilson
Background: Carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is increasing in many countries and use of carbapenems and antibiotics to which resistance is linked should be reduced to slow its emergence. There are no directly equivalent antibiotics and the alternatives are less well supported by clinical trials. The few new agents are expensive. Objectives: To provide guidance on strategies to reduce carbapenem usage. Methods: A literature review was performed as described in the BSAC/HIS/BIA/IPS Joint Working Party on Multiresistant Gram-negative Infection Report...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637299/serological-investigation-of-mycoplasma-synoviae-infection-in-china-from-2010-to-2015
#6
J Xue, M Y Xu, Z J Ma, J Zhao, N Jin, G Z Zhang
Mycoplasma synoviae can cause worldwide respiratory diseases, synovitis, or subclinical symptoms in poultry. M. synoviae infection occurs throughout the yr and causes significant economic losses, including increased mortality, condemnations, medication, and live production cost. In the present study, the seroprevalence of M. synoviae among 44,395 non-vaccinated chickens from 21 provinces in China from 2010 to 2015 was estimated using ELISA. The overall seroprevalence was 41.19%. Seropositive rates in different yr ranged between 24...
June 15, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637274/association-of-bariatric-surgery-with-risk-of-infectious-diseases-a-self-controlled-case-series-analysis
#7
Tadahiro Goto, Atsushi Hirayama, Mohammad Kamal Faridi, Carlos A Camargo, Kohei Hasegawa
Background: Although emerging data demonstrate that obesity is a risk factor for infectious diseases, no study has investigated the relationship of bariatric surgery with the risk of infectious diseases among obese adults. Methods: We conducted a self-controlled case series analysis using data from the State Emergency Department Database and State Inpatient Database of three US states (California, Florida, and Nebraska) from 2005 through 2011. We included obese adults who underwent bariatric surgery as an instrument of weight reduction...
June 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637260/associations-of-obesity-and-lifestyle-with-the-risk-and-mortality-of-bloodstream-infection-in-a-general-population-a-15-year-follow-up-of-64%C3%A2-027-individuals-in-the-hunt-study
#8
Julie Paulsen, Åsa Askim, Randi Marie Mohus, Arne Mehl, Andrew Dewan, Erik Solligård, Jan Kristian Damås, Bjørn O Åsvold
Background: Bloodstream infections (BSI) cause considerable morbidity and mortality, and primary prevention should be a priority. Lifestyle factors are of particular interest since they represent a modifiable target. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study among participants in the population-based Norwegian HUNT2 Survey, where 64 027 participants were followed from 1995-97 through 2011 by linkage to prospectively recorded information on BSI at local and regional hospitals...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637242/yap-and-wwtr1-regulate-the-expression-of-sex-determining-genes-in-sertoli-cells-but-their-inactivation-does-not-cause-sex-reversal
#9
Adrien Levasseur, Marilène Paquet, Derek Boerboom, Alexandre Boyer
Yes-associated protein (YAP) and WW containing transcription regulator 1 (WWTR1) are two functionally redundant transcriptional regulators that are downstream effectors of the Hippo signaling pathway, and that act as major regulators of cell growth and differentiation. To elucidate their role in Sertoli cells, primary Sertoli cell culture from Yapflox/flox; Wwtr1flox/flox animals were infected with a Cre recombinase-expressing adenovirus. Concomitant inactivation of Yap and Wwtr1 resulted in a decrease in the mRNA levels of the male sex differentiation genes Dhh, Dmrt1, Sox9 and Wt1, whereas those of genes involved in female differentiation (Wnt4, Rspo1 and Foxl2) were induced...
June 16, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637238/chlamydia-trachomatis-seroprevalence-and-ultrasound-diagnosed-uterine-fibroids-in-a-large-population-of-young-african-american-women
#10
Kristen R Moore, Jennifer S Smith, Stephen R Cole, Dirk P Dittmer, Victor J Schoenbach, Donna D Baird
Reproductive tract infections have long been hypothesized to increase fibroid risk. Few studies have been conducted, even for the common infection, genital Chlamydia trachomatis (gCT), and only with self-reported gCT data. Our investigation used micro-immunofluorescence serology for gCT to characterize past exposure. We used cross-sectional enrollment data from a prospective fibroid study in the Detroit, Michigan area; ultrasound examinations systematically screened for fibroids. Participants were African-American women ages 23-34 (recruited 2010-2012)...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637235/monotherapy-with-either-dolutegravir-or-raltegravir-fails-to-durably-suppress-hiv-viraemia-in-humanized-mice
#11
Alonso Heredia, Said Hassounah, Sandra Medina-Moreno, Juan C Zapata, Nhut M Le, Yingshan Han, James S Foulke, Charles Davis, Joseph Bryant, Robert R Redfield, Mark A Wainberg
Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of HIV integrase inhibitor monotherapy between raltegravir and dolutegravir as an approach to simplify therapy. Methods: We evaluated and compared the efficacy of 20 week monotherapy with dolutegravir or raltegravir in humanized mice (HSC-NSG) infected with HIV BaL . Plasma HIV RNA was measured by quantitative RT-PCR (limit of detection of 150 copies/45 μL of plasma) and drug levels by LC-MS/MS. Escape viruses were genotyped and analysed for replication capacity and drug susceptibility in tissue culture...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637194/high-iron-supply-inhibits-the-synthesis-of-the-genotoxin-colibactin-by-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-through-a-non-canonical-fur-ryhb-mediated-pathway
#12
Sophie Tronnet, Christophe Garcie, Alexander O Brachmann, Jörn Piel, Eric Oswald, Patricia Martin
The genotoxin colibactin is a secondary metabolite produced by a variety of pathogenic Enterobacteria, and is associated with colon cancer development and acute systemic infections. The colibactin biosynthesis requires the enzymatic activity of the phosphopantetheinyl transferase ClbA. We recently evidenced that two master regulators of bacterial iron homeostasis, i.e. the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) and the small regulatory non-coding RNA RyhB, were involved in the regulation of the clbA transcription and of the colibactin production...
June 20, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637182/effect-of-lifelong-antibiotic-treatment-for-aortic-arch-prosthesis-infection
#13
Leopold Rupprecht, Jirka Grosse, Dirk Hellwig, Christof Schmid
A patient who underwent multiple aortic operations suffered persistent infection of the ascending aorta and arch prosthesis and was finally treated with lifelong antibiotics. An 8-year follow-up with positron emission computed tomography is reported.
June 20, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637181/crosstalk-between-histone-modifications-indicates-that-inhibition-of-arginine-methyltransferase-carm1-activity-reverses-hiv-latency
#14
Zheng Zhang, Bryan C Nikolai, Leah A Gates, Sung Yun Jung, Edward B Siwak, Bin He, Andrew P Rice, Bert W O'Malley, Qin Feng
In eukaryotic cells, the gene expression status is strictly controlled by epigenetic modifications on chromatin. The repressive status of chromatin largely contributes to HIV latency. Studies have shown that modification of histone H3K27 acts as a key molecular switch for activation or suppression of many cellular genes. In this study, we found that K27-acetylated histone H3 specifically recruited Super Elongation Complex (SEC), the transcriptional elongation complex essential for HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR)-mediated and general cellular transcription...
June 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637179/is-delayed-surgical-revascularization-in-acute-myocardial-infarction-useful-or-dangerous-new-insights-into-an-old-problem
#15
Philippe Grieshaber, Peter Roth, Lukas Oster, Tobias M Schneider, Gerold Görlach, Bernd Nieman, Andreas Böning
OBJECTIVES: Haemodynamically stable patients admitted for coronary artery bypass grafting in acute myocardial infarction often undergo delayed surgery in order to avoid the risks of emergency surgery. However, initially stable patients undergoing delayed surgery may develop low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) during the waiting period, which might be a major drawback of this strategy. We aim to define risk factors and clinical consequences of LCOS during the waiting period. METHODS: A total of 530 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction (33% non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and 67% ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction) underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting between 2008 and 2013...
June 20, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637123/inhibition-of-swarming-motility-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-by-methanol-extracts-of-alpinia-officinarum-hance-and-cinnamomum-tamala-t-nees-and-eberm
#16
Divya Lakshmanan, Jishudas Nanda, K Jeevaratnam
Bacterial drug resistance is a challenge in clinical settings, especially in countries like India. Hence, discovery of novel alternative therapeutics has become a necessity in the fight against drug resistance. Compounds that inhibit bacterial virulence properties form new therapeutic alternatives. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic, nosocomial pathogen that infects immune-compromised patients. Swarming motility is an important virulence property of Pseudomonas which aids it in reaching host cells under nutrient limiting conditions...
June 15, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637119/disco-vertebral-osteomyelitis-causing-intradural-spinal-abscess-with-cauda-equina-compression
#17
Anan Shtaya, Samantha Hettige
Intradural extramedullary spinal infections causing cauda equina compression are uncommon. We report an Escherichia coli bacteraemia causing lumbar discitis and an intracanalicular collection compressing the cauda equina: initially thought to be an epidural empyema, however microsurgery revealed an intradural location. Decompression, drainage, antibiotics, and neuropathy treatment are essential management.
March 3, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637114/diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-a-rare-complication-of-an-abdominal-csf-pseudocyst
#18
Cathal Hannan, Aaron Niblock, Jeremy Hamilton, H Neil Simms
Abdominal CSF pseudocysts are an uncommon complication of ventriculo-peritoneal shunting. We report the case of a 35 year old man with a myelomenigocele, associated Chiari 2 malformation, and VP shunt developing a Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma within the lining of an abdominal CSF pseuodcyst. This diagnosis should be considered in those with recurrent pseudocysts, or those associated with a swinging pyrexia and high C-Reactive protein, in the absence of infection.
March 2, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637105/cytomegalovirus-gastric-ulcer-complicated-with-pyloric-obstruction-in-a-patient-with-ulcerative-colitis
#19
Sung Hwan Kang, Kee Myung Lee, Sung Jae Shin, Sun Kyo Lim, Jae Chul Hwang, Jin Hong Kim
In patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections could aggravate the course of IBD but it is difficult to distinguish CMV infection from IBD exacerbation endoscopically. Usually, CMV tends to localize to the colon and other organic involvements were reported very rare in the IBD patients. Herein, we report a case that CMV gastric ulcer complicated with pyloric obstruction in a patient with ulcerative colitis during ganciclovir therapy, which was resolved by surgical gastrojejunostomy with review of literature...
June 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637056/-urosepsis-in-children
#20
Josef Oswald
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common infectious diseases in children. Urosepsis in childhood, though rare, is the most complicated possible variant. In newborns and infants, unspecific symptoms are a significant barrier to a fast and reliable diagnosis, which is crucial to successful treatment. In addition to urine and laboratory tests as well as non-invasive examinations (ultrasound), there may be an indication for invasive examinations of the kidneys (DMSA scans) in cases of a severe infection...
June 21, 2017: Aktuelle Urologie
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