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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231590/endotypes-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-biomarkers-based-on-a-mechanistic-insight-for-targeted-treatment
#1
Martin Wagenmann, Kathrin Scheckenbach, Adam M Chaker
Chronic rhinosinusitis is an umbrella term for several phenotypes and mechanistically distinct inflammatory diseases of the nose and the paranasal sinuses affecting around 11% of the population in Europe and the USA. Approximately 20% of the patients present with uncontrolled disease despite adequate treatment, and revision surgery is common. While a clinical characterization alone does not improve treatment results, novel but expensive biologics have increasingly become available, but they require a better understanding of the mechanism...
February 24, 2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231574/biomarkers-in-allergic-airway-disease-simply-complex
#2
Adam M Chaker, Ulrich M Zissler, Martin Wagenmann, Carsten Schmidt-Weber
Clinical diagnoses of allergic airway disease need confirmation of a relevant sensitization to allergens. Serum-based component-resolved diagnosis has become increasingly popular and allows the precise assessment of specific IgE to molecular allergens. Molecular allergen diagnosis has improved our understanding of disease phenotypes in allergic patients, including cross-reactive patterns and food allergy. Beyond sensitization profiles, characterization of the (endo-)type and severity of a local allergic disease is useful for targeted therapy with biologics in advanced allergic airway disease...
February 24, 2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231511/automated-diagnosis-of-congestive-heart-failure-using-dual-tree-complex-wavelet-transform-and-statistical-features-extracted-from-2s-of-ecg-signals
#3
Vidya K Sudarshan, U Rajendra Acharya, Shu Lih Oh, Muhammad Adam, Jen Hong Tan, Chua Kuang Chua, Kok Poo Chua, Ru San Tan
Identification of alarming features in the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is extremely significant for the prediction of congestive heart failure (CHF). ECG signal analysis carried out using computer-aided techniques can speed up the diagnosis process and aid in the proper management of CHF patients. Therefore, in this work, dual tree complex wavelets transform (DTCWT)-based methodology is proposed for an automated identification of ECG signals exhibiting CHF from normal. In the experiment, we have performed a DTCWT on ECG segments of 2s duration up to six levels to obtain the coefficients...
February 7, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231493/availability-of-tobacco-cessation-services-in-substance-use-disorder-treatment-programs-impact-of-state-tobacco-control-policy
#4
Amanda J Abraham, Grace Bagwell-Adams, Jayani Jayawardhana
OBJECTIVE: Given the high prevalence of smoking among substance use disorder (SUD) patients, the specialty SUD treatment system is an important target for adoption and implementation of tobacco cessation (TC) services. While research has addressed the impact of tobacco control on individual tobacco consumption, largely overlooked in the literature is the potential impact of state tobacco control policies on availability of services for tobacco cessation. This paper examines the association between state tobacco control policy and availability of TC services in SUD treatment programs in the United States...
February 9, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231359/unable-to-say-hello-from-the-other-side-guest-editorial
#5
Adam D Rubin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231329/changes-in-field-workability-and-drought-risk-from-projected-climate-change-drive-spatially-variable-risks-in-illinois-cropping-systems
#6
Bradley J Tomasek, Martin M Williams, Adam S Davis
As weather patterns become more volatile and extreme, risks introduced by weather variability will become more critical to agricultural production. The availability of days suitable for field work is driven by soil temperature and moisture, both of which may be altered by climate change. We projected changes in Illinois season length, spring field workability, and summer drought risk under three different emissions scenarios (B1, A1B, and A2) down to the crop district scale. Across all scenarios, thermal time units increased in parallel with a longer frost-free season...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231256/advancing-the-match-mismatch-framework-for-large-herbivores-in-the-arctic-evaluating-the-evidence-for-a-trophic-mismatch-in-caribou
#7
David Gustine, Perry Barboza, Layne Adams, Brad Griffith, Raymond Cameron, Kenneth Whitten
Climate-induced shifts in plant phenology may adversely affect animals that cannot or do not shift the timing of their reproductive cycle. The realized effect of potential trophic "mismatches" between a consumer and its food varies with the degree to which species rely on dietary income and stored capital. Large Arctic herbivores rely heavily on maternal capital to reproduce and give birth near the onset of the growing season but are they vulnerable to trophic mismatch? We evaluated the long-term changes in the temperatures and characteristics of the growing seasons (1970-2013), and compared growing conditions and dynamics of forage quality for caribou at peak parturition, peak lactation, and peak forage biomass, and plant senescence between two distinct time periods over 36 years (1977 and 2011-13)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230717/imaging-performance-of-a-handheld-ultrasound-system-with-real-time-computer-aided-detection-of-lumbar-spine-anatomy-a-feasibility-study
#8
Mohamed Tiouririne, Adam J Dixon, F William Mauldin, David Scalzo, Arun Krishnaraj
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging performance of a handheld ultrasound system and the accuracy of an automated lumbar spine computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithm in the spines of human subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was approved by the institutional review board of the University of Virginia. The authors designed a handheld ultrasound system with enhanced bone image quality and fully automated CAD of lumbar spine anatomy...
February 22, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230421/medicare-expenditure-correlates-of-atrophy-and-cerebrovascular-disease-in-older-adults
#9
Briana S Last, Maria-José García Rubio, Carolyn W Zhu, Stephanie Cosentino, Jennifer J Manly, Charles DeCarli, Yaakov Stern, Adam M Brickman
: Background/Study Context: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of cerebrovascular disease and atrophy are common in older adults and are associated with cognitive and medical burden. However, the extent to which they are related to health care expenditures has not been examined. We studied whether increased Medicare expenditures were associated with brain markers of atrophy and cerebrovascular disease in older adults. METHODS: A subset of participants (n = 592; mean age = 80 years; 66% women) from the Washington Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP), a community-based observational study of aging in upper Manhattan, received high-resolution MRI and had Medicare expenditure data on file...
March 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230409/using-the-center-for-epidemiologic-studies-depression-scale-to-assess-depression-in-women-with-hiv-and-women-at-risk-for-hiv-are-somatic-items-invariant
#10
Leah M Adams, Tracey E Wilson, Daniel Merenstein, Joel Milam, Jennifer Cohen, Elizabeth T Golub, Adebola Adedimeji, Judith A Cook
The prevalence of depression among women living with HIV/AIDS is elevated, compared with women in the general population and men diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. Although symptoms of HIV may overlap with somatic symptoms of depression, little research has explored how well screening tools accurately assess depression rather than symptoms of HIV/AIDS among women. The present study examined the utility of a widely used tool for assessing depression symptoms among women living with HIV/AIDS. Data are from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a multisite, longitudinal cohort study of women living with HIV/AIDS (n = 1,329) and seronegative women (n = 541) matched on key risk factors for HIV/AIDS...
February 23, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230125/seven-temperate-terrestrial-planets-around-the-nearby-ultracool-dwarf-star-trappist-1
#11
Michaël Gillon, Amaury H M J Triaud, Brice-Olivier Demory, Emmanuël Jehin, Eric Agol, Katherine M Deck, Susan M Lederer, Julien de Wit, Artem Burdanov, James G Ingalls, Emeline Bolmont, Jeremy Leconte, Sean N Raymond, Franck Selsis, Martin Turbet, Khalid Barkaoui, Adam Burgasser, Matthew R Burleigh, Sean J Carey, Aleksander Chaushev, Chris M Copperwheat, Laetitia Delrez, Catarina S Fernandes, Daniel L Holdsworth, Enrico J Kotze, Valérie Van Grootel, Yaseen Almleaky, Zouhair Benkhaldoun, Pierre Magain, Didier Queloz
One aim of modern astronomy is to detect temperate, Earth-like exoplanets that are well suited for atmospheric characterization. Recently, three Earth-sized planets were detected that transit (that is, pass in front of) a star with a mass just eight per cent that of the Sun, located 12 parsecs away. The transiting configuration of these planets, combined with the Jupiter-like size of their host star-named TRAPPIST-1-makes possible in-depth studies of their atmospheric properties with present-day and future astronomical facilities...
February 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230109/pentose-sugars-inhibit-metabolism-and-increase-expression-of-an-agrd-type-cyclic-pentapeptide-in-clostridium-thermocellum
#12
Tobin J Verbeke, Richard J Giannone, Dawn M Klingeman, Nancy L Engle, Thomas Rydzak, Adam M Guss, Timothy J Tschaplinski, Steven D Brown, Robert L Hettich, James G Elkins
Clostridium thermocellum could potentially be used as a microbial biocatalyst to produce renewable fuels directly from lignocellulosic biomass due to its ability to rapidly solubilize plant cell walls. While the organism readily ferments sugars derived from cellulose, pentose sugars from xylan are not metabolized. Here, we show that non-fermentable pentoses inhibit growth and end-product formation during fermentation of cellulose-derived sugars. Metabolomic experiments confirmed that xylose is transported intracellularly and reduced to the dead-end metabolite xylitol...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230101/a-novel-role-for-methyl-cysteinate-a-cysteine-derivative-in-cesium-accumulation-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#13
Eri Adams, Takae Miyazaki, Aya Hayaishi-Satoh, Minwoo Han, Miyako Kusano, Himanshu Khandelia, Kazuki Saito, Ryoung Shin
Phytoaccumulation is a technique to extract metals from soil utilising ability of plants. Cesium is a valuable metal while radioactive isotopes of cesium can be hazardous. In order to establish a more efficient phytoaccumulation system, small molecules which promote plants to accumulate cesium were investigated. Through chemical library screening, 14 chemicals were isolated as 'cesium accumulators' in Arabidopsis thaliana. Of those, methyl cysteinate, a derivative of cysteine, was found to function within the plant to accumulate externally supplemented cesium...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230097/evidence-for-risk-extrapolation-in-decision-making-by-tadpoles
#14
Adam L Crane, Maud C O Ferrari
Through time, the activity patterns, morphology, and development of both predators and prey change, which in turn alter the relative vulnerability of prey to their coexisting predators. Recognizing these changes can thus allow prey to make optimal decisions by projecting risk trends into the future. We used tadpoles (Lithobates sylvaticus) to test the hypothesis that tadpoles can extrapolate information about predation risk from past information. We exposed tadpoles to an odour that represented either a temporally consistent risk or an increasing risk...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230087/nardilysin-regulates-inflammation-metaplasia-and-tumors-in-murine-stomach
#15
Yuto Kimura, Kozo Ikuta, Takeshi Kimura, Tsutomu Chiba, Hiroko Oshima, Masanobu Oshima, Eiichiro Nishi, Hiroshi Seno
Chronic inflammation contributes to a wide variety of human disorders. In the stomach, longstanding gastritis often results in structural alterations in the gastric mucosa, including metaplastic changes and gastric cancers. Therefore, it is important to elucidate factors that are involved in gastric inflammation. Nardilysin (N-arginine dibasic convertase; Nrdc) is a metalloendopeptidase of the M16 family that promotes ectodomain shedding of the precursor forms of various growth factors and cytokines by enhancing the protease activities of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) proteins...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230058/macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-is-subjected-to-glucose-modification-and-oxidation-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Omar Kassaar, Marta Pereira Morais, Suying Xu, Emily L Adam, Rosemary C Chamberlain, Bryony Jenkins, Tony James, Paul T Francis, Stephen Ward, Robert J Williams, Jean van den Elsen
Glucose and glucose metabolites are able to adversely modify proteins through a non-enzymatic reaction called glycation, which is associated with the pathology of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and is a characteristic of the hyperglycaemia induced by diabetes. However, the precise protein glycation profile that characterises AD is poorly defined and the molecular link between hyperglycaemia and AD is unknown. In this study, we define an early glycation profile of human brain using fluorescent phenylboronate gel electrophoresis and identify early glycation and oxidation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in AD brain...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230046/gel-phase-formation-in-dilute-triblock-copolyelectrolyte-complexes
#17
Samanvaya Srivastava, Marat Andreev, Adam E Levi, David J Goldfeld, Jun Mao, William T Heller, Vivek M Prabhu, Juan J de Pablo, Matthew V Tirrell
Assembly of oppositely charged triblock copolyelectrolytes into phase-separated gels at low polymer concentrations (<1% by mass) has been observed in scattering experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. Here we show that in contrast to uncharged, amphiphilic block copolymers that form discrete micelles at low concentrations and enter a phase of strongly interacting micelles in a gradual manner with increasing concentration, the formation of a dilute phase of individual micelles is prevented in polyelectrolyte complexation-driven assembly of triblock copolyelectrolytes...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229521/microbial-potential-for-carbon-and-nutrient-cycling-in-a-geogenic-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-reservoir
#18
Adam J E Freedman, BoonFei Tan, Janelle R Thompson
Microorganisms catalyze carbon cycling and biogeochemical reactions in the deep subsurface and thus may be expected to influence the fate of injected supercritical (sc) CO2 following geological carbon sequestration (GCS). We hypothesized that natural subsurface scCO2 reservoirs, which serve as analogs for the long-term fate of sequestered scCO2 , harbor a "deep carbonated biosphere" with carbon cycling potential. We sampled subsurface fluids from scCO2 -water separators at a natural scCO2 reservoir at McElmo Dome, Colorado for analysis of 16S rRNA gene diversity and metagenome content...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229124/functional-limitations-and-health-care-resource-utilization-for-individuals-with-cognitive-impairment-without-dementia-findings-from-a-united-states-population-based-survey
#19
J Scott Andrews, Urvi Desai, Noam Y Kirson, Caroline J Enloe, Ljubica Ristovska, Sarah King, Howard G Birnbaum, Adam S Fleisher, Wenyu Ye, Kristin Kahle-Wrobleski
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about functional limitations and health care resource utilization of people with cognitive impairment with no dementia (CIND). METHODS: Respondents with stable or progressive cognitive impairment (CI) after the first (index) indication of CIND in 2000-2010 were identified from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Respondents never exhibiting CI were identified as potential controls. Propensity score-based optimal matching was used to adjust for differences in demographics and history of stroke...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228820/temperature-elevation-measured-in-a-tissue-mimicking-phantom-for-transvaginal-ultrasound-at-clinical-settings
#20
Piero Miloro, Eleanor Martin, Adam Shaw
INTRODUCTION: This paper reports the results of an audit to assess the possible thermal hazard associated with the clinical use of ultrasound scanners in UK Hospitals for transvaginal ultrasound imaging. METHODS: An anatomically relevant phantom composed of a block of agar-based tissue mimicking material with embedded thermal sensors was developed. Seventeen hospitals around the UK were visited and a total of 64 configurations were tested. A representative typical scanning protocol was adopted, which primarily used B-mode with 30 s periods of colour-flow and pulsed Doppler modes for both gynaecology and obstetrics pre-sets...
February 2017: Ultrasound: Journal of the British Medical Ultrasound Society
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