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Milieu interieur

Alejandra Urrutia, Darragh Duffy, Vincent Rouilly, Céline Posseme, Raouf Djebali, Gabriel Illanes, Valentina Libri, Benoit Albaud, David Gentien, Barbara Piasecka, Milena Hasan, Magnus Fontes, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Matthew L Albert
Systems approaches for the study of immune signaling pathways have been traditionally based on purified cells or cultured lines. However, in vivo responses involve the coordinated action of multiple cell types, which interact to establish an inflammatory microenvironment. We employed standardized whole-blood stimulation systems to test the hypothesis that responses to Toll-like receptor ligands or whole microbes can be defined by the transcriptional signatures of key cytokines. We found 44 genes, identified using Support Vector Machine learning, that captured the diversity of complex innate immune responses with improved segregation between distinct stimuli...
September 6, 2016: Cell Reports
Jenny J Bai, C D Tan, Billy K C Chow
Water and salt metabolism are tightly regulated processes. Maintaining this milieu intérieur within narrow limits is critical for normal physiological processes to take place. Disturbances to this balance can result in disease and even death. Some of the better characterized regulators of water and salt homeostasis include angiotensin II (ANGII), aldosterone, arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin. Although secretin (SCT) was first described more than hundred years ago, little is known about the role of this classic gastrointestinal hormone in the maintenance of water-salt homeostasis...
June 8, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Kelvin J A Davies
Homeostasis is a central pillar of modern Physiology. The term homeostasis was invented by Walter Bradford Cannon in an attempt to extend and codify the principle of 'milieu intérieur,' or a constant interior bodily environment, that had previously been postulated by Claude Bernard. Clearly, 'milieu intérieur' and homeostasis have served us well for over a century. Nevertheless, research on signal transduction systems that regulate gene expression, or that cause biochemical alterations to existing enzymes, in response to external and internal stimuli, makes it clear that biological systems are continuously making short-term adaptations both to set-points, and to the range of 'normal' capacity...
June 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Ares Pasipoularides
A unique myocardial characteristic is its ability to grow/remodel in order to adapt; this is determined partly by genes and partly by the environment and the milieu intérieur. In the "post-genomic" era, a need is emerging to elucidate the physiologic functions of myocardial genes, as well as potential adaptive and maladaptive modulations induced by environmental/epigenetic factors. Genome sequencing and analysis advances have become exponential lately, with escalation of our knowledge concerning sometimes controversial genetic underpinnings of cardiovascular diseases...
December 2015: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Christine Elizabeth Cooper
Many Australian tetrapods inhabit desert environments characterised by low productivity, unpredictable rainfall, high temperatures and high incident solar radiation. Maintaining a homeostatic milieu intérieur by osmoregulation and thermoregulation are two physiological challenges faced by tetrapods in deserts, and the endocrine system plays an important role in regulating these processes. There is a considerable body of work examining the osmoregulatory role of antidiuretic hormones for Australian amphibians, reptiles and mammals, with particular contributions concerning their role and function for wild, free-living animals in arid environments...
October 5, 2015: General and Comparative Endocrinology
L Robert, J Labat-Robert
In this review, we present a short description of the history of stress in the medical literature followed by a recapitulation of its mechanisms, from the cellular to the organismal level and its role in aging. The medical importance of stress was first taken up as a subject of experimental medicine by physiologists, starting from Claude Bernard's concept of the stability of the "milieu intérieur", altered by stress, followed by others, culminating recently by the elucidation of its mechanisms at the cellular and molecular level...
September 2015: Pathologie-biologie
Mathieu Arminjon
Physiologists and historians are still debating what conceptually differentiates each of the three major modern theories of regulation: the constancy of the milieu intérieur, homeostasis and allostasis. Here I propose that these models incarnate two distinct regimes of politization of the life sciences. This perspective leads me to suggest that the historicization of physiological norms is intrinsic to the allostatic model, which thus divides it fundamentally from the two others. I analyze the allostatic model in the light of the Canguilhemian theory, showing how the former contributed to the development of a critical epistemology immune to both naturalist essentialism and social constructivism...
April 2016: Journal of the History of Biology
Frederick J Livesey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xiaoyi Chen, Milena Hasan, Valentina Libri, Alejandra Urrutia, Benoît Beitz, Vincent Rouilly, Darragh Duffy, Étienne Patin, Bernard Chalmond, Lars Rogge, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Matthew L Albert, Benno Schwikowski
Multi-parametric flow cytometry is a key technology for characterization of immune cell phenotypes. However, robust high-dimensional post-analytic strategies for automated data analysis in large numbers of donors are still lacking. Here, we report a computational pipeline, called FlowGM, which minimizes operator input, is insensitive to compensation settings, and can be adapted to different analytic panels. A Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM)-based approach was utilized for initial clustering, with the number of clusters determined using Bayesian Information Criterion...
April 2015: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Milena Hasan, Benoit Beitz, Vincent Rouilly, Valentina Libri, Alejandra Urrutia, Darragh Duffy, Lydie Cassard, James P Di Santo, Estelle Mottez, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Matthew L Albert, Lars Rogge
Immunophenotyping by multi-parametric flow cytometry is the cornerstone technology for enumeration and characterization of immune cell populations in health and disease. Standardized procedures are essential to allow for inter-individual comparisons in the context of population based or clinical studies. Herein we report the approach taken by the Milieu Intérieur Consortium, highlighting the standardized and automated procedures used for immunophenotyping of human whole blood samples. We optimized eight-color antibody panels and procedures for staining and lysis of whole blood samples, and implemented pre-analytic steps with a semi-automated workflow using a robotic system...
April 2015: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Stéphanie Thomas, Vincent Rouilly, Etienne Patin, Cécile Alanio, Annick Dubois, Cécile Delval, Louis-Guillaume Marquier, Nicolas Fauchoux, Seloua Sayegrih, Muriel Vray, Darragh Duffy, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Matthew L Albert
The Milieu Intérieur Consortium has established a 1000-person healthy population-based study (stratified according to sex and age), creating an unparalleled opportunity for assessing the determinants of human immunologic variance. Herein, we define the criteria utilized for participant enrollment, and highlight the key data that were collected for correlative studies. In this report, we analyzed biological correlates of sex, age, smoking-habits, metabolic score and CMV infection. We characterized and identified unique risk factors among healthy donors, as compared to studies that have focused on the general population or disease cohorts...
April 2015: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Nasser M Al-Daghri, Omar S Al-Attas, Harvey E Johnston, Akul Singhania, Majed S Alokail, Khalid M Alkharfy, Sherif H Abd-Alrahman, Shaun L Sabico, Theodoros I Roumeliotis, Antigoni Manousopoulou-Garbis, Paul A Townsend, Christopher H Woelk, George P Chrousos, Spiros D Garbis
Linking gender-specific differences to the molecular etiology of obesity has been largely based on genomic and transcriptomic evidence lacking endophenotypic insight and is not applicable to the extracellular fluid compartments, or the milieu intérieur, of the human body. To address this need, this study profiled the whole serum proteomes of age-matched nondiabetic overweight and obese females (n = 28) and males (n = 31) using a multiplex design with pooled biological and technical replicates. To bypass basic limitations of immunodepletion-based strategies, subproteome enrichment by size-exclusion chromatography (SuPrE-SEC) followed by iTRAQ 2D-LC-nESI-FTMS analysis was used...
November 7, 2014: Journal of Proteome Research
Melanie P Hoenig, Mark L Zeidel
The concept of homeostasis has been inextricably linked to the function of the kidneys for more than a century when it was recognized that the kidneys had the ability to maintain the "internal milieu" and allow organisms the "physiologic freedom" to move into varying environments and take in varying diets and fluids. Early ingenious, albeit rudimentary, experiments unlocked a wealth of secrets on the mechanisms involved in the formation of urine and renal handling of the gamut of electrolytes, as well as that of water, acid, and protein...
July 2014: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Marleide da Mota Gomes, Eliasz Engelhardt
Claude Bernard (1813-1878) followed two main research paths: the chemical and physiological study of digestion and liver function, along with experimental section of nerves and studies on sympathetic nerves. Curare studies were, for example, of longstanding interest. His profound mental creativity and hand skillfulness, besides methodology quality, directed his experiments and findings, mainly at the Collège de France. His broader and epistemological concerns were carried out at the Sorbonne and later at the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle...
April 2014: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Claudio Cobelli, Chiara Dalla Man, Morten Gram Pedersen, Alessandra Bertoldo, Gianna Toffolo
The glucose story begins with Claude Bernard's discovery of glycogen and milieu interieur, continued with Banting's and Best's discovery of insulin and with Rudolf Schoenheimer's paradigm of dynamic body constituents. Tracers and compartmental models allowed moving to the first quantitative pictures of the system and stimulated important developments in terms of modeling methodology. Three classes of multiscale models, models to measure, models to simulate, and models to control the glucose system, are reviewed in their historical development with an eye to the future...
May 2014: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Erik Hviid Larsen, Lewis E Deaton, Horst Onken, Michael O'Donnell, Martin Grosell, William H Dantzler, Dirk Weihrauch
The article discusses advances in osmoregulation and excretion with emphasis on how multicellular animals in different osmotic environments regulate their milieu intérieur. Mechanisms of energy transformations in animal osmoregulation are dealt with in biophysical terms with respect to water and ion exchange across biological membranes and coupling of ion and water fluxes across epithelia. The discussion of functions is based on a comparative approach analyzing mechanisms that have evolved in different taxonomic groups at biochemical, cellular and tissue levels and their integration in maintaining whole body water and ion homeostasis...
April 2014: Comprehensive Physiology
Darragh Duffy, Vincent Rouilly, Valentina Libri, Milena Hasan, Benoit Beitz, Mikael David, Alejandra Urrutia, Aurélie Bisiaux, Samuel T Labrie, Annick Dubois, Ivo G Boneca, Cécile Delval, Stéphanie Thomas, Lars Rogge, Manfred Schmolz, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Matthew L Albert
Standardization of immunophenotyping procedures has become a high priority. We have developed a suite of whole-blood, syringe-based assay systems that can be used to reproducibly assess induced innate or adaptive immune responses. By eliminating preanalytical errors associated with immune monitoring, we have defined the protein signatures induced by (1) medically relevant bacteria, fungi, and viruses; (2) agonists specific for defined host sensors; (3) clinically employed cytokines; and (4) activators of T cell immunity...
March 20, 2014: Immunity
Paul Clayton
We are entering a post-antibiotic era in medicine, as resistance to commonly used antibiotics rises and the discovery of successful new classes of antibiotics slows. New therapeutic targets are being identified and investigated, including approaches that may overcome resistance, interrupt bacterial communication, and enhance human immune function. Immune function is negatively affected by type B malnutrition (multiple micronutrient depletion), "pathological hygiene" (removal of innate immune primers such as yeasts from the food chain), the removal of innate primers such as yeasts from the food chain, HIV infection, diabetes, chronic stress and depressive illness, and the use of immunosuppressant medications...
December 2012: Current Aging Science
Ankie Kleinjan, Anita N Böing, Auguste Sturk, Rienk Nieuwland
Coagulation is initiated by tissue factor (TF). Coagulant TF is constitutively expressed by extravascular cells, but there is increasing evidence that TF can also be present within the blood, in particular during pathological conditions. Such TF is exposed on circulating cell-derived vesicles, and its presence has been associated with development of disseminated intravascular coagulation and venous thrombosis. For example, the presence of TF-exposing vesicles in the blood of cancer patients may be associated with their high risk of developing venous thromboembolism...
October 2012: Thrombosis Research
Suyoung Hwang
The French vitalism is different from vitalism in general. It is a position of some physiologists who worked from the end of the 18th century to the early days of the 19th century, defending the peculiarity of life phenomena in contrast to the Cartesian theory of the animal-machine. Its main representatives are Paul-Joseph Barthez and Theophile de Bordeu, who belonged to the vitalist school of Montpellier. They argue, in contrast to mechanism, that life involves a special principle and cannot be explained in terms of physical and chemical properties alone...
April 30, 2012: Ŭi Sahak
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