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Spaced learning

Lorraine Hawick, Jennifer Cleland, Simon Kitto
CONTEXT: Buildings and learning spaces contribute in crucial ways to people's experiences of these spaces. However, this aspect of context has been under-researched in medical education. We addressed this gap in knowledge by using the conceptual notions of space and place as heuristic lenses through which to explore the impact of a new medical school building on student experiences. METHODS: We carried out an exploratory case study to explore the impact of a new medical school building on student experiences...
June 22, 2018: Medical Education
Jonathan W Kelly, Zachary D Siegel, Lori A Sjolund, Marios N Avraamides
Spatial memories are often hierarchically organized with different regions of space represented in unique clusters within the hierarchy. Each cluster is thought to be organized around its own microreference frame selected during learning, whereas relationships between clusters are organized by a macroreference frame. Two experiments were conducted in order to better understand important characteristics of macroreference frames. Participants learned overlapping spatial layouts of objects within a room-sized environment before performing a perspective-taking task from memory...
June 21, 2018: Memory & Cognition
Sara Zannone, Zuzanna Brzosko, Ole Paulsen, Claudia Clopath
Neuromodulation plays a fundamental role in the acquisition of new behaviours. In previous experimental work, we showed that acetylcholine biases hippocampal synaptic plasticity towards depression, and the subsequent application of dopamine can retroactively convert depression into potentiation. We also demonstrated that incorporating this sequentially neuromodulated Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP) rule in a network model of navigation yields effective learning of changing reward locations. Here, we employ computational modelling to further characterize the effects of cholinergic depression on behaviour...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Adam Cheng, Vinay M Nadkarni, Mary Beth Mancini, Elizabeth A Hunt, Elizabeth H Sinz, Raina M Merchant, Aaron Donoghue, Jonathan P Duff, Walter Eppich, Marc Auerbach, Blair L Bigham, Audrey L Blewer, Paul S Chan, Farhan Bhanji
The formula for survival in resuscitation describes educational efficiency and local implementation as key determinants in survival after cardiac arrest. Current educational offerings in the form of standardized online and face-to-face courses are falling short, with providers demonstrating a decay of skills over time. This translates to suboptimal clinical care and poor survival outcomes from cardiac arrest. In many institutions, guidelines taught in courses are not thoughtfully implemented in the clinical environment...
June 21, 2018: Circulation
Molly Sharp, Anu Gulati, Chris Barker, Kirsten Barnicot
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests an unmet need for provision of psychological interventions in inpatient psychiatric settings. However, inpatient wards can present a challenging environment in which to implement interventions. The authors developed the Emotional Coping Skills workbook, a psychosocial intervention designed to overcome these challenges and provide inpatients with an opportunity for psychologically-informed therapeutic engagement. The workbook includes information and exercises to empower inpatients to understand their emotions and learn to cope with their distress...
June 22, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Omar Allam, Colin Homles, Zev Greenberg, Ki Chul Kim, Seung Soon Jang
In this study, we have developed a protocol for exploring the vast chemical space of possible perovskites and screening the promising candidates. Furthermore, we examined factors that af-fect the band gap energies of perovskites. Goldschmidt tolerance factor and octahedral factor ranges of 0.98 to 1 and 0.45 to 0.7, respectively, are used to filter only highly cubic perovskites that are stable at room temperature. After removing rare or radioactively unstable elements, quan-tum mechanical density functional theory calculations are performed on remaining perovskites to assess whether their electronic properties such as band structure are suitable for solar cell applica-tions...
June 21, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Patrick C Eschenfeldt, Uri Kartoun, Curtis R Heberle, Chung Yin Kong, Norman S Nishioka, Kenney Ng, Sagar Kamarthi, Chin Hur
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A common limiting factor in the throughput of gastrointestinal endoscopy units is the availability of space for patients to recover post-procedure. This study sought to identify predictors of abnormally long recovery time after colonoscopy performed with procedural sedation. In clinical research, this type of study would be performed using only one regression modeling approach. A goal of this study was to apply various "machine learning" techniques to see if better prediction could be achieved...
2018: PloS One
Brian M Sweis, Mark J Thomas, A David Redish
Regret can be defined as the subjective experience of recognizing that one has made a mistake and that a better alternative could have been selected. The experience of regret is thought to carry negative utility. This typically takes two distinct forms: augmenting immediate postregret valuations to make up for losses, and augmenting long-term changes in decision-making strategies to avoid future instances of regret altogether. While the short-term changes in valuation have been studied in human psychology, economics, neuroscience, and even recently in nonhuman-primate and rodent neurophysiology, the latter long-term process has received far less attention, with no reports of regret avoidance in nonhuman decision-making paradigms...
June 2018: PLoS Biology
Anton O Oliynyk, Michael W Gaultois, Martin Hermus, Andrew J Morris, Arthur Mar, Jakoah Brgoch
There remain 21 systems (out of over 3500 possible combinations of the elements) in which the existence of the simple binary equiatomic phases AB has not been established experimentally. Among these, the presumed binary phase HfIn is predicted to adopt the tetragonal CuAu-type structure (space group P4/ mmm) by a recently developed machine-learning model and by structure optimization through global energy minimization. To test this prediction, the Hf-In system was investigated experimentally by reacting the elements in a 1:1 stoichiometry at 1070 K...
June 21, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Yusuf Koçluk, Burcu Kasım, Emine Alyamaç Sukgen, Ayşe Burcu
PURPOSE: To evaluate the complications and clinical results of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) in patients with endothelial failure that occurred during the learning curve of a surgeon. METHODS: Fifty eyes of 50 patients with DMEK and ≥6 months of follow-up were included. The patients were divided into the first 25 (group 1) and the second 25 (group 2) procedures performed by the surgeon. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central corneal thickness (CCT), unfolding time of the Descemet membrane (DM) graft, and intraoperative and postoperative complications were compared between groups...
June 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
A Sassan Sabouri, Lane Crawford, Sarah K Bick, Ala Nozari, Thomas A Anderson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The retrolaminar block (RB) is used for truncal analgesia, but its mechanism of neural blockade remains obscure. We sought to learn the pattern of local anesthetic spread after thoracic RB using cadaveric models. METHODS: In 8 fresh cadavers, an ultrasound-guided T4 RB was performed with 20 mL of methylene blue 1% and bupivacaine 0.5%. For comparison, an RB at T9 in 1 cadaver and a T4 thoracic paravertebral block in another cadaver were performed...
June 19, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Neil M Carleton, George Lee, Anant Madabhushi, Robert W Veltri
Nuclear alterations are a hallmark of many types of cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). Recent evidence shows that subvisual changes, ones that may not be visually perceptible to a pathologist, to the nucleus and its ultrastructural components can precede visual histopathological recognition of cancer. Alterations to nuclear features, such as nuclear size and shape, texture, and spatial architecture, reflect the complex molecular-level changes that occur during oncogenesis. Quantitative nuclear morphometry, a field that uses computational approaches to identify and quantify malignancy-induced nuclear changes, can enable a detailed and objective analysis of the PCa cell nucleus...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Lucy Lewis, Yvonne L Hauck, Janice Butt, Chloe Western, Helen Overing, Corrinne Poletti, Jessica Priest, Dawn Hudd, Brooke Thomson
BACKGROUND: There is limited research examining midwives' education, knowledge and practice around immersion in water for labour or birth. Our aim was to address this gap in evidence and build knowledge around this important topic. METHODS: This mixed method study was performed in two phases, between August and December 2016, in the birth centre of a tertiary public maternity hospital in Western Australia. Phase one utilised a cross sectional design to examine perceptions of education, knowledge and practice around immersion in water for labour or birth through a questionnaire...
June 19, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Nan Russell Yancey
In reflecting on the personal experience of moving beyond life as a nurse academician, the author explored the phenomenon of living with ambiguity in the teaching-learning endeavor. From the stories of new graduates of baccalaureate nursing programs, comfort-discomfort, sureness-unsureness, and confirming-not confirming arose as paradoxical rhythms of the experience of living with ambiguity. Acknowledging the challenge of creating sacred space in the contemporary nursing curriculum for living with ambiguity and not knowing, the author provided insights into the importance of creating a safe, sacred space with trusted faculty mentors to allow students to begin a journey where discovery and inquiry are valued in their process of becoming competent professional nurses on a never-ending journey of coming to know...
July 2018: Nursing Science Quarterly
Sean D McGarry, Sarah L Hurrell, Kenneth A Iczkowski, William Hall, Amy L Kaczmarowski, Anjishnu Banerjee, Tucker Keuter, Kenneth Jacobsohn, John D Bukowy, Marja T Nevalainen, Mark D Hohenwalter, William A See, Peter S LaViolette
PURPOSE: This study aims to combine multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and digitized pathology with machine learning to generate predictive maps of histologic features for prostate cancer localization. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty-nine patients underwent MRI prior to prostatectomy. After surgery, tissue was sliced according to MRI orientation using patient-specific 3-dimensionally printed slicing jigs. Whole-mount sections were annotated by our pathologist and digitally contoured to differentiate the lumen and epithelium...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Mai Oudah, Andreas Henschel
BACKGROUND: What is a healthy microbiome? The pursuit of this and many related questions, especially in light of the recently recognized microbial component in a wide range of diseases has sparked a surge in metagenomic studies. They are often not simply attributable to a single pathogen but rather are the result of complex ecological processes. Relatedly, the increasing DNA sequencing depth and number of samples in metagenomic case-control studies enabled the applicability of powerful statistical methods, e...
June 15, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
David C Gibson
This article presents a new framework for unobtrusive observation analytics of knowledge and skills-in-action through continuous collection of data from individuals while they interact with digital assets either as individuals or on problem-solving teams. The framework includes measures of the skill and knowledge areas of collaboration, creativity, personal learning, problem solving, and global sustainability, which are observed during natural production and use of communications, intentional artifacts, and resources in a digital learning space designed for self-directed and team-based learning challenges...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jiyoung Kang, Eunyoung E Suh
This study developed smartphone-based virtual experiential nursing applications to care for patients with chronic illness, especially patients with hypertension and diabetes, and evaluated the effect of the applications on nursing students' knowledge, self-efficacy, and learning experiences. Applications using gamification elements were developed according to the steps of assessment, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. Knowledge and self-efficacy were assessed via questionnaires, while learning experiences were assessed via six focus group interviews after the applications were used for 1 week...
June 12, 2018: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
Lorena Simon-Vidal, Oihane García-Calvo, Uxue Oteo, Sonia Arrasate, Esther Lete, Nuria Sotomayor, Humbert González-Díaz
Machine Learning (ML) algorithms are gaining importance in the processing of chemical information and modelling of chemical reactivity problems. In this work, we have developed a PTML model combining Perturbation-Theory (PT) and ML algorithms for predicting the yield of a given reaction. For this purpose, we have selected Parham cyclization, which is a general and powerful tool for the synthesis of heterocyclic and carbocyclic compounds. This reaction has both structural (substitution pattern on the substrate, internal electrophile, ring size, etc...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Amirhossein Tavanaei, Timothée Masquelier, Anthony Maida
Although representation learning methods developed within the framework of traditional neural networks are relatively mature, developing a spiking representation model remains a challenging problem. This paper proposes an event-based method to train a feedforward spiking neural network (SNN) layer for extracting visual features. The method introduces a novel spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) learning rule and a threshold adjustment rule both derived from a vector quantization-like objective function subject to a sparsity constraint...
June 1, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
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