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Milieu interieur

Barbara Piasecka, Darragh Duffy, Alejandra Urrutia, Hélène Quach, Etienne Patin, Céline Posseme, Jacob Bergstedt, Bruno Charbit, Vincent Rouilly, Cameron R MacPherson, Milena Hasan, Benoit Albaud, David Gentien, Jacques Fellay, Matthew L Albert, Lluis Quintana-Murci
The contribution of host genetic and nongenetic factors to immunological differences in humans remains largely undefined. Here, we generated bacterial-, fungal-, and viral-induced immune transcriptional profiles in an age- and sex-balanced cohort of 1,000 healthy individuals and searched for the determinants of immune response variation. We found that age and sex affected the transcriptional response of most immune-related genes, with age effects being more stimulus-specific relative to sex effects, which were largely shared across conditions...
December 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Andras Sikter, Zoltan Rihmer, Roberto de Guevara
The stress defence-cascade is mostly not biphasic as Cannon thought, the sympathicotonic stress response is preceded by a vagotonic phase called freeze response. Alteration of the carbon dioxide level plays an important role during defence-cascade as its changes interfere with stress hormones, e.g. with catecholamines, thus affecting the degree of arousal. In case of humans, learned behaviour dominates instead of instinctive, so the fight-or-flight often lags; the consequence can be persistent hypocapnia or hypercapnia...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
Aurélie Bisiaux, Jeremy Boussier, Darragh Duffy, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Magnus Fontes, Matthew L Albert
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is used as a vaccine and diagnostic test for tuberculosis, as well as immunotherapy in the treatment of bladder cancer. While clinically useful, the response to mycobacterial stimulation is complex and the induced protein signature remains poorly defined. We characterized the cell types directly engaged by BCG, as well as the induced cytokine loops that transmit signal(s) to bystander cells. Standardized whole-blood stimulations and mechanistic studies on single and purified cell populations identified distinct patterns of activation in monocytes as compared to neutrophils and invariant lymphocyte populations...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Alan A Jackson
Good clinical practice is based on a secure and accurate diagnosis. Poor nutrition is frequently associated with disorders of the liver, and a specific nutrition diagnosis is needed for providing best care and experiencing successful outcome. There is opportunity for better-structured approaches to making secure and consistent nutritional diagnoses in patients with liver disease. Nutrition is the set of integrated processes by which cells, tissues, organs and the whole body acquire the energy and nutrients to retain normal structure and perform the required functions...
2017: Digestive Diseases
H Nilsson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Acta Physiologica
Jonathan Reeve
In this review, I consider the varied mechanisms in cortical bone that help preserve its integrity and how they deteriorate with aging. Aging affects cortical bone in two ways: extrinsically through its effects on the individual that modify its mechanical loading experience and 'milieu interieur'; and intrinsically through the prolonged cycle of remodelling and renewal extending to an estimated 20 years in the proximal femur. Healthy femoral cortex incorporates multiple mechanisms that help prevent fracture...
2017: BoneKEy Reports
Alejandra Urrutia, Darragh Duffy, Vincent Rouilly, Céline Posseme, Raouf Djebali, Gabriel Illanes, Valentina Libri, Benoit Albaud, David Gentien, Barbara Piasecka, Milena Hasan, Magnus Fontes, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Matthew L Albert
Systems approaches for the study of immune signaling pathways have been traditionally based on purified cells or cultured lines. However, in vivo responses involve the coordinated action of multiple cell types, which interact to establish an inflammatory microenvironment. We employed standardized whole-blood stimulation systems to test the hypothesis that responses to Toll-like receptor ligands or whole microbes can be defined by the transcriptional signatures of key cytokines. We found 44 genes, identified using Support Vector Machine learning, that captured the diversity of complex innate immune responses with improved segregation between distinct stimuli...
September 6, 2016: Cell Reports
Jenny Juan Bai, Chong Da Tan, Billy K C Chow
Water and salt metabolism are tightly regulated processes. Maintaining this milieu intérieur within narrow limits is critical for normal physiological processes to take place. Disturbances to this balance can result in disease and even death. Some of the better-characterized regulators of water and salt homeostasis include angiotensin II, aldosterone, arginine vasopressin, and oxytocin. Although secretin (SCT) was first described >100 years ago, little is known about the role of this classic gastrointestinal hormone in the maintenance of water-salt homeostasis...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Kelvin J A Davies
Homeostasis is a central pillar of modern Physiology. The term homeostasis was invented by Walter Bradford Cannon in an attempt to extend and codify the principle of 'milieu intérieur,' or a constant interior bodily environment, that had previously been postulated by Claude Bernard. Clearly, 'milieu intérieur' and homeostasis have served us well for over a century. Nevertheless, research on signal transduction systems that regulate gene expression, or that cause biochemical alterations to existing enzymes, in response to external and internal stimuli, makes it clear that biological systems are continuously making short-term adaptations both to set-points, and to the range of 'normal' capacity...
June 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Ares Pasipoularides
A unique myocardial characteristic is its ability to grow/remodel in order to adapt; this is determined partly by genes and partly by the environment and the milieu intérieur. In the "post-genomic" era, a need is emerging to elucidate the physiologic functions of myocardial genes, as well as potential adaptive and maladaptive modulations induced by environmental/epigenetic factors. Genome sequencing and analysis advances have become exponential lately, with escalation of our knowledge concerning sometimes controversial genetic underpinnings of cardiovascular diseases...
December 2015: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Christine Elizabeth Cooper
Many Australian tetrapods inhabit desert environments characterised by low productivity, unpredictable rainfall, high temperatures and high incident solar radiation. Maintaining a homeostatic milieu intérieur by osmoregulation and thermoregulation are two physiological challenges faced by tetrapods in deserts, and the endocrine system plays an important role in regulating these processes. There is a considerable body of work examining the osmoregulatory role of antidiuretic hormones for Australian amphibians, reptiles and mammals, with particular contributions concerning their role and function for wild, free-living animals in arid environments...
April 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
L Robert, J Labat-Robert
In this review, we present a short description of the history of stress in the medical literature followed by a recapitulation of its mechanisms, from the cellular to the organismal level and its role in aging. The medical importance of stress was first taken up as a subject of experimental medicine by physiologists, starting from Claude Bernard's concept of the stability of the "milieu intérieur", altered by stress, followed by others, culminating recently by the elucidation of its mechanisms at the cellular and molecular level...
September 2015: Pathologie-biologie
Mathieu Arminjon
Physiologists and historians are still debating what conceptually differentiates each of the three major modern theories of regulation: the constancy of the milieu intérieur, homeostasis and allostasis. Here I propose that these models incarnate two distinct regimes of politization of the life sciences. This perspective leads me to suggest that the historicization of physiological norms is intrinsic to the allostatic model, which thus divides it fundamentally from the two others. I analyze the allostatic model in the light of the Canguilhemian theory, showing how the former contributed to the development of a critical epistemology immune to both naturalist essentialism and social constructivism...
April 2016: Journal of the History of Biology
Frederick J Livesey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xiaoyi Chen, Milena Hasan, Valentina Libri, Alejandra Urrutia, Benoît Beitz, Vincent Rouilly, Darragh Duffy, Étienne Patin, Bernard Chalmond, Lars Rogge, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Matthew L Albert, Benno Schwikowski
Multi-parametric flow cytometry is a key technology for characterization of immune cell phenotypes. However, robust high-dimensional post-analytic strategies for automated data analysis in large numbers of donors are still lacking. Here, we report a computational pipeline, called FlowGM, which minimizes operator input, is insensitive to compensation settings, and can be adapted to different analytic panels. A Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM)-based approach was utilized for initial clustering, with the number of clusters determined using Bayesian Information Criterion...
April 2015: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Milena Hasan, Benoit Beitz, Vincent Rouilly, Valentina Libri, Alejandra Urrutia, Darragh Duffy, Lydie Cassard, James P Di Santo, Estelle Mottez, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Matthew L Albert, Lars Rogge
Immunophenotyping by multi-parametric flow cytometry is the cornerstone technology for enumeration and characterization of immune cell populations in health and disease. Standardized procedures are essential to allow for inter-individual comparisons in the context of population based or clinical studies. Herein we report the approach taken by the Milieu Intérieur Consortium, highlighting the standardized and automated procedures used for immunophenotyping of human whole blood samples. We optimized eight-color antibody panels and procedures for staining and lysis of whole blood samples, and implemented pre-analytic steps with a semi-automated workflow using a robotic system...
April 2015: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Stéphanie Thomas, Vincent Rouilly, Etienne Patin, Cécile Alanio, Annick Dubois, Cécile Delval, Louis-Guillaume Marquier, Nicolas Fauchoux, Seloua Sayegrih, Muriel Vray, Darragh Duffy, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Matthew L Albert
The Milieu Intérieur Consortium has established a 1000-person healthy population-based study (stratified according to sex and age), creating an unparalleled opportunity for assessing the determinants of human immunologic variance. Herein, we define the criteria utilized for participant enrollment, and highlight the key data that were collected for correlative studies. In this report, we analyzed biological correlates of sex, age, smoking-habits, metabolic score and CMV infection. We characterized and identified unique risk factors among healthy donors, as compared to studies that have focused on the general population or disease cohorts...
April 2015: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Nasser M Al-Daghri, Omar S Al-Attas, Harvey E Johnston, Akul Singhania, Majed S Alokail, Khalid M Alkharfy, Sherif H Abd-Alrahman, Shaun L Sabico, Theodoros I Roumeliotis, Antigoni Manousopoulou-Garbis, Paul A Townsend, Christopher H Woelk, George P Chrousos, Spiros D Garbis
Linking gender-specific differences to the molecular etiology of obesity has been largely based on genomic and transcriptomic evidence lacking endophenotypic insight and is not applicable to the extracellular fluid compartments, or the milieu intérieur, of the human body. To address this need, this study profiled the whole serum proteomes of age-matched nondiabetic overweight and obese females (n = 28) and males (n = 31) using a multiplex design with pooled biological and technical replicates. To bypass basic limitations of immunodepletion-based strategies, subproteome enrichment by size-exclusion chromatography (SuPrE-SEC) followed by iTRAQ 2D-LC-nESI-FTMS analysis was used...
November 7, 2014: Journal of Proteome Research
Melanie P Hoenig, Mark L Zeidel
The concept of homeostasis has been inextricably linked to the function of the kidneys for more than a century when it was recognized that the kidneys had the ability to maintain the "internal milieu" and allow organisms the "physiologic freedom" to move into varying environments and take in varying diets and fluids. Early ingenious, albeit rudimentary, experiments unlocked a wealth of secrets on the mechanisms involved in the formation of urine and renal handling of the gamut of electrolytes, as well as that of water, acid, and protein...
July 2014: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Marleide da Mota Gomes, Eliasz Engelhardt
Claude Bernard (1813-1878) followed two main research paths: the chemical and physiological study of digestion and liver function, along with experimental section of nerves and studies on sympathetic nerves. Curare studies were, for example, of longstanding interest. His profound mental creativity and hand skillfulness, besides methodology quality, directed his experiments and findings, mainly at the Collège de France. His broader and epistemological concerns were carried out at the Sorbonne and later at the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle...
April 2014: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
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